Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Lacustrine mineral facies and implications for estimation of palaeoenvironmental parameters: Neogene intervolcanic Pelitçik Basin (Galatean Volcanic Province), Turkey

  • M. L. Süzen (a1) and A. G. Türkmenoğlu (a1)
Abstract

The mineralogy of the Neogene lacustrine facies of Pelitçik basin was investigated for the purpose of deriving the palaeoenvironmental parameters of this intervolcanic basin. The laboratory studies indicate that dolomite and K-feldspar are the major non-clay minerals in the study area, where plagioclase, analcime, fibrous zeolite and quartz are the minor constituents. Dolomites are found to be non-stoichiometric in chemistry. The clay fraction of the lacustrine facies is composed mainly of dioctahedral smectites. The smectites are rich in Al-Fe indicating a detrital origin. Illite comprises a minor contribution to the clay fraction, where chlorite and kaolinite are found in trace amounts. Based on dolomite stoichiometry and the mineral paragenesis found in the Pelitçik basin, the depositional conditions are suggested to have been a shallow, quiet, perennial lacustrine environment with fresh to slightly saline and slightly alkaline water chemistry. In addition, based on geological and mineralogical constraints, it is suggested that the water chemistry fluctuated during the deposition of the Pazar formation and the lake began its evolution with a hydrologically closed system and completed its evolution with a hydrologically open system.

Copyright
Corresponding author
References
Hide All
Badaut, D. & Risacher, F. (1983) Authigenic smectite on diatom frustules in Bolivian saline lakes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 47, 363 – 375.
Brindley, G.W. & Brown, G. (1980) Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals and their X-ray Identification. Mineralogical Society, London, Monograph 5.
Chamley, H. (1989) Clay Sedimentology. Springer- Verlag, Berlin.
De Pablo-Galán, L. (1990) Diagenesis of Oligo-Miocene vitric tuffs to montmorillonite and k-feldspar deposits, Durango, Mexico. Clays Clay Miner. 38, 426 – 436.
Farmer, V.C. (1974) The Infrared Spectra of Minerals. Mineralogical Society, London, Monograph 4.
Folk, R.L. (1974) The natural history of crystalline calcium carbonate: effect of magnesium content and salinity. J. Sed. Pet. 44, 40 – 53.
Folk, R.L. & Land, L.S. (1975) Mg/Ca ratio and salinity: two controls over crystallization of dolomite. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. 59, 60 – 68.
Goldsmith, J.R. & Graf, D.L. (1958a) Relation between lattice constants and composition of Ca-Mg carbonates. Am. Miner. 43, 84 – 101.
Goldsmith, J.R. & Graf, D.L. (1958b) Structural and compositional variations in some natural dolomites. J. Geol. 66, 678 – 693.
Grim, R.E. (1968) Clay Mineralogy. McGraw Hill, New York.
Gude, A.J. & Sheppard, R.A. (1986) Zeolitic diagenesis of tuffs in Upper Miocene lacustrine deposit near Durkee, Baker County, Oregon. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1578, 301 – 333.
Hardy, R. & Tucker, M. (1988) X-ray powder diffraction of sediments. Pp. 191 – 228 in: Techniques in Sedimentology (Tucker, M., Editor). Blackwell Scientific Publications Co., Oxford.
Hay, R.L. (1966) Zeolites and zeolites reactions in sedimentary rocks. Geol. Soc. Am. Sp. Pap. 85, 130.
Hay, R.L. (1978) Geologic occurrence of zeolites. Pp. 145 – 175 in: Natural Zeolite s: Occurr ence, Properties, Use. (Sand, L.B. & Mumpton, F.A., editors). Pergamon Press, New York.
Hay, R.L. & Guldman, S.G. (1987) Diagenetic alteration of silicic ash in Searles Lake, California. Clays Clay Miner. 35, 449 – 457.
Hubert, J.F., Reed, A.A. & Carey, P.J. (1976 ) Paleogeography of the East Berlin Formation, Newark Group, Connecticut Valley. Am. J. Sci. 276, 1183 – 1207.
İrkeç, T. & Gençogğlu, H. (1993) Kıbrıscık Area (Bolu Province, North-Central Turkey). Pp. 177 – 227 in: Utilization of Sepiolitic and Mg bearing Clays in Turkey. ITIT Report of Project 90-1-5.
Jackson, M.L. (1975) Soil Chemical Analysis. Advanced Course, Madison, Wisconsin Pub., USA.
Jones, B.F. & Weir, A.H. (1983) Clay minerals of Lake Abert, an alkaline, saline lake. Clays Clay Miner. 31, 161 – 172.
Ketin, İ . (1966) Anadolu’nun Tektonik Birlikleri. MTA Bull. 66, 23– 34.
Khury, H.N. & Eberl, D.D. (1979) Bubble wall shards altered to montmorillonite. Clays Clay Miner. 27, 291 – 292.
Lumsden, D.N. (1979) Discrepancy between thin sections and X-ray estimates of dolomite in limestone. J. Sed. Pet. 49, 429 – 436.
Lumsden, D.N. & Chimausky, J.S. (1980) Relationship between dolomite nonstoichiometry and carbonate facies parameters. Pp. 123 – 137 in. Concepts and Models of Dolomitization (Zenger, D.H., Durham, J.B. and Ethington, R.L., editors). Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Spec. Publ. 28.
Mackenzie, R.C. (1957) The Differential Thermal Investigation of Clays. Mineralogical Society, London, Monograph 2.
Moore, M.D. & Reynolds, R.C. (1989) X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals. Oxford University Press, New York.
Morrow, D.W. (1978) The influence of the Mg/Ca ratio and salinity on dolomitization in evaporative basins. Bull. Canad. Pet. Geol. 26, 389 – 392.
Morrow, D.W. (1982) Dolomitization models and ancient dolostones. Geosci. Canada, 9, 95 – 107.
Nelson, C.H. (1967) Sediments of Crater Lake, Oregon. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 78, 833 – 848.
Picard, M.D. & High, L.H. (1972) Criteria for recognising lacustrine rocks. Pp. 108 – 145 in. Recognition of Ancient Sedimentary Environments (Rigby, J.K. & Hamblin, W.M.K., editors). Society of Economic Paleontologis ts Mineralogists. Spec. Publ. 16, 108 – 145.
Ratterman, N.G. & Surdam, R.C. (1981) Zeolite mineral reactions in the Laney member of the Green River Formation, Wyoming. Clays Clay Miner. 29, 365 – 377.
Remy, R.R. & Ferrell, R.E. (1989) Distribution and origin of analcime in marginal lacustrine mudstones of the Green River Formation, South Central Uinta Basin, Utah. Clays Clay Miner. 37, 419 – 432.
Russell, J.D. (1987) Infrared methods. Pp. 133 – 173 in: A Handbook of Determinativ e Methods in Clay Mineralogy (Wilson, M.J., editor). Blackie, Glasgow.
Sheppard, R.A. (1989) Zeolitic alteration of lacustrine tuffs, Western Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA. Pp. 501 – 510 in: Zeolites: Facts, Figures, Future. (Jacobs, P.A. & Van Santen, R.A., editors). Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Sheppard, R.A. (1994) Zeolitic diagenesis of tuffs in Miocene lacustrine rocks near Harney Lake, Harney County, Oregon. USGS Bull. 2108, 28.
Sheppard, R.A. & Gude, A.J. (1973) Boron-bearing potassium feldspar of authigenic origin in closed basin deposits. J. Res. US Geol. Surv. 1, 377 – 382.
Stamatakis, M.G. (1989a) Authigenic silicates and silica polymorphs in the Miocene saline-alkaline deposits of the Karlovassi Basin, Samos, Greece. Econ. Geol. 84, 788 – 798.
Stamatakis, M.G. (1989b) A boron bearing potassium feldspar in volcanic ash and tuffaceous rocks from Miocene lake deposits, Samos Island, Greece. Am. Mineral. 74, 230 – 235.
Surdam, R.C. & Parker, R.D. (1972) Authigenic aluminosilicate minerals in the tuffaceous rocks of the Green River Formation, Wyoming. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 83, 689 – 700.
Surdam, R.C. & Sheppard, R.A. (1978) Zeolites in salinealkaline lake deposits. Pp. 145 – 175 in: Natural Zeolites: Occurrence, Properties, Use (Sand, L.B. & Mumpton, F.A., editors). Pergamon Press, New York.
Süzen, M.L. (1996) Lacustrine Mineral Facies of the Neogene Pelitç ik Basin (Galatean Volcanic Province).MSc Thesis, Middle East Technical Univ. Ankara, Turkey.
Süzen, M.L., Kansu, E. & Arcasoy, A. (1997) A remote sensing approach to determine the characteristics of an intervolcanic basin: Pelitçik Basin in the Galatean Volcanic Province (Turkey). European Union of Geosciences Meeting (EUG 9), Strasbourg France, 1997, Abstracts, p. 632.
Swain, F.M. (1966) Bottom sediments of Lake Nicaragua and Lake Managua, Western Nicaragua. J. Sed. Pet. 36, 522 – 544.
S°engör, A.M.C. & Yılmaz, Y. (1981) Tethyan evolution of Turkey : aplatetectonicapproach. Tectonophysics, 75, 181 – 241.
Tankut, A. & Türkmenoğlu, A. (1988) Incompatible trace element composition of Neogene mafic lavas around Ankara. METU J. Pure Appl. Sci. 21, 501 – 521.
Toprak, V., Savaşçın, Y., Güleç, N. & Tankut, A. (1996) Structure of the Galatean Volcanic Province, Turkey. Int. Geol. Rev. 38, 747 – 758.
Türkecan, A., Hepşen, N., Papak, İ., Akbas, B., Dinçel, A., Karataş, S., Özgür, İ ., Akay, E., Bedi, Y., Sevin, M., Mutlu, G., Sevin,., D., Ünay, E. & Saraç, G. (1991) Seben-Gerede (Bolu)-Güdül-Beypazarı(Ankara) ve Çerkeş -Orta-Kurş unlu (Çankırı) Yörelerinin (Köroğ lu Dağ ları) Jeolojisi ve Volkanik Kayaçların Petrolojisi. MTA, Report No. 9193 (unpublished).
Türkmenoğlu, A., Göker, T. & Tankut, A. (1990) Petrography and mineralogy of pyroclastic rocks of the Karaşar District, Beypazar ı, Ankara. Proc. IESCA 1990 (Int. Earth. Sci. Congr. Aegean Regions), 2, 467 – 473.
Türkmenoğlu, A.G., Akıman, O., Aker, S. & Tankut, A. (1991) Geology and origin of clay deposits at Orta (Çankırı) area. MTA Bull. 113, 87 – 92.
Walker, T.R. (1984) SEPM Presidential Address: Diagenetic albitization of potassium feldspar in arkosic sandstones. J. Sed. Pet. 54, 3– 16.
Yuretich, R.F. & Cerling, E.T. (1983) Hydrochemistry of Lake Turkana, Kenya; mass balance and mineral reactions in an alkaline lake. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 47, 1099 – 1109.
Yuretich, R.F., Hickey, L.J., Gregson, B.P. & Yuan-Lun Hsia (1984) Lacustrine deposits in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation, Northern Bighorn Basin, Montana. J. Sed. Pet. 54, 836 – 852.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Clay Minerals
  • ISSN: 0009-8558
  • EISSN: 1471-8030
  • URL: /core/journals/clay-minerals
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed