1.Elliott MJ. A European perspective on the management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Cardiol Young 2004; 14 Suppl 1: 41–46.
2.Kon AA, Ackerson L, Lo B. How pediatricians counsel parents when no “best-choice” management exists: lessons to be learned from hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004; 158: 436–441.
3.Moons P, Bovijn L, Budts W, Belmans A, Gewillig M. Temporal trends in survival to adulthood among patients born with congenital heart disease from 1970 to 1992 in Belgium. Circulation 2010; 122: 2264–2272.
4.Furck AK, Uebing A, Hansen JH, et al. Outcome of the Norwood operation in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome: a 12-year single-center survey. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 139(2): 359–365
5.Sano S, Huang SC, Kasahara S, Yoshizumi K, Kotani Y, Ishino K. Risk factors for mortality after the Norwood procedure using right ventricle to pulmonary artery shunt. Ann Thorac Surg 2009; 87: 178–185; discussion 85-6.
6.Murtuza B, Wall D, Reinhardt Z, et al. The importance of blood lactate clearance as a predictor of early mortality following the modified Norwood procedure. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2011; 40(5): 1207–1214.
7.Ohye RG, Sleeper LA, Mahony L, et al. Comparison of shunt types in the Norwood procedure for single-ventricle lesions. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 1980–1992.
8.Galantowicz M, Cheatham JP, Phillips A, et al. Hybrid approach for hypoplastic left heart syndrome: intermediate results after the learning curve. Ann Thorac Surg 2008; 85: 2063–2070; discussion 70-1.
9.Marshall AC, Levine J, Morash D, et al. Results of in utero atrial septoplasty in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Prenat Diagn 2008; 28: 1023–1028.
10.Karamlou T, Diggs BS, Ungerleider RM, Welke KF. Evolution of treatment options and outcomes for hypoplastic left heart syndrome over an 18-year period. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 139: 119–126; discussion 26-7.
11.Hirsch JC, Gurney JG, Donohue JE, Gebremariam A, Bove EL, Ohye RG. Hospital mortality for Norwood and arterial switch operations as a function of institutional volume. Pediatr Cardiol 2008; 29: 713–717.
12.Welke KF, O'Brien SM, Peterson ED, Ungerleider RM, Jacobs ML, Jacobs JP. The complex relationship between pediatric cardiac surgical case volumes and mortality rates in a national clinical database. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2009; 137: 1133–1140.
13.NHS Specialised Services. Safe and Sustainable: Childrens’ Congenital Heart Services in England. NHS Specialised Services, London, UK, 2011.
14.Gaynor JW, Gerdes M, Nord AS, et al. Is cardiac diagnosis a predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome after cardiac surgery in infancy? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 140: 1230–1237.
15.Licht DJ, Shera DM, Clancy RR, et al. Brain maturation is delayed in infants with complex congenital heart defects. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2009; 137: 529–536; discussion 36-7.
16.Brosig CL, Mussatto KA, Kuhn EM, Tweddell JS. Psychosocial outcomes for preschool children and families after surgery for complex congenital heart disease. Pediatr Cardiol 2007; 28: 255–262.
17.Creighton DE, Robertson CM, Sauve RS, et al. Neurocognitive, functional, and health outcomes at 5 years of age for children after complex cardiac surgery at 6 weeks of age or younger. Pediatrics 2007; 120: e478–e486.
18.Srinivasan C, Jaquiss RD, Morrow WR, et al. Impact of staged palliation on somatic growth in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Congenit Heart Dis 2010; 5: 546–551.
19.Moller P, Weitz M, Jensen KO, et al. Exercise capacity of a contemporary cohort of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome after staged palliation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2009; 36: 980–985.
20.Mellander M, Berntsson L, Nilsson B. Quality of life in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Acta Paediatr 2007; 96: 53–57.
21.Rempel GR, Harrison MJ. Safeguarding precarious survival: parenting children who have life-threatening heart disease. Qual Health Res 2007; 17: 824–837.
22.Mahle WT, Clancy RR, McGaurn SP, Goin JE, Clark BJ. Impact of prenatal diagnosis on survival and early neurologic morbidity in neonates with the hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Pediatrics 2001; 107: 1277–1282.
23.Tworetzky W, McElhinney DB, Reddy VM, Brook MM, Hanley FL, Silverman NH. Improved surgical outcome after fetal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Circulation 2001; 103: 1269–1273.
24.McBrien A, Sands A, Craig B, Dornan J, Casey F. Major congenital heart disease: antenatal detection, patient characteristics and outcomes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2009; 22: 101–105.
25.Atz AM, Travison TG, Williams IA, et al. Prenatal diagnosis and risk factors for preoperative death in neonates with single right ventricle and systemic outflow obstruction: screening data from the Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial(*). J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 140: 1245–1250.
26.Galindo A, Nieto O, Villagra S, Graneras A, Herraiz I, Mendoza A. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome diagnosed in fetal life: associated findings, pregnancy outcome and results of palliative surgery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009; 33: 560–566.
27.Rasiah SV, Ewer AK, Miller P, et al. Antenatal perspective of hypoplastic left heart syndrome: 5 years on. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2008; 93: F192–F197.
28.Garne E, Stoll C, Clementi M. Evaluation of prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart diseases by ultrasound: experience from 20 European registries. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2001; 17: 386–391.
29.Garne E, Khoshnood B, Loane M, Boyd P, Dolk H. Termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly after 23 weeks of gestation: a European register-based study. BJOG 2010; 117: 660–666.
30.Menahem S, Grimwade J. Pregnancy termination following prenatal diagnosis of serious heart disease in the fetus. Early Hum Dev 2003; 73: 71–78.
31.Prsa M, Holly CD, Carnevale FA, Justino H, Rohlicek CV. Attitudes and practices of cardiologists and surgeons who manage HLHS. Pediatrics 2010; 125: e625–e630.
32.Corrow C, Lapuk S, Mazzarella K, Sable A, Leopold H, Eisenfeld L. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: factors influencing therapeutic choice. Conn Med 2001; 65: 195–203.
33.Osiovich H, Phillipos E, Byrne P, Robertson M. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: “to treat or not to treat”. J Perinatol 2000; 20: 363–365.
34.Renella P, Chang RK, Ferry DA, Bart RD, Sklansky MS. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: attitudes among pediatric residents and nurses towards fetal and neonatal management. Prenat Diagn 2007; 27: 1045–1055.
35.Vandvik IH, Forde R. Ethical issues in parental decision-making. An interview study of mothers of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Acta Paediatr 2000; 89: 1129–1133.
36.Williams DL, Gelijns AC, Moskowitz AJ, et al. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome: valuing the survival. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000; 119: 720–731.
37.World Health Organisation. Countdown to 2015: Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival. World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010.