Van der Linde, D, Konings, EE, Slager, MA, et al. Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol
2011; 58: 2241–2247.
Reller, MD, Strickland, MJ, Mahle, WT, et al. Prevalence of congenital heart defects in metropolitan Atlanta. J Pediatr
2008; 153: 807–813.
Ferencz, C, Rubin, JD, McCarter, RJ, et al. Congenital heart disease: prevalence at livebirth the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study. Am J Epidemiol
1985; 121: 31–36.
Hoffman, JIE, Kaplan, S. The incidence of congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol
2002; 39: 1890–1900.
Mozaffarian, D, Benjamin, EJ, Go, AS. Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation
2015; 131: e29–e322.
Marelli, AJ, Ionescu-Ittu, R, Mackie, AS, et al. Lifetime prevalence of congenital heart disease in the general population from 2000 to 2010. Circulation
2014; 130: 749–756.
Green, A. Outcomes of congenital heart disease: a review. Pediatr Nurs
2004; 30: 280–284.
Gorini, F, Chiappa, E, Gargani, L, et al. Potential effects of environmental chemical contamination in congenital heart disease. Pediatr Cardiol
2014; 35: 559–568.
Jenkins, KJ, Correa, A, Feinstein, JA, et al. Noninherited risk factors and congenital cardiovascular defects: current knowledge: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on cardiovascular disease in the young: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Circulation
2007; 115: 2995–3014.
Ferencz, C, Neill, CA, Boughman, JA, et al. Congenital cardiovascular malformations associated with chromosome abnormalities: an epidemiologic study. J Pediatr
1989; 114: 79–86.
Johnson, MC, Hing, A, Wood, MK, et al. Chromosome abnormalities in congenital heart disease. Am J Med Genet
1997; 70: 292–298.
Hartman, RJ, Rasmussen, SA, Botto, LD, et al. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to congenital heart defects: a population-based study. Pediatr Cardiol
2011; 32: 1147–1157.
Liu, S, Joseph, KS, Lisonkova, S, et al. Association between maternal chronic conditions and congenital heart defects a population-based cohort study. Circulation
2013; 128: 583–589.
Wilson, PD, Loffredo, CA, Correa-Villasenor, A, et al. Attributable fraction for cardiac malformations. Am J Epidemiol
1998; 148: 414–423.
Waller, DK, Shaw, GM, Rasmussen, SA. Prepregnancy obesity as a risk factor for structural birth defects. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med
2007; 161: 745–750.
Correa, A, Gilboa, SM, Botto, LD. Lack of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid and diabetes mellitus-associated birth defects. Am J Obstet Gynecol
2012; 206: 218.e1–218.e13.
Desrosiers, TA, Herring, AH, Shapira, SK. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Occup Environ Med
2012; 69: 534–542.
Patel, SS, Burns, TL. Nongenetic risk factors and congenital heart defects. Pediatr Cardiol
2013; 34: 1535–1555.
Ferencz, C, Boughman, JA, Neill, CA, et al. Cardiac and noncardiac malformations: observations in a population-based study. Teratology
1987; 35: 367–378.
Duncan, GJ, Kirkendall, NJ, Citro, CF. eds Panel on the Design of the National Children’s Study and Implications for the Generalizability of Results. The National Children’s Study 2014: An Assessment. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2014.
Tikkanen, J, Heinonen, OP. Risk factors for cardiovascular malformations in Finland. Eur J Epidemiol
1990; 6: 348–356.
Yoon, PW, Rasmussen, SA, Lynberg, MC, et al. The National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Public Health Rep
2001; 116: 32–40.
Ferencz, C, Rubin, J, Loffredo, C, Magee, CM. The Epidemiology of Congenital Heart Disease, The Baltimore-Washington Infant Study (1981-1989). Futura Pub. Co. Inc., Mount Kisco, NY, 1993.
Ferencz, C, Loffredo, C, Correa-Villasenor, A, Wilson, PD. Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors of Major Cardiovascular Malformations, The Baltimore-Washington Infant Study, (1981-1989). Futura Pub. Co. Inc., Armonk, NY, 1997.
Loffredo, CA. Epidemiology of cardiovascular malformations: prevalence and risk factors. Am J Med Genet
2000; 97: 319–325.
Kuehl, KS, Loffredo, CA, Ferencz, C. Failure to diagnose congenital heart disease in infancy. Pediatrics
1999; 103: 743–747.
Abu-Harb, M, Hey, E, Wren, C. Death in infancy from unrecognised congenital heart disease. Arch Dis Child
1994; 71: 3–7.
Ainsworth, S, Wyllie, J, Wren, C. Prevalence and clinical significance of cardiac murmurs in neonates. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed
1999; 80: F43–F45.
Wren, C, Richmond, S, Donaldson, L. Presentation of congenital heart disease in infancy: implications for routine examination. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed
1999; 80: F49–F53.
Marek, J, Skovránek, J, Hucín, B, et al. Seven-year experience of noninvasive preoperative diagnostics in children with congenital heart defects: comprehensive analysis of 2,788 consecutive patients. Cardiology
1995; 86: 488–495.
Sharland, G. Fetal cardiac screening and variation in prenatal detection rates of congenital heart disease: why bother with screening at all?
2012; 8: 189–202.
Friedberg, MK, et al. Prenatal detection of congenital heart disease. J Pediatr
2009; 155: 26–31.e1.