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Life-history parameters and population dynamics of Ericaphis fimbriata (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum1

  • D.A. Raworth (a1) and Daynika Schade (a2)

Development rate and age-specific fecundity and survival of Ericaphis fimbriata (Richards) virginoparae were determined during the spring on young leaves of blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., as functions of temperature. The same traits were measured during the summer and the autumn on both young and mature leaves at 21.2 °C. The temperature threshold for development was 4.1 ± 0.5 °C (SE). For apterae, development time from birth to adult was 157.7 ± 5.9 day-degrees (dd). Proportional lengths of instars I–IV were 0.16, 0.14, 0.34, and 0.36, respectively. Adult life was 434.5 ± 17.5 dd and proportional lengths of the pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive periods were 0.05, 0.74, and 0.21, respectively. Mean fecundity was 23.6 ± 1.0 nymphs per female. Mean survival was 602.9 ± 14.6 dd, and more than 80% of apterae survived the peak reproductive period. Alate fecundity was 16.5 ± 3.2 nymphs per female and alate survival was 460.9 ± 47.5 dd. Leaf type and season of measurement had significant effects on development time and fecundity: development time was 158.2 dd (+4.9 upper asymmetric SE) on young V. corymbosum ‘Duke’ leaves in the spring but 312.4 dd (–16.9 lower asymmetric SE) on mature ‘Bluecrop’ leaves, the dominant leaf type, from a commercial field in the summer. Fecundity for the respective leaf types and seasons was 16.7 (–1.6) and 1.4 (+0.5) nymphs per female. From summer to autumn, development time increased on young ‘Duke’ and ‘Bluecrop’ leaves but decreased on mature ‘Bluecrop’ leaves; fecundity decreased on young ‘Duke’ and ‘Bluecrop’ leaves but remained at low levels on mature ‘Bluecrop’ leaves. A simulation model showed that seasonal changes in development time and fecundity were capable of reducing population growth rates to near zero depending on aphid distribution with respect to young and mature leaves. The results support a combined bottom-up and top-down view of aphid population regulation and suggest that control efforts should focus on the spring, when the population growth rate is maximal.

Nous avons déterminé le taux de développement, la fécondité en fonction de l'âge et la survie en fonction de l'âge des femelles virginipares d'Ericaphis fimbriata (Richards) au printemps sur de jeunes feuilles de l'airelle Vaccinium corymbosum L. en regard de la température. Nous avons répété les mêmes mesures en été et en automne sur des feuilles jeunes et matures à 21,2 °C. Le seuil thermique du développement est de 4,1 ± 0,5 °C (ET). Chez les aptères, la durée du développement de la naissance à l'état adulte est de 157,7 ± 5,9 jours-degrés (jd). Les durées proportionnelles des stades I–IV sont respectivement de 0,16, 0,14, 0,34 et 0,36. La vie adulte dure 434,5 ± 17,5 jd et les durées proportionnelles des périodes pré-reproductive, reproductive et post-reproductive sont respectivement de 0,05, 0,74 et 0,21. La fécondité moyenne est de 23,6 ± 1,0 larves par femelle. La survie moyenne est de 602,9 ± 14,6 jd et plus de 80 % des individus survivent à la période de reproduction maximale. La fécondité des femelles ailées est de 16,5 ± 3,2 larves par femelle et leur survie est de 460,9 ± 47,5 jd. Le type de feuille et la saison dans laquelle se font les mesures ont des effets significatifs sur la durée du développement et la fécondité; la durée du développement est de 158,2 jd (+4,9, ET asymétrique supérieure) sur de jeunes feuilles « Duke » de V. corymbosum au printemps, mais de 312,4 jd (–16,9, ET asymétrique inférieure) sur des feuilles matures « Bluecrop », le type dominant de feuilles, dans une bleuetière commerciale en été. Les fécondités sur les deux types de feuilles et les deux saisons sont respectivement de 16,7 (–1,6) et de 1,4 (+0,5) larves par femelle. De l'été à l'automne, la durée du développement augmente sur les jeunes feuilles de types « Duke » et « Bluecrop », mais elle diminue sur les feuilles matures « Bluecrop »; la fécondité diminue sur les jeunes feuilles « Duke » et « Bluecrop », mais elle reste faible sur les feuilles matures « Bluecrop ». Une modèle de simulation montre que les changements saisonniers de durée du développement et de fécondité sont capables de réduire les taux de croissance de la population à presque rien, selon la répartition des pucerons entre les feuilles jeunes et matures. Ces résultats incitent à invoquer une combinaison de contrôles ascendants et de contrôles descendants pour expliquer la régulation de la population et indiquent que les efforts de contrôle devraient s'exercer au printemps au moment où le taux de croissance de la population est maximal.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

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Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre contribution 716.

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