1.Faraone, SV, Sergeant, J, Gillberg, C, et al.The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: is it an American condition? World Psychiatry. 2003;2:104–113.
2.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Mental Health in the United States. prevalence of diagnosis and medication treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005; 54: 842–847.
3.Biederman, J, Monuteaux, M, Mick, E, et al.Young adult outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled 10 year follow-up study. Psychol Med. 2006;36:167–179.
4.Kessler, RC, Adler, L, Barkley, R, et al.The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:716–723.
5.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.
6.Biederman, J, Faraone, S, Mick, E. Age dependent decline of ADHD symptoms revisited: impact of remission definition and symptom subtype. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:816–817.
7.Millstein, RB, Wilens, TE, Biederman, J, et al.Presenting ADHD symptoms and subtypes in clinically referred adults with ADHD. J Atten Disord. 1997;2:159–166.
8.Spencer, TJ, Adler, LA, McGough, JJ, et al.Efficacy and safety of dexmethylphenidate extended-release capsules in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2006; Nov 28; [Epub ahead of print].
9.Dulcan, M. Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36:85S–121S.
10.Adler, L, Cohen, J. Diagnosis and evaluation of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2004;27(2):187–201.
11.Wilens, TE, Dodson, W. A clinical perspective of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:1301–1313.
12.Biederman, J, Faraone, SV, Spencer, T, et al.Functional impairments in adults with self-reports of diagnosed ADHD: a controlled study of 1001 adults in the community. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67:524–540.
13.Barkley, R, Guvremont, D, Anastopoulos, A, et al.Driving-related risks and outcomes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents and young adults: a 3- to 5-year follow-up survey. Pediatrics. 1993;92:212–218.
14.Cox, DJ, Merkel, RL, Kovatchev, B, et al.Effect of stimulant medication on driving performance of young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary double- blind placebo controlled trial. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2000;188:230–234.
15.Barkley, RA, Murphy, KR, Kwasnik, D. Motor vehicle driving competencies and risks in teens and young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 1996;98:1089–1095.
16.Murphy, K, Barkley, RA. Prevalence of DSM-IV symptoms of ADHD in adult licensed drivers: implications for clinical diagnosis. J Atten Disord. 1996;1:147–161.
17.Cox, DJ, Merkel, L, Penberthy, JK, et al.Impact of methylphenidate delivery profiles on driving performance of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43:269–275.
18.Wilens, T, Faraone, S, Biederman, J, et al.Does stimulant therapy of ADHD beget later substance abuse: a metanalytic review of the literature. Pediatrics. 2003;11:179–185.
19.Shekim, WO, Asarnow, RF, Hess, E, et al.A clinical and demographic profile of a sample of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, residual state. Compr Psychiatry. 1990; 31:416–425.
20.Biederman, J, Faraone, SV, Spencer, T, et al.Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, cognition, and psychosocial functioning in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:1792–1798.
21.McGough, JJ, Smalley, SL, McCracken, JT, et al.Psychiatric comorbidity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: findings from multiplex families. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:1621–1627.
22.Alpert, J, Maddocks, A, Nierenberg, A, et al.Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood among adults with major depression. Psychiatry Res. 1996;62:213–219.
23.Nierenberg, AA, Miyahara, S, Spencer, T, et al.Clinical and diagnostic implications of lifetime attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbidity in adults with bipolar disorder: data from the first 1000 STEP-BD participants. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;57:1467–1473.
24.Fones, CS, Pollack, MH, Susswein, L, et al.History of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) features among adults with panic disorder. J Affect Disord. 2000;58:99–106.
25.Wilens, T. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the substance use disorders: the nature of the relationship, subtypes at risk and treatment issues. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2004;27:283–301.