Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-54vk6 Total loading time: 0.428 Render date: 2022-08-12T01:03:35.632Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Neurophysiological mechanisms of emotion regulation for subtypes of externalizing children

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 April 2007

JIM STIEBEN
Affiliation:
York University
MARC D. LEWIS
Affiliation:
University of Toronto
ISABELA GRANIC
Affiliation:
Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto
PHILIP DAVID ZELAZO
Affiliation:
University of Toronto
SIDNEY SEGALOWITZ
Affiliation:
Brock University
DEBRA PEPLER
Affiliation:
York University

Abstract

Children referred for externalizing behavior problems may not represent a homogeneous population. Our objective was to assess neural mechanisms of emotion regulation that might distinguish subtypes of externalizing children from each other and from their normal age mates. Children with pure externalizing (EXT) problems were compared with children comorbid for externalizing and internalizing (MIXED) problems and with age-matched controls. Only boys were included in the analysis because so few girls were referred for treatment. We used a go/no-go task with a negative emotion induction, and we examined dense-array EEG data together with behavioral measures of performance. We investigated two event-related potential (ERP) components tapping inhibitory control or self-monitoring—the inhibitory N2 and error-related negativity (ERN)—and we constructed source models estimating their cortical generators. The MIXED children's N2s increased in response to the emotion induction, resulting in greater amplitudes than EXT children in the following trial block. ERN amplitudes were greatest for control children and smallest for EXT children with MIXED children in between, but only prior to the emotion induction. These results were paralleled by behavioral differences in response time and performance monitoring. ERP activity was localized to cortical sources suggestive of the dorsal anterior cingulate for control children, posterior cingulate areas for the EXT children, and both posterior cingulate and ventral cingulate/prefrontal regions for the MIXED children. These findings highlight different mechanisms of self-regulation underlying externalizing subtypes and point toward distinct developmental pathways and treatment strategies.We gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by Grant 1 R21 MH67357-01 from the Developmental Psychopathology and Prevention Research branch of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), as well as support from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR). We are also grateful for support provided (to P.D.Z.) by the Canadian Foundation for Innovation.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© 2007 Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Achenbach, T. (1991a). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Achenbach, T. M. (1991b). Manual for the Teacher's Report Form and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Barkley, R. A. (1998). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Bauer, L., & Hesselbrock, V. (1999). P300 decrements in teenagers with conduct problems: Implications for substance abuse risk and brain development. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 263272.Google Scholar
Berg, P., & Scherg, M. (1994). A multiple source approach to the correction of eye artifacts. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 90, 229241.Google Scholar
Bertrand, O., Perrin, F., & Pernier, J. (1985). A theoretical justification of the average-reference in topographic evoked potential studies. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 62, 462464.Google Scholar
Bird, H. R., Gould, M. S., & Staghezza, B. (1992). Aggregating data from multiple informants in child psychiatry epidemiological research. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 7885.Google Scholar
Blair, R. J. R. (2001). Neurocognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders, and psychopathy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 71, 727731.Google Scholar
Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., Roth, J. A., & Visher, C. A. (Eds.). (1986). Criminal careers and career criminals (Vol. 1). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Bokura, H., Yamaguchi, S., & Kobayashi, S. (2001). Electrophysiological correlates for response inhibition in a Go/No-Go task. Clinical Neurophysiology, 112, 22242232.Google Scholar
Botvinick, M., Nystrom, L. E., Fissell, K., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (1999). Conflict monitoring versus selection-for-action in anterior cingulate cortex. Nature, 402, 179181.Google Scholar
Botvinick, M. M., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review, 108, 624652.Google Scholar
Bush, G., Luu, P., & Posner, M. I. (2000). Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 215222.Google Scholar
Capaldi, D. M., & Clark, S. (1998). Prospective family predictors of aggression toward female partners for at-risk young men. Developmental Psychology, 34, 11751188.Google Scholar
Capaldi, D. M., & Stoolmiller, M. (1999). Co-occurrence of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in early adolescent boys: III. Prediction to young-adult adjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 5984.Google Scholar
Casey, B. J., Giedd, J. N., & Thomas, K. M. (2000). Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development. Biological Psychology, 54, 241257.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Richters, J. E. (1993). Developmental considerations in the investigation of conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 331334.Google Scholar
Cole, P. M., Martin, S. E., & Dennis, T. A. (2004). Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: Methodological challenges and directions for child development research. Child Development, 75, 317333.Google Scholar
Dahl, R. E. (2001). Affect regulation, brain development, and behavioral/emotional health in adolescence. CNS Spectrums, 6, 6072.Google Scholar
Damasio, A. R., Grabowski, T. J., Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Ponto, L. L. B., Parvizi, J., et al. (2000). Subcortical and cortical brain activity during the feeling of self-generated emotions. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 10491056.Google Scholar
Davidson, R. J., Putnam, K. M., & Larson, C. L. (2000). Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation—A possible prelude to violence. Science, 289, 591594.Google Scholar
Davies, P. L., Segalowitz, S. J., & Gavin, W. J. (2004). Development of response-monitoring ERPs in 7- to 25-year-olds. Developmental Neuropsychology, 25, 355376.Google Scholar
Davis, E. P., Bruce, J., & Gunnar, M. R. (2002). The anterior attention network: Associations with temperament and neuroendocrine activity in 6-year-old children. Developmental Psychobiology, 40, 4356.Google Scholar
Davis, E. P., Bruce, J., Snyder, K., & Nelson, C. (2003). The X-trials: Neural correlates of an inhibitory control task in children and adults. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13, 432443.Google Scholar
Dehaene, S., Posner, M. I., & Tucker, D. M. (1994). Localization of a neural system for error detection and compensation. Psychological Science, 5, 303305.Google Scholar
Derryberry, D., & Reed, M. A. (1996). Regulatory processes and the development of cognitive representations. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 215234.Google Scholar
Devinsky, O., Morrell, M. J., & Vogt, B. A. (1995). Contributions of anterior cingulate cortex to behaviour. Brain, 118, 279306.Google Scholar
Dikman, Z. V., & Allen, J. J. B. (2000). Error monitoring during reward and avoidance learning in high- and low-socialized individuals. Psychophysiology, 37, 4354.Google Scholar
Dodge, K. A. (1991). The structure and function of reactive and proactive aggression. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 201218). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information-processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children's peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 11461158.Google Scholar
Drevets, W. C. (2000). Neuroimaging studies of mood disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 813829.Google Scholar
Drevets, W. C., & Raichle, M. E. (1998). Reciprocal suppression of regional cerebral blood flow during emotional versus higher cognitive processes: Implications for interactions between emotion and cognition. Cognition & Emotion, 12, 353385.Google Scholar
Dumas, J. E. (1989). Treating antisocial behavior in children: Child and family approaches. Clinical Psychology Review, 9, 197222.Google Scholar
Dwivedi, K.N., Beaumont, G., & Brandon, S. (1984). Electrophysiological response in high and low aggressive young adolescent boys. Acta Paedopsychiatrica: International Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 179190.Google Scholar
Eimer, M. (1993). Effects of attention and stimulus probability on ERPs in a Go/Nogo task. Biological Psychology, 35, 123138.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Nyman, M., Bernzweig, J., & Pinuelas, A. (1994). The relations of emotionality and regulation to children's anger-related reactions. Child Development, 65, 109128.Google Scholar
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Murphy, B. C., Guthrie, I. K., Jones, S., et al. (1997). Contemporaneous and longitudinal prediction of children's social functioning from regulation and emotionality. Child Development, 68, 642664.Google Scholar
Ensminger, M. E., & Slusarcick, A. L. (1992). Paths to high school graduation or dropout: A longitudinal study of a first-grade cohort. Sociology of Education, 65, 95113.Google Scholar
Falkenstein, M., Hoormann, J., & Hohnsbein, J. (1999). ERP components in Go/Nogo tasks and their relation to inhibition. Acta Psychologica, 101, 267291.Google Scholar
Farrington, D. (1988). Studying changes within individuals: The causes of offending. In R. Michael (Ed.), Studies of psychosocial risk: The power of longitudinal data (pp. 158183). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Farrington, D. P. (1989). Early predictors of adolescent aggression and adult violence. Violence and Victims, 4, 79100.Google Scholar
Gabriel, M., Burhans, L., & Scalf, P. (2002). Cingulate cortex. In V. S. Ramachandran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the human brain. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Garavan, H., Ross, T. J., & Stein, E. A. (1999). Right hemispheric dominance of inhibitory control: An event-related functional MRI study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 96, 83018306.Google Scholar
Gehring, W. J., Himle, J., & Nisenson, L. G. (2000). Action monitoring dysfunction in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Psychological Science, 11, 16.Google Scholar
Gerstle, J. E., Mathias, C. W., & Stanford, M. S. (1998). Auditory P300 and self-reported impulsive aggression. Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 22, 575583.Google Scholar
Giordano, P. C., Millhollin, T. J., Cernkovich, S. A., Pugh, M. D., & Rudolph, J. L. (1999). Delinquency, identity, and women's involvement in relationship violence. Criminology, 27, 1740.Google Scholar
Grafman, J., Schwab, K., Warden, D., & Pridgen, A. (1996). Frontal lobe injuries, violence, and aggression: A report of the Vietnam head injury study. Neurology, 46, 12311238.Google Scholar
Granic, I., & Hollenstein, T. (2003). Dynamic systems methods for models of developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 641669.Google Scholar
Granic, I., & Lamey, A. (2002). Combining dynamic systems and multivariate analyses to compare the mother–child interactions of externalizing subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 265283.Google Scholar
Hajcak, G., McDonald, N., & Simons, R. (2005). Anxiety and error-related brain activity. Biological Psychology, 64, 7790.Google Scholar
Hawkins, K. A., & Trobst, K. K. (2000). Frontal lobe dysfunction and aggression: Conceptual issues and research findings. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 5, 147157.Google Scholar
Hill, J. (2002). Biological, psychological, and social processes in the conduct disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 43, 133164.Google Scholar
Hill, S. Y., & Shen, S. (2002). Neurodevelopmental patterns of visual P3b in association with familial risk for alcohol dependence and childhood diagnosis. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 621631.Google Scholar
Hinde, R. A. (1992). Developmental psychology in the context of other behavioral sciences. Developmental Psychology, 28, 10181029.Google Scholar
Hinshaw, S. P. (1994). Attention deficits and hyperactivity in children. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hinshaw, S. P., & Anderson, C. A. (1996). Conduct and oppositional defiant disorders. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Child psychopathology (pp. 108149). New York: Guilford Press.
Hinshaw, S. P., Lahey, B. B., & Hart, E. L. (1993). Issues of taxonomy and comorbidity in the development of conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 3149.Google Scholar
Hinshaw, S. P., & Zupan, B. A. (1997). Assessment of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. In D. M. Stoff, J. Breiling, & J. D. Maser (Eds.), Handbook of antisocial behavior (pp. 3650). New York: Wiley.
Jodo, E., & Kayama, Y. (1992). Relation of a negative ERP component to response inhibition in a Go/No-go task. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 82, 477482.Google Scholar
Johnson, M. H., Halit, H., Grice, S. J., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2002). Neuroimaging of typical and atypical development: A perspective from multiple levels of analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 521536.Google Scholar
Kawasaki, H., Adolphs, R., Kaufman, O., Damasio, H., Damasio, A. R., & Granner, M., et al. (2001). Single-neuron responses to emotional visual stimuli recorded in human ventral prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 1516.Google Scholar
Kazdin, A. E. (1995). Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K., & Coy, K. C. (1997). Inhibitory control as a contributor to conscience in childhood: From toddler to early school age. Child Development, 68, 263277.Google Scholar
Lahey, B., & Loeber, R. (1994). A framework for a developmental model of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In D. K. Routh (Ed.), Disruptive behavior disorders in childhood. New York: Plenum Press.
Lewis, M. D. (2005). Self-organizing individual differences in brain development. Developmental Review, 25, 252277.Google Scholar
Lewis, M. D., Lamm, C., Segalowitz, S. J., & Stieben, S. (2006). Neurophysiological correlates of emotion regulation in children and adolescents. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 430443.Google Scholar
Lincoln, A. J., Bloom, D., Katz, M., & Boksenbaum, N. (1998). Neuropsychological and neurophysiological indices of auditory processing impairment in children with multiple complex developmental disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 100112.Google Scholar
Loeber, R., Brinthaupt, V. P., & Green, S. M. (1990). Attention deficits, impulsivity, and hyperactivity with or without conduct problems: Relationships to delinquency and unique contextual factors. In R. J. McMahon & R. D. Peters (Eds.), Behavior disorders of adolescence: Research, intervention, and policy in clinical and school settings (pp. 3961). New York: Plenum Press.
Luu, P., Collins, P., & Tucker, D. M. (2000). Mood, personality, and self-monitoring: Negative affect and emotionality in relation to frontal lobe mechanisms of error monitoring. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129, 4360.Google Scholar
Luu, P., & Pederson, S. (2004). The anterior cingulate cortex: Actions in context. In M. Posner (Ed.), Cognitive neuroscience of attention (pp. 232242). New York: Guilford Press.
Luu, P., & Tucker, D. M. (2002). Self-regulation and the executive functions: Electrophysiological clues. In A. Zani & A. M. Proverbio (Eds.), The cognitive electrophysiology of mind and brain (pp. 199223). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Marinkovic, K., Trebon, P., Chauvel, P., & Halgren, E. (2000). Localised face processing by the human prefrontal cortex: Face-selective intracerebral potentials and post-lesion deficits. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 17, 187199.Google Scholar
Mayberg, H. S., Liotti, M., Brannan, S. K., McGinnis, S., Mahurin, R. K., & Jerabek, P. A., et al. (1999). Reciprocal limbic–cortical function and negative mood: Converging PET findings in depression and normal sadness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 675682.Google Scholar
Moffitt, T. E. (1993). “Adolescence-limited” and “life-course persistent” antisocial behaviour: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674701.Google Scholar
Nieuwenhuis, S., Yeung, N., & Cohen, J. (2004). Stimulus modality, perceptual overlap, and the go/no-go N2. Psychophysiology, 41, 157160.Google Scholar
Nieuwenhuis, S., Yeung, N., Van den Wildenberg, W., & Ridderinkhof, K. R. (2003). Electrophysiological correlates of anterior cingulate function in a Go/NoGo Task: Effects of response conflict and trial-type frequency. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 3, 1726.Google Scholar
Offord, D. R., Boyle, M. H., Racine, Y., Szatmari, P., Fleming, J. E., Sanford, M., et al. (1996). Integrating assessment data from multiple informants. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 10781085.Google Scholar
Patterson, G. R., Dishion, T. J., & Chamberlain, P. (1993). Outcomes and methodological issues relating to treatment of antisocial children. In T. R. Giles (Ed.), Handbook of effective psychotherapy. New York: Plenum Press.
Pliszka, S. R., Liotti, M., & Woldorff, M. G. (2000). Inhibitory control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Event-related potentials identify the processing component and timing of an impaired right-frontal response-inhibition mechanism. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 238246.Google Scholar
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (1998). Attention, self-regulation, and consciousness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, 353, 19151927.Google Scholar
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 427441.Google Scholar
Raine, A., & Venables, P. H. (1987). Contingent negative variation, P3 evoked potentials, and antisocial behavior. Psychophysiology, 24, 191199.Google Scholar
Raine, A., Venables, P. H., & Williams, M. (1990). Relationships between N1, P300, and contingent negative variation recorded at age 15 and criminal behavior at age 24. Psychophysiology, 27, 567574.Google Scholar
Richters, J. E. (1997). The Hubble hypothesis and the developmentalist's dilemma. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 193229.Google Scholar
Robins, L. N., & Price, R. K. (1991). Adult disorders predicted by childhood conduct problems: Results from the NIMH Epidemiological Catchment Area Project. Psychiatry, 54, 116132.Google Scholar
Rolls, E.T. (1999). The brain and emotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., & Hershey, K. L. (1994). Temperament and social behavior in childhood. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 40, 2139.Google Scholar
Satterfield, J. H., & Schell, A. M. (1984). Childhood brain function differences in delinquent and non-delinquent hyperactive boys. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 57, 199207.Google Scholar
Satterfield, J. H., Schell, A. M., & Backs, R. W. (1987). Longitudinal study of AERPs in hyperactive and normal children: Relationship to antisocial behavior. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 67, 531536.Google Scholar
Schore, A. (1994). Affect regulation and the origin of the self. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Séguin, J. R., & Zelazo, P. D. (2005). Executive function in early physical aggression. In R. E. Tremblay, W. W. Hartup, & J. Archer (Eds.), Developmental origins of aggression (pp. 307329). New York: Guilford Press.
Southam-Gerow, M. A., & Kendall, P. C. (1997). Parent-focused and cognitive–behavioral treatments of antisocial youth. In D. M. Stoff, J. Breiling, & J. D. Maser (Eds.), Handbook of antisocial behavior (pp. 384394). New York: Wiley.
Sterzer, P., Stadler, C., Krebs, A., Kleinschmidt, A., & Poustka, F. (2005). Abnormal neural responses to emotional visual stimuli in adolescents with conduct disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 715.Google Scholar
Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., & Thomas, C. (1992). Caretakers seeking help for boys with disruptive and delinquent behavior. Comprehensive Mental Health Care, 2, 158178.Google Scholar
Tucker, D. M. (1993). Spatial sampling of head electrical fields: The geodesic sensor net. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 87, 154163.Google Scholar
Tucker, D. M., Liotti, M., Potts, G. F., Russell, G. S., & Posner, M. I. (1994). Spatiotemporal analysis of brain electrical fields. Human Brain Mapping, 1, 134152.Google Scholar
Tucker, D. M., Luu, P., Desmond, R. E., Jr., Hartry-Speiser, A., Davey, C., & Flaisch, T. (2003). Corticolimbic mechanisms in emotional decisions. Emotion, 3, 127149.Google Scholar
van Veen, V., & Carter, C. S. (2002). The timing of action-monitoring processes in the anterior cingulate cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 593602Google Scholar
Verhulst, F. C., & van der Ende, J. (1992). “Comorbidity” in an epidemiological sample: A longitudinal perspective. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 767783.Google Scholar
Volkow, N. D., & Tancredi, L. (1987). Neural substrates of violent behaviour: A preliminary study with positron emission tomography. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 668673.Google Scholar
Yong-Liang, G., Robaey, P., Karayanidis, F., Bourassa, M., Pelletier, G., & Geoffroy, G. (2000). ERPs and behavioral inhibition in a Go/Nogo task in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Brain and Cognition, 43, 215220.Google Scholar
Zelazo, P. D., & Mueller, U. (2002). Executive function in typical and atypical development. In U. Goswami (Ed.), Handbook of childhood cognitive development. Oxford: Blackwell.
Zoccolillo, M. (1992). Co-occurrence of conduct disorder and its adult outcomes with depressive and anxiety disorders: A review. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 547556.Google Scholar
72
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Neurophysiological mechanisms of emotion regulation for subtypes of externalizing children
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Neurophysiological mechanisms of emotion regulation for subtypes of externalizing children
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Neurophysiological mechanisms of emotion regulation for subtypes of externalizing children
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *