This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
J. E. Bates , G. S. Pettit , K. A. Dodge , & B. Ridge (1998). Interaction of temperamental resistance to control and restrictive parenting in the development of externalizing problems. Developmental Psychology, 34, 982–995.
J. Belsky , & M. Pluess (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 885–908.
D. J. Bridgett , M. A. Gartstein , S. P. Putnam , T. McKay , E. Iddins , C. Robertson , (2009). Maternal and contextual influences and the effect of temperament development during infancy and parenting in toddlerhood. Infant Behavior and Development, 32, 103–116.
U. Bronfenbrenner , & S. J. Ceci (1994). Nature–nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychological Review, 101, 568–586.
S. A. Burt (2009). Rethinking environmental contributions to child and adolescent psychopathology: A meta-analysis of shared environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 609–637.
T. M. M. Button , J. Scourfield , N. Martin , S. Purcell , & P. McGuffin (2005). Family dysfunction interacts with genes in the causation of antisocial symptoms. Behavior Genetics, 35, 115–120.
A. Caspi , T. E. Moffit , A. Thornton , D. Freedman , J. Amell , H. Harrington , (1996). The life history calendar: A research and clinical assessment method for collecting retrospective event-history data. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 6, 101–114.
L. Chang , D. Schwartz , K. Dodge , & C. McBride-Chang (2003). Harsh parenting in relation to child emotion regulation and aggression. Journal of Family Psychology, 17, 598–606.
N. Eisenberg , R. A. Fabes , S. A. Shepard , I. K. Guthrie , B. C. Murphy , & M. Reiser (1999). Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: Longitudinal relations to quality of children's social functioning. Child Development, 70, 513–534.
N. Eisenberg , C. Valente , T. L. Spinrad , A. Cumberland , J. Liew , M Reiser , (2009). Longitudinal relations of children's effortful control, impulsivity, and negative emotionality to their externalizing, internalizing, and co-occurring behavior problems. Developmental Psychology, 45, 988–1008.
X. Ge , M. N. Natsuaki , D. Martin , L. D. Leve , J. M. Neiderhiser , D. S. Shaw , (2008). Bridging the divide: Openness in adoption and post-adoption psychosocial adjustment among birth and adoptive parents. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 529–540.
H. H. Goldsmith , K. A. Buss , & K .S. Lemery (1997). Toddler and childhood temperament: Expanded content, stronger genetic evidence, new evidence for the importance of environment. Developmental Psychology, 33, 891–905.
H. H. Goldsmith , K. S. Lemery , K. A. Buss , & J. J. Campos (1999). Genetic analysis of focal aspects of infant temperament. Developmental Psychology, 35, 972–985.
B. M. Hicks , S. C. South , A. C. DiRago , W. G. Iacono , & M. M. McGue (2009). Environmental adversity and increasing genetic risk for externalizing disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 640–648.
J. Hwang , & M. K. Rothbart (2003). Behavior genetic studies of infant temperament: Findings vary across parent-report instruments. Infant Behavior and Development, 26, 112–114.
R. F. Krueger , S. South , W. Johnson , & W. Iacono (2008). The heritability of personality is not always 50%: Gene–environment interactions and correlations between personality and parenting. Journal of Personality, 76, 1485–1522.
H. Larsson , E. Viding , F. V. Rijsdijk , & R. Plomin (2008). Relationships between parental negatively and childhood antisocial behavior over time: A bidirectional effects model in a longitudinal genetically informed design. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 633–645.
K. S. Lemery , & H. H. Goldsmith (2003). Genetic and environmental influences on preschool sibling cooperation and conflict: associations with difficult temperament and parenting style. Marriage and Family Review, 33, 75–97.
L. D. Leve , G. T. Harold , X. Ge , J. M. Neiderhiser , & G. Patterson (2010). Refining intervention targets in family-based research: Lessons from quantitative behavioral genetics. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 516–526.
L. D. Leve , G. T. Harold , X. Ge , J. M. Neiderhiser , D. Shaw , L. V. Scaramella , (2009). Structured parenting of toddlers at high versus low genetic risk: Two pathways to child problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 1102–1109.
S. T. Lipscomb , L. D. Leve , G. Harold , J. M. Neiderhiser , D. Shaw , X. Ge , (2011). Trajectories of parenting and child negative emotionality: A longitudinal analysis during infancy and toddlerhood. Child Development, 82, 1661–1675.
E. E. Maccoby (2000). Parenting and its effects on children: On reading and misreading behavior genetics. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 1–27.
T. E. Moffitt , A. Caspi , & M. Rutter (2005). Strategy for investigating interactions between measured genes and measured environments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 473–481.
B. Muthén (2002). Beyond SEM: Latent variable modeling. Behaviormetrika, 29, 81–117.
M. N. Natsuaki , X. Ge , L. D. Leve , J. M. Neiderhiser , D. S. Shaw , R. D. Conger , (2010). Genetic liability, environment, and the development of fussiness in toddlers: The role of maternal depression and parental responsiveness. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1147–1158.
T. K. Neppl , R. D. Conger , L. V. Scaramella , & L. L Ontai (2009). Intergenerational continuity in parenting behavior: Mediating pathways and child effects. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1241–1256.
T. G. O'Connor , A. Caspi , J. C. DeFries , & R. Plomin (2003). Genotype–environment interaction in children's adjustment to parental separation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 849–856.
T. G. O'Connor , K. Deater-Deckard , D. Fulker , M. Rutter , & R. Plomin (1998). Genotype environment correlations in late childhood and early adolescence: Antisocial behavioral problems and coercive parenting. Developmental Psychology, 34, 970–981.
R. Plomin , H. Coon , G. Carey , J. C. DeFries , & D. W. Fulker (1991). Parent–offspring and sibling adoption analyses of parental ratings of temperament in infancy and childhood. Journal of Personality, 59, 705–732.
K. J. Preacher , P. J. Curran , & D. J. Bauer (2006). Computational tools for probing interaction effects in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31, 437–448.
A. Raine , & P. H. Venables (1984). Tonic heart rate level, social class and antisocial behaviour in adolescents. Biological Psychology, 18, 123–132.
S. H. Rhee , & I. D. Waldman (2002). Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 490–529.
M. K. Rothbart , S. A. Ahadi , & D. E. Evans (2000). Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 122–135.
F. Rothbaum , & J. R. Weisz (1994). Parental caregiving and child externalizing problems in nonclinical samples: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 55–74.
M. Rutter , T. E. Moffitt , & A. Caspi (2006). Gene–environment interplay and psychopathology: Multiple varieties but real effects. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 226–261.
M. Rutter , A. Pickles , R. Murray , & L. J. Eaves (2001). Testing hypotheses on specific environmental causal effects on behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 291–324.
M. Rutter , & J. Silberg (2002). Gene–environment interplay in relation to emotional and behavioral disturbance. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 463–490.
A. Sanson , S. A. Hempill , & D. Smart (2004). Connections between temperament and social development: A review. Social Development, 13, 142–170.
K. J. Saudino (2005). Special Article: Behavioral genetics and child temperament. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 26, 214–223.
K. J. Saudino , R. Plomin , & J. C. Defries (1996). Tester-rated temperament at 14, 20, and 24 months: Environmental change and genetic continuity. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 129–144.
L. Scaramella , T. Neppl , L. Ontai , & R. Conger (2008). Consequences of socioeconomic disadvantage across three generations: Parenting behavior and child externalizing problems. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 725–733.
L. V. Scaramella , S. L. Sohr-Preston , S. P. Mirabile , S. D. Robinson , & K. L. Callahan (2008). Parenting and children's distress reactivity: An examination of direction of effects. Social Development, 17, 578–595.
J. L. Schafer , & J. W. Graham (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 137–177.
M. S. Schonberg , & D. S. Shaw (2007). Do the antecedents for child conduct problems differ for children reared in high and low-risk socioeconomic settings? Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10, 101–136.
D. S. Shaw , & R. Q. Bell (1993). Developmental theories of parental contributors to antisocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 493–518.
D. S. Shaw , R. Q. Bell , & M. Gilliom (2000). A truly early starter model of antisocial behavior revisited. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3, 155–172.
D. S. Shaw , M. Gilliom , E. M. Ingoldsby , & D. Nagin (2003). Trajectories leading to school-age conduct problems. Developmental Psychology, 39, 189–200.
D. S. Shaw , E. B. Winslow , E. B. Owens , J. I. Vondra , J. F. Cohn , & R. Q. Bell (1998). The development of early externalizing problems among children from low-income families: A transformational perspective. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 95–107.
J. D. Singer , & J. B. Willett (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis: Modeling change and event occurrence. New York: Oxford University Press.
G. J. Stams , F. Juffer , & M. H. van IJzendoorn (2002). Maternal sensitivity, infant attachment, and temperament in early childhood predict adjustment in middle childhood: The case of adopted children and their biologically unrelated parents. Developmental Psychology, 38, 806–821.
R. E. Tremblay , D. S. Nagin , J. R. Śeguin , M. Zoccolillo , P. D. Zelazo , M. Boivin , (2004). Physical aggression during early childhood: Trajectories and predictors. Pediatrics, 114, e43–e50.
R. J. Vandenberg , & C. E. Lance (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 4–70.
F. Vitaro , E. D. Barker , M. Boivin , M. Brendgen , & R. E. Tremblay (2006). Do early difficult temperament and harsh parenting differentially predict reactive and proactive aggression? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 685–695.
F. Vitaro , M. Brendgen , & R. E. Tremblay (2002). Reactively and proactively aggressive children: Antecedent and subsequent characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 495–505.