Skip to main content
×
×
Home

SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ADULT ECLOSION, OVIPOSITION, AND PARASITISM AND PREDATION OF EGGS OF THE SPRUCE BUD MOTH, ZEIRAPHERA CANADENSIS (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)

  • Donald P. Ostaff (a1) and Dan T. Quiring (a1)
Abstract

Spruce bud moth adults eclosed in mid-July and completed oviposition within a period of 2 weeks at 8- and 11-year-old white spruce plantations and at an old-field site in northern New Brunswick. Parasitism of bud moth eggs by Trichogramma sp. started less than 14 days after the beginning of adult bud moth eclosion and increased until the middle of August. The temporal patterns of egg parasitism and predation of viable bud moth eggs were similar in 1988 when most mortality occurred during the 2 weeks following the end of oviposition. At two sites studied in 1989, most parasitism occurred during the 4–5 weeks, and predation during the 1–3 weeks following the end of oviposition. Examination of temporal patterns of parasitoid eclosion and of the incidence of parasitism suggests that second-generation parasitoids attacked bud moth eggs at two of three sites. Depending on site and collection date, predators either showed a strong preference for unparasitized eggs or ate similar proportions of unparasitized and parasitized eggs. The incidence of egg parasitism and predation was not influenced by egg density in 1988. In 1989, a weak negative relationship between the number of eggs per cluster and the incidence of egg parasitism was not significant. However, a significant proportion of the variation in percentage egg parasitism was attributable to the interaction between egg density per shoot and collection date.

Notre étude sur la tordeuse de l’épinette a été réalisée dans des plantations d’épinettes blanches de 8 et 11 ans et dans une vieille friche dans la nord du Nouveau-Brunswick. Les adultes de cette tordeuse sont apparus à la mi-juillet et ont complété leur ponte en 2 semaines. Le parasitisme des oeufs de tordeuse par Trichogramma a débuté moins de 14 jours après l’apparition des adultes de tordeuse et a augmenté jusqu’à la mi-août. Les patrons saisonniers de parasitisme et de prédation des oeufs de tordeuse ont été comparables en 1988, lorsque la plus grande partie de la mortalité s’est produite dans le 2 semaines suivant la période de ponte. Aux deux sites étudies en 1989, le parasitisme et la prédation se sont surtout produit respectivement dans les 4–5 semaines et dans les 1–3 semaines suivant la fin de la période de ponte. La période d’émergence des parasitoïdes et le niveau de parasitisme suggèrent que la deuxième génération de parasitoïdes se soit attaquée aux oeufs de la tordeuse à deux des trois sites. Selon le site et la date d’échantillonnage, les prédateurs ont montré soit une forte préférence pour les oeufs non parasités ou ont mangé une proportion similaire d’oeufs sains et parasités. Les niveaux de parasitisme et de prédation des oeufs n’ont pas été influencés par la densité des oeufs en 1988. En 1989, la relation négative entre le nombre d’oeufs par amas et le niveau de parasitisme n’était pas significative. Toutefois, une portion significative de la variation dans le pourcentage de parasitisme des oeufs était due à l’intéraction entre la densité des oeufs par pousse et la date d’échantillonnage.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Carroll, A.L., Lawlor, M.F., and Quiring, D.T.. 1993. Influence of feeding by Zeiraphera canadensis, the spruce bud moth, on stem-wood growth of white spruce. Forest Ecology and Management 58: 4149.
Carroll, A.L., and Quiring, D.T.. 1992. Sucrose ingestion by Zeiraphera canadensis Mut. & Free. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) increases longevity and lifetime fecundity but not oviposition rate. The Canadian Entomologist 124: 335340.
Carroll, A.L., and Quiring, D.T.. 1993 a. Influence of feeding by Zeiraphera canadensis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on growth of white spruce: Larval density-damage and damage-shoot production relationships. Journal of Applied Ecology 30: 629639.
Carroll, A.L., and Quiring, D.T.. 1993 b. Interactions between size and temperature influence fecundity and longevity of a tortricid moth, Zeiraphera canadensis. Oecologia 93: 233241.
Carrow, J.R. 1990. Background and overview of project. pp. 5–9 in Smith, S.M., Carrow, J.R., and Laing, J.E., (Eds.), Inundative Release of the Egg Parasitoid, Trichogramma minutum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), against Forest Insect Pests such as the Spruce Budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): The Ontario Project 1982–1986. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 153: 87 pp.
Chassain, C., Bouletreau, M., and Fouillet, P.. 1988. Host exploitation by parasitoids: Local variations in foraging behaviour of females among populations of Trichogramma species. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 48: 195202.
Cook, R.M., and Hubbard, S.F.. 1977. Adaptive searching strategies in insect parasites. Journal of Animal Ecology 46: 115125.
Einot, I., and Gabriel, K.R.. 1975. A study of the powers of several methods of multiple comparisons. Journal of the American Statistical Association 70: 574583.
Eveleigh, E.S., and Chant, D.A.. 1982. Experimental studies on acarine predator–prey interactions: The distribution of search effort and predation rates of a predator population in a patchy environment (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 60: 30013009.
Forsse, E., Smith, S.M., and Bourchier, R.S.. 1992. Flight inititation in the egg parasitoid Trichogramma minutum: Effects of ambient temperature, mates, food, and host eggs. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 62: 147154.
Holling, C.S. 1961. Principles of insect predation. Annual Review of Entomology 6: 163182.
Huffaker, C.B., and Flaherty, D.L.. 1966. Potential biological control of two-spotted spider mite on strawberries in California. Journal of Economic Entomology 59: 786792.
Jennings, D.T., and Houseweart, M.W.. 1983. Parasitism of spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs by Trichogramma minutum and absence of overwintering parasitoids. Environmental Entomology 12: 535540.
Krantz, G.W. 1978. A Manual of Acarology, 2nd ed. Oregon State University Book Stores, Inc., Corvallis, OR. 509. pp.
Lund, H.O. 1934. Some temperature and humidity relations of two races of Trichogramma minutum Riley. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 27: 324340.
Magasi, L.P. 1982. Forest Pest Conditions in the Maritimes in 1981. Canadian Forestry Service, Maritimes Forest Research Centre, Information Report M–X–135: 33 pp.
Magasi, L.P. 1985. Forest Pest Conditions in the Maritimes in 1984. Canadian Forestry Service, Maritimes Forest Research Centre, Information Report M–X–159: 85 pp.
Manweiler, S.A. 1986. Developmental and ecological comparisons of Trichogramma minutum and Trichogramma platneri (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 62: 128139.
Miller, C.E. 1953. Parasitism of Spruce Budwonn Eggs by Trichogramma minutum Riley. Department of Agriculture, Division of Forest Biology, Bi-monthly Progress Report 9(4).
Morrison, G., Lewis, W.J., and Nordlund, D.A.. 1980. Spatial differences in Heliothis zea egg density and the intensity of parasitism by Trichogramma spp.: An experimental analysis. Environmental Entomology 9: 7985.
Morrison, G., and Strong, D.R. Jr., 1980. Spatial variations in host density and the intensity of parasitism: Some empirical examples. Environmental Entomology 9: 149152.
Noldus, L.P.J.J., van Lenteren, J.C., and Lewis, W.J.. 1991. How Trichogramma parasitoids use moth sex pheromones as kairomones: Orientation behaviour in a wind tunnel. Physiological Entomology 16: 313327.
Peterson, A. 1931. Refrigeration of Trichogramma minutum Riley and other notes. Journal of Economic Entomology 24: 10701074.
Quiring, D., Turgeon, J.J., Simpson, D., and Smith, A.. 1991. Genetically based differences in susceptibility of white spruce to the spruce bud moth. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21: 4247.
Reznik, S.Ya., and Umarova, T.Ya.. 1991. Host population density influence on host acceptance in Trichogramma. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 58: 4954.
Rose, A.H., and Lindquist, O.H.. 1977. Insects of Eastern Spruces, Fir and Hemlock. Department of Environment, Canadian Forestry Service, Forestry Technical Report 23: 159 pp. Ottawa, 1977.
SAS Institute Inc. 1982. SAS User's Guide: Statistics, 1982 Edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. 584 pp.
Simpson, R.A. 1992. New Brunswick Plantation Pest Assessment Survey Report for 1991. Forestry Canada — Maritimes Region, Technical Note 262: 8 pp.
Stiling, P. 1987. The frequency of density-dependence in insect host–parasitoid systems. Ecology 68: 844856.
Thomas, H.A. 1966. Parasitism by Trichogramma minutum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in the spruce budworm outbreak in Maine. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 59: 723725.
Turgeon, J.J. 1985. Life cycle and behavior of spruce bud moth, Zeiraphera canadensis (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae), in New Brunswick. The Canadian Entomologist 117: 12391247.
Turgeon, J.J. 1992. Status of research on the development of management tactics and strategies for the spruce bud moth in white spruce plantations. Forestry Chronicle 68: 614622.
Turgeon, J.J., Nelson, N., and Kettela, E.G.. 1987. Reproductive biology of the spruce budmoth, Zeiraphera canadensis Mut. & Free. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in New Brunswick. The Canadian Entomologist 119: 361364.
Turgeon, J.J., and Régnière, J.. 1987. Development of sampling techniques for the spruce bud moth, Zeiraphera canadensis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The Canadian Entomologist 119: 239249.
Vinson, S.B. 1976. Host selection by insect parasitoids. Annual Review of Entomology 21: 109133.
Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical Analysis, 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.718 pp.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed