Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Muscidae (Diptera) diversity in Churchill, Canada, between two time periods: evidence for limited changes since the Canadian Northern Insect Survey

  • Anaïs K. Renaud (a1), Jade Savage (a2) and Robert E. Roughley (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

A survey of muscid flies from Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, in 2007 yielded 155 species. Some components of species richness and composition of this contemporary assemblage were compared with those of a historical (pre-1965) assemblage, and the contribution of the three collecting methods used in the 2007 survey protocol was evaluated. Estimates of species richness indicated that Malaise traps yielded more species than did pan traps or sweep netting, and that species composition did not differ significantly between Malaise trap and pan trap catches. These results suggest that Malaise traps and sweep netting are adequate methods to survey northern Muscidae. We report little difference in estimated species richness and composition between time periods for material collected by sweep netting. When all material from the 2007 survey was pooled, 87% of the pre-1965 species were collected again in 2007. Most nonoverlapping species between time periods were rare in samples and (or) collected by different methods, suggesting a failure to detect as the most likely explanation for their absence in one assemblage. Nevertheless, the proportion of aquatic and semiaquatic species of Spilogona Schnabl was more than twice as high in the list of species not recovered in 2007 than in the pre-1965 assemblage.

Résumé

Un inventaire des diptères muscidés de Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, réalisé en 2007 contient 155 espèces. Nous comparons certains éléments de la richesse et de la composition spécifiques de ce peuplement contemporain avec ceux d'un peuplement du passé (avant 1965). Nous évaluons aussi les contributions de trois méthodes de récolte utilisées dans le protocole de l'inventaire de 2007. Les estimations de la richesse spécifique indiquent que le piège de Malaise capture plus d'espèces que le piège à cuvette et le filet fauchoir, mais que la composition en espèces ne diffère pas entre les récoltes au piège de Malaise et au piège à cuvette. Ces résultats laissent croire que le piège de Malaise et le filet fauchoir constituent des méthodes adéquates pour l'inventaire des Muscidae nordiques. Nous observons peu de différence entre les estimations de la richesse et de la composition spécifiques entre les récoltes au filet fauchoir des deux périodes. Dans l'ensemble combiné du matériel de l'inventaire de 2007, 87% des espèces de la période antérieure à 1965 ont été récoltées de nouveau en 2007. La plupart des espèces qui ne se retrouvent pas à la fois dans les inventaires des deux périodes sont peu abondantes dans les prélèvements et(ou) ont été récoltées par des méthodes différentes, ce qui indique que la non détection est l'explication la plus vraisemblable de leur absence dans l'un ou l'autre des peuplements. Néanmoins, la proportion des espèces aquatiques et semi-aquatiques de Spilogona Schnabl est plus de deux fois plus élevée dans la liste des espèces non retrouvées en 2007 que dans le peuplement d'avant 1965.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Copyright
Corresponding author
1Corresponding author (e-mail: jsavage@ubishops.ca).
Footnotes
Hide All

Deceased.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Alaska Climate Research Center. 2008. Climatological data – monthly time series. Available from http://climate.gi.alaska.edu/Climate/Location/TimeSeries/index.html [accessed 5 July 2010].
Anderson S. 2010. An evaluation of spatial interpolation methods on air temperature in Phoenix, AZ. Available from http://www.cobblestoneconcepts.com/ucgis2summer/anderson/anderson.htm [accessed 3 November 2010].
Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. (ACIA). 2004. Impact of a warming Arctic: Arctic climate impact assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Arntfield P.W. 1975. A revision of Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae) from North America. The Canadian Entomologist, 107: 257302.
Axford Y., Briner J.P., Cooke C.A., Francis D.R., Michelutti H., Miller J.H., et al. 2009. Recent changes in a remote Arctic lake are unique within the past 200,000 years. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 44: 1844318446.
Bale J.S. 2002. Insects and low temperatures: from molecular biology to distributions and abundance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 357: 349862.
Bale J.S., Masters G.J., Hodkinson I.D., Awmack C., Bezemer T.M., Brown V.K., et al. 2002. Herbivory in global climate change research: direct effects of rising temperature on insect herbivores. Global Change Biology, 8: 116.
Ballantyne K. 2009. Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) nesting habitat associations, altered distribution, and habitat change in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. M.Sc. Thesis. Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
Biological Survey of Canada. 2009. Common and historical collecting localities within Canada. Available from http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/english/locality.htm [accessed 30 October 2010].
Buddle C. 2009. Bylot Island and the Northern Biodiversity Program: ongoing studies about Arctic entomology and arachnology. Newsletter of the Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods), 28: 6365.
Brook R. 2001. Structure and dynamics of the vegetation in Wapusk National Park and the Cape Churchill Wildlife Management Area of Manitoba: community and landscapes. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Brown B.V. 1993. A further chemical alternative to critical-point-drying for preparing small (or large) flies. Fly Times, 11: 10.
Cannings S. 2009. Invertebrate samples from Arctic Wildlife Observatories Linking Vulnerable Ecosystems (Arctic WOLVES). Newsletter of the Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods), 28: 25.
Chao A. 1984. Non-parametric estimation of the number of classes in a population. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 11: 265270.
Chao A., Lee S.-M. 1992. Estimating the number of classes via sample coverage. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 87: 210217.
Chao A., Chazdon R.L., Colwell R.K., Shen T.-J. 2005. A new statistical approach for assessing compositional similarity based on incidence and abundance data. Ecology Letters, 8: 148159.
Collin J.E. 1930. A revision of the Greenland species of the anthomyid genus Limnophora sens. lat. (Diptera), with figures of the male genitalia of these and many other Palearctic species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 78: 255281.
Colwell R.K. 2009. EstimateS: statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Version 8.2. Available from http://purl.oclc.org/estimates [accessed April 2010].
Courtney G.W., Pape T., Skevington J.H., Sinclair B.J. 2009. Biodiversity of Diptera. In Insect biodiversity: science and society. Edited by R.G. Foottit and P.H. Adler. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp. 185222.
Danks H.V. 1981. Arctic arthropods, a review of systematics and ecology with particular reference to the North American fauna. Entomological Society of Canada, Ottawa.
de Groot R.S., Ketner P., Ovaa A.H. 1995. Selection and use of bio-indicators to assess the possible effects of climate change in Europe. Journal of Biogeography, 22: 27072715.
Disney R.H.L., Erzinclioglu Y.Z., de C. Henshaw D.J., Howse D., Unwin D.M., Withers P., et al. 1982. Collecting methods and the adequacy of attempted fauna surveys, with reference to the Diptera. Field Studies, 5: 607621.
Edye-Rowntree J., Ayotte B., Bazlik E., Bilenduke M., Brandson L., Bussell M., et al. 2006. Resident's perspectives on the Churchill River. Aboriginal Issues Press, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.
Elberling H., Olesen J.M. 1999. The structure of a high latitude plant–flower visitor system: the dominance of flies. Ecography, 23: 314323.
Eliasson K. 2004. New waste transfer station for Churchill. Hudson Bay Post, May issue. Available from http://www.polarbearalley.com/churchill-dump.html [accessed 30 October 2010].
Ellison A.M., Record S., Arguello A., Gotelli N.J. 2007. Rapid inventory of the ant assemblage in a temperate hardwood forest: species composition and assessment of sampling methods. Environmental Entomology, 36: 766775.
Environment Canada. 2010. Adjusted and homogenized Canadian climate data (AHCCD). Available from http://ec.gc.ca/dccha-ahccd [accessed 10 July 2010].
Environmental Systems Resource Institute (ESRI). 2009. ArcMap 9.2. ESRI, Redlands, California.
Feldhamer G.A., Thompson B.C., Chapman J.A. 2003. Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and conservation, 2nd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Fernandez-Triana J., Smith M.A., Boudreault C., Goulet H., Hebert P.D.N., Smith A.C., et al. 2011. A poorly known high-latitude parasitoid wasp community: unexpected diversity and dramatic changes through time. PLoS One, 6: e23719.
Ferrar P. 1987. A guide to the breeding habits and immature stages of Diptera Cyclorrhapha. Entomonograph 8, Part 1. E.J. Brill/Scandinavian Science Press, Leifen and Copenhagen.
Freeman T.N. 1958. A historical account of insect collecting in northern Canada. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Entomology, (Montreal 1956), 1: 613–617.
Google. 2010. Google Earth 5.1. Available from http://www.google.com/earth/index.html [accessed 10 May 2010].
Gotelli N.J., Entsminger G.L. 2010. EcoSim: null models software for ecology. Version 7. Acquired Intelligence Inc. and Kesey-Bear, Jericho, VT. Available from http://garyentsminger.com/ecosim.htm [accessed 15 December 2010].
Gotelli N.J., Ellison A.M., Dunn R.R., Nathan J., Sanders N.J. 2011. Counting ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): biodiversity sampling and statistical analysis for myrmecologists. Myrmecological News, 15: 1319.
Graham C.H., Ferrier S., Huettman F., Moritz C., Peterson A.T. 2004. New developments in museum-based informatics and applications in biodiversity analysis. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19: 497503.
Greenberg B. 1971. Flies and disease. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America.
Grégoire Taillefer A., Wheeler T.A. 2010. Effect of drainage ditches on Brachycera (Diptera) diversity in a southern Quebec peatland. The Canadian Entomologist, 142: 160172.
Hansen J., Ruedy R., Sato M., Lo K. 2010. Global surface temperature change. Reviews of Geophysics, 48: RG4004. doi:10.1029/2010RG000345.
Hennig W. 1955–1964. Muscidae. In Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region 63b 7(2). Edited by E. Lindner. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart. pp. 1–1110.
Hickling R., Roy D.B., Hill J.K., Fox R., Thomas C.D. 2006. The distributions of a wide range of taxonomic groups are expanding polewards. Global Change Biology, 12: 450455.
Hill J.K., Thomas C.D., Huntley B. 1999. Climate and habitat availability determine 20th century changes in a butterfly's range margin. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 266: 11971206.
Hogsette J.A., Farkas R., Coler R.R. 2002. Development of Hydrotaea aenescens (Diptera: Muscidae) in manure of unweaned dairy calves and lactating cows. Journal of Economic Entomology, 95: 527530.
Høye T.T., Forchhammer M.C. 2008. The influence of weather conditions on the activity of high-arctic arthropods inferred from long-term observations. BMC Ecology, 8: 17.
Høye T.T., Post E., Meltofte H., Schmidt N.M., Forchhammer M.C. 2007. Rapid advancement of spring in the High Arctic. Current Biology, 17: 449451.
Huckett H.C. 1932. The North American species of the genus Limnophora Robineau-Desvoidy with descriptions of new species (Muscidae, Diptera). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 40: 2576, 107–158, 279–339.
Huckett H.C. 1934a. Revision of the North American species belonging to the genus Coenosia Meigen and related genera (Diptera: Muscidae). Part I. The subgenera Neodexiopsis, Coenosia, Hoplogaster and related genera Allognota, Bithoracochaeta and Schoenomyza. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 60: 57119.
Huckett H.C. 1934b. Revision of the North American species belonging to the genus Coenosia Meigen and related genera. (Diptera: Muscidae). Part II. The subgenus Limosia (Coenosia of authors). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 60: 133198.
Huckett H.C. 1936. A revision of connectant forms between coenosian and limnophorine genera occurring in North America (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 44: 187223.
Huckett H.C. 1954. A review of the North American species belonging to the genus Hydrotaea Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 47: 316342.
Huckett H.C. 1965a. Family Muscidae. In A catalog of the Diptera of America north of Mexico. Handbook no. 276. Edited by A. Stone, C.W. Sabrosky, W.W. Wirth, R.H. Foote, and J.T.P. Coulson. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. pp. 869915.
Huckett H.C. 1965b. The Muscidae of northern Canada, Alaska, and Greenland (Diptera). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 42: 3369.
Huckett H.C., Vockeroth J.R. 1987. Muscidae. In Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 2. Coordinated by J.F. McAlpine, B.V. Peterson, G.E. Shewell, H.J. Teskey, J.R. Vockeroth, and D.M. Wood. Agriculture Canada Monograph No. 28. pp. 1115–1131.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 1990. Climate change, the IPCC scientific assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPCC. 2007. Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Jaccard P. 1901. Étude comparative de la distribution florale dans une portion des Alpes et du Jura. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles, 37: 547579.
Jones S.R., Kunz S.E. 1997. Importance of supercooling points in the overwintering of the horn fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 34: 426429.
Karl T.R., Knight R.W., Easterling D.R., Quayle R.G. 1996. Indices of climate change for the United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77: 279292.
Larson B.M.H., Kevan P.G., Inouye D.W. 2001. Flies and flowers: taxonomic diversity of anthophiles and pollinators. The Canadian Entomologist, 133: 439465.
Longino J.T., Coddington J., Colwell R.K. 2002. The ant fauna of a tropical rain forest: estimating species richness three different ways. Ecology, 83: 689702.
Malloch J.R. 1918. Diptera from southwestern United States. Part IV. Anthomyiidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 44: 263319.
Malloch J.R. 1919. Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913–18. Vol. 3. Insects, Part C, Diptera, pp. 60c90c.
Malloch J.R. 1920. Descriptions of new North American Anthomyiidae (Diptera). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 46: 133196.
Malloch J.R. 1923. Flies of the anthomyiid genus Phaonia Robineau-Desvoidy and related genera, known to occur in North America. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 48: 227282.
Marshall S., Anderson R.S., Roughley R.E., Behan-Pelletier V., Danks H.V. 1994. Terrestrial arthropod biodiversity: planning a study and recommended sampling techniques. Supplemental Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Canada, 26: 133.
Menéndez R., González Megias A., Hill J.K., Braschler B., Willis S.G., Cillingham Y., et al. 2006. Species richness changes lag behind climate change. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 273: 14651470.
Michelsen V. 2006. Annotated catalogue of the Anthomyiidae, Fanniidae, Muscidae and Scathophagidae (Diptera: Muscoidea) of Greenland. Steenstrupia, 29: 105126.
Newbold T. 2010. Applications and limitations of museum data for conservation and ecology, with particular attention to species distribution models. Progress in Physical Geography, 34: 322.
Newton S.T., Fast H., Henley T. 2002. Sustainable development for Canada's Arctic and subarctic communities: a backcasing approach to Churchill, Manitoba. Arctic, 55: 281290.
Parmesan C. 1996. Climate and species’ range. Nature, 382: 765766.
Parmesan C. 2006. Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 37: 637669.
Parmesan C., Ryrholm N., Stefanescus C., Hill J.K., Thomas C.D., Descimon H., et al. 1999. Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming. Nature, 399: 579583.
Penner L. 2002. A history of railroads in Manitoba. Paper commissioned by the Transportation Heritage and Technology Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Pont A.C. 1984. A revision of the Fanniidae and Muscidae (Diptera) described by Fallén. Entomologica Scandinavica, 15: 277297.
Pont A.C. 1986. Family Muscidae. In Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Vol. 11. Scathophagidae-Hypodermatidae. Edited by Á. Soós and L. Papp. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, pp. 55215.
Pont A.C. 1993. Observations on anthophilous Muscidae and other Diptera (Insecta) in Abisko National Park, Sweden. Journal of Natural History, 27: 631643.
Pont A.C. 2011. The Muscidae described by J.W. Zetterstedt (Insecta: Diptera). Zootaxa, 2852: 183.
Pöyry J., Luoto M., Heikkinen R.K., Kuussaari M., Saarinen K. 2009. Species traits explain recent range shifts of Finnish butterflies. Global Change Biology, 15: 732743.
Savage J. 2002. Cleaning up the world: dipteran decomposers. Biodiversity, 3: 1216.
Savage J. 2003. Revision of the genus Thricops Rondani (Diptera: Muscidae). Insect Systematics and Evolution, supplement 61: 3143.
Savage J., Wheeler T.A., Moores A.M.A., Grégoire Taillefer A. 2011. Effects of habitat size, vegetation cover, and surrounding land use on Diptera diversity in temperate Nearctic bogs. Wetlands, 31: 101112.
Schmidt N.M., Berg T.B., Meltofte H. 2010. Biobasis, conceptual design and sampling procedure of the biological monitoring programme within Zackenberg Basic, 13th ed. National Environment Research Institute, Aarhus University, Denmark.
Shaffer H.B., Fisher R.N., Davidson C. 1998. The role of natural history collections in documenting species declines. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 13: 2730.
Skidmore P. 1985. The biology of the Muscidae of the world. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.
Snow W.A. 1891. The moose fly – a new Haematobia. The Canadian Entomologist, 23: 8789.
Snyder F.M. 1949a. Nearctic Helina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae). American Museum of Natural History, 94: 112159.
Snyder F.M. 1949b. Review of Nearctic Mydaea, sensu stricto, and Xenomydaea (Diptera: Muscidae). American Museum Novitates, 1401: 138.
Snyder F.M. 1954. A review of Nearctic Lispe Latreille (Diptera: Muscidae). American Museum Novitates, 1675: 140.
Thuiller W. 2007. Climate change and the ecologist. Nature, 448: 550552.
Vockeroth J.R. 1979. Muscidae. In Canada and its insect fauna. Edited by H.V. Danks. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada. No. 108. Entomological Society of Canada, Ottawa. p. 416.
Webb J.E. 1956. Observations on some filth flies in the vicinity of Fort Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, 1953–54. Journal of Economic Entomology, 49: 595600.
Westwood R., Blair D. 2010. Effect of regional climate warming on the phenology of butterflies in boreal forests in Manitoba, Canada. Environmental Entomology, 39: 11221133.
White P.J.T., Kerr J.T. 2006. Contrasting spatial and temporal global change impacts on butterfly species richness during the 20th century. Ecography, 29: 908918.
White P.J.T., Kerr J.T. 2007. Human impacts on environment–diversity relationships: evidence for biotic homogenization from butterfly species richness patterns. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16: 290299.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 16 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 142 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.