Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 21
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Giacobino, Agostina Molineri, Ana Bulacio Cagnolo, Natalia Merke, Julieta Orellano, Emanuel Bertozzi, Ezequiel Masciangelo, Germán Pietronave, Hernán Pacini, Adriana Salto, Cesar and Signorini, Marcelo 2016. Key management practices to prevent high infestation levels of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies at the beginning of the honey yield season. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 131, p. 95.

    Bahreini, Rassol and Currie, Robert W. 2015. The Potential of Bee-Generated Carbon Dioxide for Control of Varroa Mite (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Indoor Overwintering Honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies. Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 108, Issue. 5, p. 2153.

    Bahreini, Rassol and Currie, Robert W. 2015. Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and Wintering Method on Wintering Performance ofVarroa destructor(Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate. Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 108, Issue. 4, p. 1495.

    Bahreini, Rassol and Currie, Robert W. 2015. The influence of Nosema (Microspora: Nosematidae) infection on honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) defense against Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Vol. 132, p. 57.

    Giacobino, Agostina Molineri, Ana Cagnolo, Natalia Bulacio Merke, Julieta Orellano, Emanuel Bertozzi, Ezequiel Masciángelo, Germán Pietronave, Hernán Pacini, Adriana Salto, César and Signorini, Marcelo 2015. Risk factors associated with failures of Varroa treatments in honey bee colonies without broodless period. Apidologie, Vol. 46, Issue. 5, p. 573.

    Guarna, Maria Melathopoulos, Andony P Huxter, Elizabeth Iovinella, Immacolata Parker, Robert Stoynov, Nikolay Tam, Amy Moon, Kyung-Mee Chan, Queenie Pelosi, Paolo White, Rick Pernal, Stephen F and Foster, Leonard J 2015. A search for protein biomarkers links olfactory signal transduction to social immunity. BMC Genomics, Vol. 16, Issue. 1, p. 63.

    Emsen, Berna Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto and Kelly, Paul G. 2014. Honey production of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies with high and low Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) infestation rates in eastern Canada. The Canadian Entomologist, Vol. 146, Issue. 02, p. 236.

    Giacobino, A. Cagnolo, N. Bulacio Merke, J. Orellano, E. Bertozzi, E. Masciangelo, G. Pietronave, H. Salto, C. and Signorini, M. 2014. Risk factors associated with the presence of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies from east-central Argentina. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 115, Issue. 3-4, p. 280.

    Meixner, Marina Doris Francis, Roy Mathew Gajda, Anna Kryger, Per Andonov, Sreten Uzunov, Aleksandar Topolska, Grażyna Costa, Cecilia Amiri, Esmaeil Berg, Stefan Bienkowska, Malgorzata Bouga, Maria Büchler, Ralph Dyrba, Winfried Gurgulova, Kalinka Hatjina, Fani Ivanova, Evgeniya Janes, Mateja Kezic, Nikola Korpela, Seppo Conte, Yves Le Panasiuk, Beata Pechhacker, Hermann Tsoktouridis, George Vaccari, Giacomo and Wilde, Jerzy 2014. Occurrence of parasites and pathogens in honey bee colonies used in a European genotype-environment interactions experiment. Journal of Apicultural Research, Vol. 53, Issue. 2, p. 215.

    Dietemann, Vincent Nazzi, Francesco Martin, Stephen J Anderson, Denis L Locke, Barbara Delaplane, Keith S Wauquiez, Quentin Tannahill, Cindy Frey, Eva Ziegelmann, Bettina Rosenkranz, Peter and Ellis, James D 2013. Standard methods for varroa research. Journal of Apicultural Research, Vol. 52, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Giovenazzo, Pierre and Dubreuil, Pascal 2011. Evaluation of spring organic treatments against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in eastern Canada. Experimental and Applied Acarology, Vol. 55, Issue. 1, p. 65.

    Kozak, Paul R. and Currie, Robert W. 2011. Laboratory Study on the Effects of Temperature and Three Ventilation Rates on Infestations of Varroa destructor in Clusters of Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 104, Issue. 6, p. 1774.

    Calderone, Nicholas W. 2010. Evaluation of Mite-Away-II™ for fall control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern USA. Experimental and Applied Acarology, Vol. 50, Issue. 2, p. 123.

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre Carpentier, Patrice Madec, François Bougeard, Stéphanie Cougoule, Nicolas Drajnudel, Patrick Clément, Marie-Claude Aubert, Michel and Faucon, Jean-Paul 2010. The role of infectious agents and parasites in the health of honey bee colonies in France. Journal of Apicultural Research, Vol. 49, Issue. 1, p. 31.

    Genersch, Elke von der Ohe, Werner Kaatz, Hannes Schroeder, Annette Otten, Christoph Büchler, Ralph Berg, Stefan Ritter, Wolfgang Mühlen, Werner Gisder, Sebastian Meixner, Marina Liebig, Gerhard and Rosenkranz, Peter 2010. The German bee monitoring project: a long term study to understand periodically high winter losses of honey bee colonies. Apidologie, Vol. 41, Issue. 3, p. 332.

    Guzmán-Novoa, Ernesto Eccles, Leslie Calvete, Yireli Mcgowan, Janine Kelly, Paul G. and Correa-Benítez, Adriana 2010. Varroa destructoris the main culprit for the death and reduced populations of overwintered honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in Ontario, Canada. Apidologie, Vol. 41, Issue. 4, p. 443.

    Le Conte, Yves Ellis, Marion and Ritter, Wolfgang 2010. Varroamites and honey bee health: canVarroaexplain part of the colony losses?. Apidologie, Vol. 41, Issue. 3, p. 353.

    Rosenkranz, Peter Aumeier, Pia and Ziegelmann, Bettina 2010. Biology and control of Varroa destructor. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Vol. 103, p. S96.

    Currie, R. W. and Tahmasbi, G. H. 2008. The ability of high- and low-grooming lines of honey bees to remove the parasitic miteVarroa destructoris affected by environmental conditions. Canadian Journal of Zoology, Vol. 86, Issue. 9, p. 1059.

    Underwood, Robyn M. and Currie, Robert W. 2008. Indoor winter fumigation with formic acid does not have a long-term impact on honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) queen performance. Journal of Apicultural Research, Vol. 47, Issue. 2, p. 108.


Timing acaricide treatments to prevent Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) from causing economic damage to honey bee colonies

  • R. W. Currie (a1) and P. Gatien (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 April 2012

This study consisted of two field experiments designed to assess the effects of acaricide treatment timing on the mean abundance of the mite Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman and its impact on honey production and colony survival in honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In the first experiment, replicated colonies with different levels of infestation by V. destructor were given one of six treatments: untreated, with a low level of infestation by V. destructor; untreated, with a moderate level of infestation by V. destructor; exposed to fluvalinate for 42 days; exposed to two applications of Perizin®; or exposed to four applications of a pour-on formulation of formic acid at 4- or 10-day intervals. The six treatments were applied in either spring or fall. In experiment two, replicated colonies with a high level of infestation by V. destructor were left untreated, exposed to fluvalinate for 42 days, exposed to five applications of formic acid at 7-day intervals, or exposed to an equivalent amount of formic acid applied as a slow-release formulation. For each experiment, V. destructor densities, measured by alcohol wash, and colony survival were monitored for 1 year, and honey production was assessed in the year in which the spring treatment was applied. The results showed that all of the acaricide treatments were effective in reducing the mean abundance of V. destructor. However, efficacy varied with season. Fluvalinate was effective in controlling varroa under either spring or fall treatment conditions. Fall applications of Perizin® provided better control than spring applications. Formic acid provided consistent control of V. destructor in spring applications, regardless of the interval between treatments or whether pour-on or slow-release formulations were used, but was ineffective in the fall. Honey production was improved by spring acaricide treatments in both years. When the mean abundance of V. destructor was 0.02 ± 0.005 mites per bee (2 mites per 100 bees) in mid-April, honey production increased from 66 ± 17 kg per colony in untreated colonies to up to 116 ± 23 kg per colony in colonies treated with acaricide. When V. destructor levels were 0.21 ± 0.02 mites per bee (21 mites per 100 bees) in mid-May, spring acaricide treatments increased honey production from 1.3 ± 2.3 kg per untreated colony to up to 48 ± 17 kg per acaricide-treated colony. For the prairie region of Canada, producers will need to assess colonies in both spring and fall and treat when the mean abundance of V. destructor is more than 0.02 mites per bee (2 mites per 100 bees) in spring to prevent losses in honey production. Producers should treat when the mite level is greater than 0.04 mites per bee (4 mites per 100 bees) in late August to early September to prevent fall or winter colony loss. In this study, tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi (Rennie)) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) levels were very low, so interactions between mites were not studied. If both tracheal and varroa mites are present, lower fall thresholds might be required. In the absence of tracheal mites, colonies with varroa mite levels of more than 0.17 mites per bee (17 mites per 100 bees) in late fall experienced significant winter loss.


Notre étude comprend deux expériences qui visent à évaluer les effets du moment de l'année de deux traitements acaricides sur les niveaux d'abondance moyenne de l'acarien Varroa destructor (Anderson et Trueman) et leur impact sur la production de miel et la survie de la colonie chez Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera : Apidae). Dans une première expérience, nous avons prodigué à des colonies appariées ayant des niveaux d'infestation différents de V. destructor l'un de six traitements: aucun traitement dans des colonies à infestation faible de V. destructor, aucun traitement dans des colonies à infestation moyenne de V. destructor, exposition au fluvalinate pendant 42 jours, exposition à deux traitements au Perizin®, exposition à quatre applications d'une formulation à déverser d'acide formique à intervalles de 4 jours ou de 10 jours. Les six traitements ont été utilisés soit au printemps, soit à l'automne. Dans une seconde expérience, nous avons laissé des colonies appariées à fort niveau d'infestation de V. destructor sans traitement, les avons exposées au fluvalinate pendant 42 jours, les avons traitées à cinq reprises à l'acide formique à intervalles de 7 jours ou les avons exposées à une dose équivalente d'acide formique par application d'une formulation à libération lente. Dans chaque expérience, nous avons estimé les densités de V. destructor par lavages à l'alcool, suivi la survie des colonies pendant 1 année et déterminé la production de miel pendant l'année qui a suivi le traitement de printemps. Tous les traitements acaricides réussissent à réduire l'abondance moyenne de V. destructor. Cependant, le niveau d'efficacité varie en fonction de la saison. Le fluvalinate est un moyen efficace de contrôle du varroa, tant dans les traitements de printemps que d'automne. Les traitements au Perizin® sont plus efficaces à l'automne qu'au printemps. L'acide formique fournit un contrôle uniforme de V. destructor lors des applications de printemps, quel que soit l'intervalle de temps entre les traitements ou quelle que soit la formulation (à déverser ou à libération lente); il est cependant inefficace à l'automne. La production de miel a été améliorée par les traitements acaricides au printemps pendant les deux années. Lorsque l'abondance moyenne de V. destructor est de 0,02 ± 0,005 acarien par abeille (2 acariens par 100 abeilles) à la mi-avril, la production de miel augmente de 66 ± 17 kg par colonie chez les colonies non traitées jusqu'à 116 ± 23 kg par colonie dans les colonies traitées à l'acaricide. Lorsque les densités de V. destructor sont de 0,21 ± 0,02 acariens par abeille (21 acariens par 100 abeilles) à la mi-mai, les traitents acaricides du printemps augmentent la production de miel de 1,3 ± 2,3 kg chez les colonies non traitées jusqu'à 48 ± 17 kg chez les colonies traitées à l'acaricide. Dans les prairies canadiennes, les producteurs devront évaluer les colonies au printemps et à l'automne et appliquer un traitement lorsque la densité moyenne de V. destructor dépasse 0,02 acarien par abeille (2 acariens par 100 abeilles) au printemps afin d'empêcher les pertes de production de miel. Les producteurs devraient appliquer un traitement lorsque les densités d'acariens dépassent 0,04 acarien par abeille (4 acariens par 100 abeilles) entre la fin d'août et le début de septembre pour éviter la perte de colonies en automne ou en hiver. Dans notre étude, les densités de l'acarien des trachées, Acarapis woodi (Rennie) (Acari : Tarsonemidae), étaient très faibles et les interactions entre les acariens n'ont pas été prises en considération. Si les acariens des trachées et les varroas sont tous les deux présents, il faudrait peut-être utiliser des seuils plus bas à l'automne. En l'absence d'acariens des trachées, les colonies infestées de varroas à une densité supérieure à 0,17 acarien par abeille (17 acariens par 100 abeilles) en fin d'automne connaissent des pertes significatives en hiver.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Corresponding author
1 Corresponding author (e-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

D.L. Anderson 1994. Non-reproduction of Varroa jacobsoni in Apis mellifera colonies in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Apidologie, 25: 412421.

B.V. Ball 1985. Acute paralysis virus isolates from honeybee colonies infested with Varroa jacobsoni. Journal of Apicultural Research, 24: 115119.

A.O. Bush , K.D. Lafferty , J.M. Lotz , and A.W. Shostak 1997. Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. Journal of Parasitology, 83: 575583.

N.W. Calderone 1999. Evaluation of formic acid and a thymol-based blend of natural products for the fall control of Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) in colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 92: 253260.

N.W. Calderone 2000. Effective fall treatment of Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) with a new formulation of formic acid in colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern United States. Journal of Economic Entomology, 93: 10651075.

R.W. Currie , and S.C. Jay 1991 a. The influence of a colony's queen state on the drifting of drone honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Apidologie, 22: 183195.

R.W. Currie , and S.C. Jay 1991 b. Drifting behaviour of drone honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in commercial apiary layouts. Journal of Apicultural Research, 30: 6168.

L.I. De Guzman , T.E. Rinderer , and L.D. Beaman 1993. Survival of Varroa jacobsoni Oud. (Acari: Varroidae) away from a living host. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 17: 283290.

D. DeJong , L.S. Gonçalves , and A. Morse 1984. Dependence on climate of the virulence of Varroa jacobsoni. Bee World, 65: 117121.

K.S. Delaplane , and W.M. Hood 1997. Effects of delayed acaricide treatment in honey bee colonies parasitized by Varroa jacobsoni and a late-season treatment threshold for the southeastern USA. Journal of Apicultural Research, 36: 125132.

K.S. Delaplane , and W.M. Hood 1999. Economic threshold for Varroa jacobsoni Oud. in the south-eastern USA. Apidologie, 30: 383395.

D.L. Downey , and M.L. Winston 2001. Honey bee colony mortality and productivity with single and dual infestations of parasitic mite species. Apidologie, 32: 567575.

I. Fries , S. Camazine , and J. Sneyd 1994. Population dynamics of Varroa jacobsoni: a model and a review. Bee World, 75: 528.

Z. Glinski , and J. Jarosz 1992. Varroa jacobsoni as a carrier of bacterial infections to a recipient bee host. Apidologie, 23: 2531.

J. Gruszka 1998. Beekeeping in western Canada. Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Edmonton, Alberta.

S.C. Jay , and D. Dixon 1988. Drifting behaviour and honey production of honeybee colonies maintained on pallets. Journal of Apicultural Research, 27: 213218.

S. Korpela , A. Aarhus , I. Fries , and H. Hansen 1992. Varroa jacobsoni Oud. in cold climates: population growth, winter mortality and influence on the survival of honey bee colonies. Journal of Apicultural Research, 31: 157164.

AM. Murilhas 2002. Varroa destructor infestation impact on Apis mellifera carnica capped worker brood production, bee population and honey storage in a Mediterranean climate. Apidologie, 33: 271281.

D.J. Ostermann , and R.W. Currie 2004. The effect of formic acid formulations on honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies, and the influence of colony and ambient conditions on formic acid concentration in the hive. Journal of Economic Entomology, 97(5): 15001508.

J. Pettis 2004. A scientific note on Varroa destructor resistance to coumaphos in the United States. Apidologie, 35: 9192.

J.A. Skinner , J.P. Parkman , and M.P. Studer 2001. Evaluation of honey bee miticides, including temporal and thermal effects on formic acid gel vapours, in the central south-eastern USA. Journal of Apicultural Research, 40: 8189.

J. Strange , and W. Sheppard 2001. Optimum timing of miticide applications for control of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Washington State, USA. Journal of Economic Entomology, 94: 13241331.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *