Hostname: page-component-546b4f848f-fhndm Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-05-31T14:27:04.679Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

The impact of childhood trauma and psychophysiological reactivity on at-risk women's adjustment to parenthood

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 December 2018

Mirjam Oosterman*
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Section of Clinical Child and Family Studies, and Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute
Carlo Schuengel
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Section of Clinical Child and Family Studies, and Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute
Mirte L. Forrer
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Section of Clinical Child and Family Studies, and Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute
Marleen H. M. De Moor
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Section of Clinical Child and Family Studies, and Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute
Author for correspondence: Mirjam Oosterman, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands; E-mail:


Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have an impact on women's adaptation to parenthood, but mechanisms are poorly understood. Autonomic nervous system reactivity was tested as a potential mediating mechanism in a sample of 193 at-risk primiparous women. ACEs were measured retrospectively during pregnancy. A baby cry-response task was administered during pregnancy while indicators of sympathetic reactivity (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) were recorded. Parenting self-efficacy, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were measured during pregnancy and 1 year after giving birth. Harsh discipline was measured 2 years after giving birth. Structural equation modeling was employed to test whether baseline PEP and RSA and reactivity mediated links between ACEs and postnatal outcomes, adjusted for prenatal variables. High ACEs predicted less RSA reactivity (p = .02), which subsequently predicted increases in depressive symptoms (p = .03). The indirect effect was not significant (p = .06). There was no indirect link between high ACEs and harsh parenting through PEP nor RSA (n = 98). The parasympathetic nervous system may be involved in negative affective responses in the transition to parenthood among women exposed to childhood trauma.

Special Section Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Allen, B. (2008). An analysis of the impact of diverse forms of childhood psychological maltreatment on emotional adjustment in early adulthood. Child Maltreatment, 13, 307312. doi:10.1177/1077559508318394CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alloy, L. B., Kelly, K. A., Mineka, S., & Clements, C. M. (1990). Comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders: A helplessness-hopelessness perspective. In Maser, J. D. & Cloninger, C. R. (Eds.), Comorbidity of anxiety and mood disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
Alvares, G. A., Quintana, D. S., Hickie, I. B., & Guastella, A. J. (2016). Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and the impact of psychotropic medications: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 41, 89104. doi:10.1503/jpn.140217CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alvarez-Segura, M., Garcia-Esteve, L., Torres, A., Plaza, A., Imaz, M. L., Hermida-Barros, L., & Burtchen, N. (2014). Are women with a history of abuse more vulnerable to perinatal depressive symptoms? A systematic review. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 17, 343357. doi:10.1007/s00737-014-0440-9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anda, R. F., Whitfield, C. L., Felitti, V. J., Chapman, D., Edwards, V. J., Dube, S. R., & Williamson, D. F. (2002). Adverse, childhood experiences, alcoholic parents, and later risk of alcoholism and depression. Psychiatric Services, 53, 10011009. doi:10.1176/ ScholarPubMed
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191215. doi:10.1037//0033-295x.84.2.191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bandura, A., Reese, L., & Adams, N. E. (1982). Microanalysis of action and fear arousal as a function of differential levels of perceived self-efficacy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 521. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.43.1.5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnett, B., & Parker, G. (1985). Professional and non-professional intervention for highly anxious primiparous mothers. British Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 287293. doi:10.1192/bjp.146.3.287CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bassett, D. (2016). A literature review of heart rate variability in depressive and bipolar disorders. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 511519. doi:10.1177/0004867415622689CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bauer, A. M., Quas, J. A., & Boyce, W. T. (2002). Associations between physiological reactivity and children's behavior: Advantages of a multisystem approach. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 102113. ScholarPubMed
Beauchaine, T. (2001). Vagal tone, development, and Gray's motivational theory: Toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 183214. doi:10.1017/s0954579401002012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beauchaine, T., Gatzke-Kopp, L., & Mead, H. (2007). Polyvagal theory and developmental psychopathology: Emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence. Biological Psychology, 74, 174184. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.08.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beaulieu, M. C., & Normandeau, S. (2012). Predictors of parents: Parental social cognitions and behavior of children with ADHD. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 44, 5969. doi:10.1037/a0023844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561571. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bennett, H. A., Einarson, A., Taddio, A., Koren, G., & Einarson, T. R. (2004). Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: Systematic review. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 103, 698709. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000116689.75396.5fCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berlin, L. J., Appleyard, K., & Dodge, K. A. (2011). Intergenerational continuity in child maltreatment: Mediating mechanisms and implications for prevention. Child Development, 82, 162176. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01547.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernstein, R. E., Measelle, J. R., Laurent, H. K., Musser, E. D., & Ablow, J. C. (2013). Sticks and stones may break my bones but words relate to adult physiology? Child abuse experience and women's sympathetic nervous system response while self-reporting trauma. Journal of Aggression Maltreatment & Trauma, 22, 11171136. doi:10.1080/10926771.2013.850138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berntson, G. G., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2004). Heart rate variability: Stress and psychiatric conditions. In Malik, M. & Camm, A. J. (Eds.), Dynamic electrocardiography. New York: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Berntson, G. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Quigley, K. S. (1991). Autonomic determinism: The modes of autonomic control, the doctrine of autonomic space, and the laws of autonomic constraint. Psychological Review, 98, 459487. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.98.4.459CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Separation (Vol. 2). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Buss, C., Entringer, S., Moog, N. K., Toepfer, P., Fair, D. A., Simhan, H. N., … Wadhwa, P. D. (2017). Intergenerational transmission of maternal childhood maltreatment exposure: Implications for fetal brain development. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56, 373382. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2017.03.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cacioppo, J. T., Uchino, B. N., & Berntson, G. G. (1994). Individual differences in the autonomic origins of heart-rate reactivity: The psychometrics of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pre-ejection period. Psychophysiology, 31, 412419. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1994.tb02449.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casanova, G. M., Domanic, J., McCanne, T. R., & Milner, J. S. (1994). Physiological responses to child stimuli in mothers with and without a childhood history of physical abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18, 9951004. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(94)90124-4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chalmers, J. A., Quintana, D. S., Maree, J., Abbott, A., & Kemp, A. H. (2014). Anxiety disorders are associated with reduced heart rate variability: A meta-analysis. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5, 80. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00080CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chapman, D. P., Whitfield, C. L., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Edwards, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82, 217225. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2003.12.013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chorpita, B. F., & Barlow, D. H. (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 321. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chung, E. K., Mathew, L., Rothkopf, A. C., Elo, I. T., Coyne, J. C., & Culhane, J. F. (2009). Parenting attitudes and infant spanking: The influence of childhood experiences. Pediatrics, 124, 278286. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-3247CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cole, P. M., Woolger, C., Power, T. G., & Smith, K. D. (1992). Parenting difficulties among adult survivors of father daughter incest. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 239249. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(92)90031-lCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coleman, P. K., & Karraker, K. H. (1998). Self-efficacy and parenting quality: Findings and future applications. Developmental Review, 18, 4785. doi:10.1006/drev.1997.0448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cort, N. A., Toth, S. L., Cerulli, C., & Rogosch, F. (2011). Maternal intergenerational transmission of childhood multitype maltreatment. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 20, 2039. doi:10.1080/10926771.2011.537740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cowan, C. P., & Cowan, P. A. (2000). When partners become parents: The big life change for couples. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Crockenberg, S. C., & Leerkes, E. M. (2003). Parental acceptance, postpartum depression, and maternal sensitivity: Mediating and moderating processes. Journal of Family Psychology, 17, 8093. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.17.1.80CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crowe, H. P., & Zeskind, P. S. (1992). Psychophysiological and perceptual responses to infant cries varying in pitch: Comparison of adults with low and high scores on the child-abuse potential inventory. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 1929. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(92)90005-cCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Bellis, M. D. (2002). Developmental traumatology: A contributory mechanism for alcohol and substance use disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27, 155170. doi:10.1016/s0306-4530(01)00042-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Bellis, M. D., & Zisk, A. (2014). The biological effects of childhood trauma. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 23, 185222. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2014.01.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Geus, E. J. C., Willemsen, G. H. M., Klaver, C., & Van Doornen, L. J. P. (1995). Ambulatory measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and respiration rate. Biological Psychology, 41, 205227. doi:10.1016/0301-0511(95)05137-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Del Giudice, M., Ellis, B. J., & Shirtcliff, E. A. (2011). The adaptive calibration model of stress responsivity. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 15621592. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.11.007CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DiStefano, C., & Morgan, G. B. (2014). A comparison of diagonal weighted least squares robust estimation techniques for ordinal data. Structural Equation Modeling, 21, 425438. doi:10.1080/10705511.2014.915373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dixon, L., Browne, K., & Hamilton-Giachritsis, C. (2005). Risk factors of parents abused as children: A mediational analysis of the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment (Part I). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 4757. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00339.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dyrdal, G. M., & Lucas, R. E. (2013). Reaction and adaptation to the birth of a child: A couple-level analysis. Developmental Psychology, 49, 749761. doi:10.1037/a0028335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, V. J., Holden, G. W., Felitti, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2003). Relationship between multiple forms of childhood maltreatment and adult mental health in community respondents: Results from the adverse childhood experiences study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 14531460. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.8.1453CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Egeland, B., Jacobvitz, D., & Sroufe, L. A. (1988). Breaking the cycle of abuse. Child Development, 59, 10801088. doi:10.2307/1130274CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ehrensaft, M. K., Knous-Westfall, H. M., Cohen, P., & Chen, H. (2015). How does child abuse history influence parenting of the next generation? Psychology of Violence, 5, 1625. doi:10.1037/a0036080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
El-Sheikh, M., Kouros, C. D., Erath, S., Cummings, E. M., Keller, P., & Staton, L. (2009). Marital conflict and children's externalizing behavior: Interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 74, vii–79. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5834.2009.00501.xGoogle ScholarPubMed
Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., … Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245258. doi:10.1016/s0749-3797(98)00017-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedman, B. H. (2007). An autonomic flexibility–neurovisceral integration model of anxiety and cardiac vagal tone. Biological Psychology, 74, 185199. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.08.009CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fritz, M. S., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2007). Required sample size to detect the mediated effect. Psychological Science, 18, 233239. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01882.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frodi, A. M., & Lamb, M. E. (1980). Child-abusers responses to infant smiles and cries. Child Development, 51, 238241. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1980.tb02531.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gartland, D., Woolhouse, H., Giallo, R., McDonald, E., Hegarty, K., Mensah, F., … Brown, S. J. (2016). Vulnerability to intimate partner violence and poor mental health in the first 4-year postpartum among mothers reporting childhood abuse: An Australian pregnancy cohort study. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 19, 10911100. doi:10.1007/s00737-016-0659-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gershoff, E. T. (2002). Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 539579. doi:10.1037//0033-2909.128.4.539CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gibb, B. E. (2002). Childhood maltreatment and negative cognitive styles: A quantitative and qualitative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 223246. doi:10.1016/s0272-7358(01)00088-5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ginty, A. T., Masters, N. A., Nelson, E. B., Kaye, K. T., & Conklin, S. M. (2017). Cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress and abuse history: The role of occurrence, frequency, and type of abuse. Anxiety Stress and Coping, 30, 155162. doi:10.1080/10615806.2016.1210791CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Groh, A. M., Propper, C., Mills-Koonce, R., Moore, G. A., Calkins, S., & Cox, M. (in press). Mothers' physiological and affective responding to infant distress: Unique antecedents of avoidant and resistant attachments. Child Development. doi:10.1111/cdev.12912Google Scholar
Grossman, P., Van Beek, J., & Wientjes, C. (1990). A comparison of 3 quantification methods for estimation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Psychophysiology, 27, 702714. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1990.tb03198.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamilton, J. L., & Alloy, L. B. (2016). Atypical reactivity of heart rate variability to stress and depression across development: Systematic review of the literature and directions for future research. Clinical Psychology Review, 50, 6779. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2016.09.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76, 408420. doi:10.1080/03637750903310360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heim, C., Newport, D. J., Heit, S., Graham, Y. P., Wilcox, M., Bonsall, R., … Nemeroff, C. B. (2000). Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 592597. doi:10.1001/jama.284.5.592CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heim, C., Newport, D. J., Mletzko, T., Miller, A. H., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2008). The link between childhood trauma and depression: Insights from HPA axis studies in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33, 693710. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.03.008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heim, C., Plotsky, P. M., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2004). Importance of studying the contributions of early adverse experience to neurobiological findings in depression. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 641648. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300397CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 169183. doi:10.1037/a0018555CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ji, S. A., Long, Q., Newport, D. J., Na, H., Knight, B., Zach, E. B., … Stowe, Z. N. (2011). Validity of depression rating scales during pregnancy and the postpartum period: Impact of trimester and parity. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45, 213219. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.05.017CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jones, T. L., & Prinz, R. J. (2005). Potential roles of parental self-efficacy in parent and child adjustment: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 341363. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2004.12.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Joosen, K. J., Mesman, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Pieper, S., Zeskind, P. S., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2013). Physiological reactivity to infant crying and observed maternal sensitivity. Infancy, 18, 414431. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7078.2012.00122.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kemp, A. H., Quintana, D. S., Gray, M. A., Felmingham, K. L., Brown, K., & Gatt, J. M. (2010). Impact of depression and antidepressant treatment on heart rate variability: A review and meta-analysis. Biological Psychiatry, 67, 10671074. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.12.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kunseler, F. C., Willemen, A. M., Oosterman, M., & Schuengel, C. (2014). Changes in parenting self-efficacy and mood symptoms in the transition to parenthood: A bidirectional association. Parenting, 14, 215234. doi:10.1080/15295192.2014.972758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leerkes, E. M., Su, J., Calkins, S. D., O'Brien, M., & Supple, A. J. (2017). Maternal physiological dysregulation while parenting poses risk for infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 245257. doi:10.1017/s0954579416000122CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leitzke, B. T., Hilt, L. M., & Pollak, S. D. (2015). Maltreated youth display a blunted blood pressure response to an acute interpersonal stressor. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44, 305313. doi:10.1080/15374416.2013.848774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, C. H. (2016). Confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data: Comparing robust maximum likelihood and diagonally weighted least squares. Behavior Research Methods, 48, 936949. doi:10.3758/s13428-015-0619-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, R. T. (2017). Childhood adversities and depression in adulthood: Current findings and future directions. Clinical Psychology—Science and Practice, 24, 140153. doi:10.1111/cpsp.12190CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lovallo, W. R. (2011). Do low levels of stress reactivity signal poor states of health? Biological Psychology, 86, 121128. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.01.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lovallo, W. R. (2013). Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 90, 816. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2012.10.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacKenzie, M. J., Nicklas, E., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2011). Who spanks infants and toddlers? Evidence from the fragile families and child well-being study. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 13641373. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.04.007CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 593614. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085542CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacKinnon, D. P., Warsi, G., & Dwyer, J. (1995). A simulation study of mediated effect measures. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 30, 4162. doi:10.1207/s15327906mbr3001_3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Madigan, S., Wade, M., Plamondon, A., Vaillancourt, K., Jenkins, J. M., Shouldice, M., & Benoit, D. (2014). Course of depression and anxiety symptoms during the transition to parenthood for female adolescents with histories of victimization. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 11601170. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.04.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDonnell, C. G., & Valentino, K. (2016). Intergenerational effects of childhood trauma: Evaluating pathways among maternal ACEs, perinatal depressive symptoms, and infant outcomes. Child Maltreatment, 21, 317326. doi:10.1177/1077559516659556CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McEwen, B. S. (1998). Stress, adaptation, and disease: Allostasis and allostatic load. Neuroimmunomodulation: Molecular Aspects, Integrative Systems, and Clinical Advances, 840, 3344. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09546.xGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLaughlin, K. A. (2016). Future directions in childhood adversity and youth psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 45, 361382. doi:10.1080/15374416.2015.1110823CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLaughlin, K. A., Sheridan, M. A., Alves, S., & Mendes, W. B. (2014). Child maltreatment and autonomic nervous system reactivity: Identifying dysregulated stress reactivity patterns by using the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat. Psychosomatic Medicine, 76, 538546. doi:10.1097/psy.0000000000000098CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meaney, M. J., & Szyf, M. (2005). Maternal care as a model for experience-dependent chromatin plasticity? Trends in Neurosciences, 28, 456463. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2005.07.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer, T., Albrecht, J., Bornschein, G., Sachsse, U., & Herrmann-Lingen, C. (2016). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patients exhibit a blunted parasympathetic response to an emotional stressor. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 41, 395404. doi:10.1007/s10484-016-9341-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mineka, S., Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1998). Comorbidity of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 377412. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.377CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miskovic, V., Schmidt, L. A., Georgiades, K., Boyle, M., & MacMillan, H. L. (2009). Stability of resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone in adolescent females exposed to child maltreatment. Developmental Psychobiology, 51, 474487. doi:10.1002/dev.20387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murali, R., & Chen, E. (2005). Exposure to violence and cardiovascular and neuroendocrine measures in adolescents. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 30, 155163. doi:10.1207/s15324796abm3002_8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, S. K., Kushlev, K., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2014). The pains and pleasures of parenting: When, why, and how is parenthood associated with more or less well-being? Psychological Bulletin, 140, 846895. doi:10.1037/a0035444CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Out, D., Pieper, S., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2010). Physiological reactivity to infant crying: A behavioral genetic study. Genes Brain and Behavior, 9, 868876. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2010.00624.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pears, K. C., & Capaldi, D. M. (2001). Intergenerational transmission of abuse: A two-generational prospective study of an at-risk sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 25, 14391461. doi:10.1016/s0145-2134(01)00286-1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pedersen, F., Bryan, Y., Huffman, L., & Del Carmen, R. (1989). Constructions of self and offspring in the pregnancy and early infancy periods. Paper presented at the Meetings of the Society for Research in Child Development, Kansas City, Missouri.Google Scholar
Porges, S. W., Doussard-Roosevelt, J. A., Portales, A. L., & Greenspan, S. I. (1996). Infant regulation of the vagal “Brake” predicts child behavior problems: A psychobiological model of social behavior. Developmental Psychobiology, 29, 697712. doi:10.1002/(sici)1098-2302(199612)29:8<697::aid-dev5><697::aid-dev5>;2-o3.0.CO;2-O>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Putnam, F. W. (2003). Ten-year research update review: Child sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 269278. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000037029.04952.72CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Quigley, K. M., & Moore, G. A. (2018). Development of cardiac autonomic balance in infancy and early childhood: A possible pathway to mental and physical health outcomes. Developmental Review, 49, 4161. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2018.06.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reijman, S., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Hiraoka, R., Crouch, J. L., Milner, J. S., Alink, L. R. A., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2016). Baseline functioning and stress reactivity in maltreating parents and at-risk adults: Review and meta-analyses of autonomic nervous system studies. Child Maltreatment, 21, 327342. doi:10.1177/1077559516659937CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Riese, H., Groot, P. F. C., Van Den Berg, M., Kupper, N. H. M., Magnee, E. H. B., Rohaan, E. J., & De Geus, E. J. C. (2003). Large-scale ensemble averaging of ambulatory impedance cardiograms. Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers, 35, 467477. doi:10.3758/bf03195525CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Riley, R. D., Lambert, P. C., & Abo-Zaid, G. (2010). Meta-analysis of individual participant data: Rationale, conduct, and reporting. BMJ, 340, c221. doi:10.1136/bmj.c221CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ross, L. E., & Dennis, C. L. (2009). The prevalence of postpartum depression among women with substance use, an abuse history, or chronic illness: A systematic review. Journal of Women's Health, 18, 475486. doi:10.1089/jwh.2008.0953CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rottenberg, J., Clift, A., Bolden, S., & Salomon, K. (2007). RSA fluctuation in major depressive disorder. Psychophysiology, 44, 450458. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00509.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sanchez, M. M., Ladd, C. O., & Plotsky, P. M. (2001). Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology: Evidence from rodent and primate models. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 419449. doi:10.1017/s0954579401003029CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schechter, D. S., Moser, D. A., McCaw, J. E., & Myers, M. M. (2014). Autonomic functioning in mothers with interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder in response to separation–reunion. Developmental Psychobiology, 56, 748760. doi:10.1002/dev.21144CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schuengel, C., & Oosterman, M. (in press). Parenting self-efficacy. In Bornstein, M. H. (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Volume 5. London: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Sherwood, A., Allen, M. T., Fahrenberg, J., Kelsey, R. M., Lovallo, W. R., & Van Doornen, L. J. P. (1990). Methodological guidelines for impedance cardiography. Psychophysiology, 27, 123. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1990.tb02171.xGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. (1970). State-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
Tarullo, A. R., & Gunnar, M. R. (2006). Child maltreatment and the developing HPA axis. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 632639. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2006.06.010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van der Does, A. (2002). BDI-II-NL. Handleiding. De Nederlandse versie van de Beck depression inventory. Lisse: Harcourt Test Publishers.Google Scholar
Van der Ploeg, H., Defares, P., & Spielberger, C. (1980). Handleiding bij de Zelf-Beoordelings Vragenlijst: Een Nederlandstalige Bewerking van de Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. STAI-DY. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger BV.Google Scholar
Van der Zwan, J. E., De Vente, W., Huizink, A. C., Bögels, S. M., & De Bruin, E. I. (2015). Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: A randomized controlled trial. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 40, 257268. doi:10.1007/s10484-015-9293-xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Leeuwen, K., & Vermulst, A. (2004). Some psychometric properties of the Ghent Parental Behavior Scale. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 20, 283298. doi:10.1027/1015-5759.20.4.283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Leeuwen, K., & Vermulst, A. (2010). Handleiding bij de Verkorte Schaal voor Ouderlijk Gedrag. [Manual of the Short Version of the Parental Behavior Scale.]. Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.Google Scholar
Verhage, M. L., Oosterman, M., & Schuengel, C. (2013). Parenting self-efficacy is associated with cry perception, not autonomic responses, during a cry response task. Parenting, 13, 253265. doi:10.1080/15295192.2013.832570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Voellmin, A., Winzeler, K., Hug, E., Wilhelm, F. H., Schaefer, V., Gaab, J., & Bader, K. (2015). Blunted endocrine and cardiovascular reactivity in young healthy women reporting a history of childhood adversity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 51, 5867. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.09.008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, Y. P., & Gorenstein, C. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: A comprehensive review. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 35, 416431. doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2012-1048CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wiedenfeld, S. A., Bandura, A., Levine, S., Oleary, A., Brown, S., & Raska, K. (1990). Impact of perceived self-efficacy in coping with stressors on components of the immune system. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 10821094. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.59.5.1082CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Willemsen, G. H. M., De Geus, E. J. C., Klaver, C., Van Doornen, L. J. P., & Carroll, D. (1996). Ambulatory monitoring of the impedance cardiogram. Psychophysiology, 33, 184193. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1996.tb02122.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Winzeler, K., Voellmin, A., Hug, E., Kirmse, U., Helmig, S., Princip, M., & Wilhelm, F. H. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences and autonomic regulation in response to acute stress: The role of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Anxiety Stress and Coping, 30, 145154. doi:10.1080/10615806.2016.1238076CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed