Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Wittig, B. (1969). Attachment and exploratory behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. In Foss, B. (Ed.), Determinants of infant behaviour (Vol. 4, pp. 111–136). London: Methuen.
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Alink, L. R. A., Cicchetti, D., Kim, J., & Rogosch, F. A. (2009). Mediating and moderating processes in the relation between maltreatment and psychopathology: Mother–child relationship quality and emotion regulation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 831–843.
Allen, J. P., Marsh, P., McFarland, C., Boykin McElhaney, K., Land, D. J., Jodl, K. M., et al. (2002). Attachment and autonomy as predictors of the development of social skills and delinquency during midadolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 56–66.
Allen, J. P., Moore, C., Kuperminc, G., & Bell, K. (1998). Attachment and adolescent psychosocial functioning. Child Development, 69, 1406–1419.
Bates, J. E. (1980). The concept of difficult temperament. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 26, 299–319.
Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (2007). Temperament, parenting, and socialization. In Grusec, J. E. & Hastings, P. D. (Eds.), Handbook of socialization: Theory and research (pp. 153–177). New York: Guilford Press.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.
Beauchaine, T. P., Strassberg, Z., Kees, M. R., & Drabick, D. A. G. (2002). Cognitive response repertoires to child noncompliance by mothers of aggressive boys. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 89–101.
Behar, L. B. (1977). The Preschool Behavior Questionnaire. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 5, 265–275.
Bell, R. Q. (1968). A reinterpretation of the direction of effects in studies of socialization. Psychological Review, 75, 81–95.
Belsky, J., & Nezworski, T. (Eds.). (1988). Clinical implications of attachment. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Belsky, J., Spritz, B., & Crnic, K. (1996). Infant attachment security and affective–cognitive information processing at age 3. Psychological Science, 7, 111–114.
Berlin, L. J., Ziv, Y., Amaya-Jackson, L., & Greenberg, M. T. (Eds.). (2005). Enhancing early attachments: Theory, research, intervention, and policy. New York: Guilford Press.
Bowlby, J. (1944). Forty-four juvenile thieves: Their characters and home life. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 25, 19–52 and 107–127.
Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss (Vol. 2). New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss (Vol. 1, 2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books. (Original work published 1969)
Boyce, W. T., Essex, M. J., Woodward, H. R., Measelle, J. R., Ablow, J. C., & Kupfer, D. J. (2002). The confluence of mental, physical, social and academic difficulties in middle childhood. I: Exploring the “headwaters” of early life morbidities. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 580–587.
Bravo, G., & Potvin, L. (1991). Estimating the reliability of continuous measures with Cronbach's alpha or the intraclass correlation coefficient: Toward the integration of two traditions. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 44, 381–390.
Bretherton, I., Ridgeway, D., & Cassidy, J. (1990). Assessing internal working models of the attachment relationship: An attachment story completion task for 3-year-olds. In Greenberg, M. T., Cicchetti, D. & Cummings, E. M. (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention (pp. 273–308). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bugental, D. B., & Grusec, J. E. (2006). Socialization processes. In Damon, W. & Lerner, R. M. (Series Eds.) & Eisenberg, N. (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 366–428). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Bugental, D. B., & Johnston, C. (2000). Parental and child cognitions in the context of the family. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 315–344.
Cox, M. J., Mills-Koonce, R., Propper, C., & Gariepy, J. L. (2010). Systems theory and cascades in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 497–506.
Deater-Deckard, K., & Dodge, K. A. (1997). Externalizing behavior problems and discipline revisited: Nonlinear effects and variation by culture, context, and gender. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 161–175.
DeKlyen, M., & Greenberg, M. T. (2008). Attachment and psychopathology in childhood. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp. 637–665). New York: Guilford Press.
Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1990). Mechanisms in the cycle of violence. Science, 250, 1678–1683.
Dodge, K. A., Coie, J. C., & Lynam, D. (2006). Aggression and antisocial behavior in youth. In Damon, W. & Lerner, R. M. (Series Eds.) & Eisenberg, N. (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 719–788). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Eisenberg, N., Guthrie, I. K., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S., Losoya, S., Murphy, B., et al. (2000). Prediction of elementary school children's externalizing problem behaviors from attentional and behavioral regulation and negative emotionality. Child Development, 71, 1367–1382.
Emde, R. N., Biringen, Z., Clyman, R. B., & Oppenheim, D. (1991). The moral self of infancy: Affective core and procedural knowledge. Developmental Review, 11, 251–270.
Essex, M. J., Boyce, W. T., Goldstein, L. H., Armstrong, J. M., Kraemer, H. C., & Kupfer, D. J. (2002). The confluence of mental, physical, social and academic difficulties in middle childhood. II: Developing the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 588–603.
Fearon, R. M. P., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Lapsley, A. M., & Roisman, G. I. (2010). The significance of insecure attachment and disorganization in the development of children's externalizing behavior: A meta-analytic study. Child Development, 81, 435–456.
Fearon, R. M. P., & Belsky, J. (2011). Infant–mother attachment and the growth of externalizing problems across the primary-school years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 782–791.
Fonagy, P., Gergely, G., Jurist, E., & Target, M. (2002). Affect regulation, mentalization, and the development of the self. New York: Other Press LLC.
Fowles, D. C., & Kochanska, G. (2000). Temperament as a moderator of pathways to conscience in children: The contribution of electrodermal activity. Psychophysiology, 37, 788–795.
Frick, P. J. (2004). Inventory of Callous–Unemotional Traits. Unpublished manuscript, University of New Orleans.
Gadow, K. D., & Sprafkin, J. (2002). Child Symptom Inventory 4: Screening and norms manual. Stony Brook, NY: Checkmate Plus.
Gadow, K. D., Sprafkin, J., & Nolan, E. E. (2001). DSM-IV symptoms in community and clinic preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1383–1392.
George, C., & Solomon, J. (1996). Representational models of relationships: Links between caregiving and attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 17, 198–216.
Gershoff, E. (2002). Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 539–579.
Goldberg, S., Grusec, J. E., & Jenkins, J. M. (1999). Confidence in protection: Arguments for a narrow definition of attachment. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 475–483.
Goldsmith, H. H., Reilly, J., Lemery, K. S., Longley, S., & Prescott, A. (1993). Preliminary manual for the Preschool Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (version 1.0). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin–Madison, Department of Psychology.
Goodnow, J. J. (1988). Parents' ideas, actions, and feelings: Models and methods from developmental and social psychology. Child Development, 59, 286–320.
Greenberg, M. T. (1999). Attachment and psychopathology in childhood. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 469–497). New York: Guilford Press.
Greenberg, M. T., Speltz, M. L., & DeKlyen, M. (1993). The role of attachment in the early development of disruptive behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 191–213.
Grusec, J. E., & Goodnow, J. J. (1994). Impact of parental discipline methods on the child's internalization of values: A reconceptualization of current points of view. Developmental Psychology, 30, 4–19.
Hamlin, J. K., Wynn, K., & Bloom, P. (2007). Social evaluation by preverbal infants. Nature, 450, 557–559.
Hoffman, M. L. (1983). Affective and cognitive processes in moral internalization. In Higgins, E. T., Ruble, D. & Hartup, W. W. (Eds.), Social cognition and social development (pp. 236–274). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Holden, G. W. (2002). Perspectives on the effects of corporal punishment: Comment on Gershoff (2002). Psychological Bulletin, 128, 590–595.
Holden, G. W., & Edwards, L. A. (1989). Parental attitudes toward child rearing: Instruments, issues, and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 29–58.
Johnson, S. C., Dweck, C. S., & Chen, F. S. (2007). Evidence for infants' internal working models of attachment. Psychological Science, 18, 501–502.
Johnson, S. C., Dweck, C. S., Chen, F. S., Stern, H. L., Ok, S. J., & Barth, M. (2010). At the intersection of social and cognitive development: Internal working models of attachment in infancy. Cognitive Science, 34, 807–825.
Kerns, K. A., Aspelmeier, J. E., Gentzler, A. L., & Grabill, C. M. (2001). Parent–child attachment and monitoring in middle childhood. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 69–81.
Kim, S., & Kochanska, G. (in press). Child temperament moderates effects of parent–child mutuality on self-regulation: A relationship-based path for emotionally negative infants. Child Development.
Kobak, R., Cassidy, J., Lyons-Ruth, K., & Ziv, Y. (2006). Attachment, stress, and psychopathology: A developmental pathways model. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 1. Theory and method (2nd ed., pp. 333–369). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Kochanska, G. (1995). Children's temperament, mothers' discipline, and security of attachment: Multiple pathways to emerging internalization. Child Development, 66, 597–615.
Kochanska, G., Aksan, N., Knaack, A., & Rhines, H. M. (2004). Maternal parenting and children's conscience: Early security as moderator. Child Development, 75, 1229–1242.
Kochanska, G., Barry, R. A., Stellern, S. A., & O'Bleness, J. J. (2009). Early attachment organization moderates the parent–child mutually coercive pathway to children's antisocial conduct. Child Development, 80, 1297–1309.
Kochanska, G., Kim, S., Barry, R. A., & Philibert, R. A. (2011). Children's genotypes interact with maternal responsive care in predicting children's competence: Diathesis–stress or differential susceptibility? Development and Psychopathology, 23, 605–616.
Kochanska, G., Philibert, R. A., & Barry, R. A. (2009). Interplay of genes and early mother–child relationship in the development of self-regulation from toddler to preschool age. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 1331–1338.
Kochanska, G., Woodard, J., Kim, S., Koenig, J. L., Yoon, J. E., & Barry, R. A. (2010). Positive socialization mechanisms in secure and insecure parent–child dyads: Two longitudinal studies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 998–1009.
Lahey, B. J., Van Hulle, C. A., Keenan, K., Rathouz, P. J., D'Onofrio, B. M., Rodgers, J. L., et al. (2008). Temperament and parenting during the first year of life predict future child conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 1139–1158.
Lytton, H. (1990). Child and parent effects in boys' conduct disorder: A reinterpretation. Developmental Psychology, 26, 683–697.
Maccoby, E. (1992). The role of parents in the socialization of children: An historical overview. Developmental Psychology, 28, 1006–1017.
Maccoby, E. E. (1983). Let's not overattribute to the attribution process: Comments on social cognition and behavior. In Higgins, E. T., Ruble, D. & Hartup, W. (Eds.), Social cognition and social development: A sociocultural perspective (pp. 356–370). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In Hetherington, E. M. (Ed.) & Mussen, P. H. (Series Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (pp. 1–101). New York: Wiley.
Macfie, J., Toth, S. L., Rogosch, F. A., Robinson, J., Emde, R. N., & Cicchetti, D. (1999). Effect of maltreatment on preschoolers narrative representations of responses to relieve distress and of role reversal. Developmental Psychology, 35, 460–465.
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7, 83–104.
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 99–128.
Main, M., Kaplan, N., & Cassidy, J. (1985). Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50(1–2, Serial No. 209), 66–104.
Marsh, P., McFarland, F. C., Allen, J. P., Boykin McElhaney, K., & Land, D. (2003). Attachment, autonomy, and multifinality in adolescent internalizing and risky behavior symptoms. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 451–467.
Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 491–495.
McMahon, R. J., & Forehand, R. L. (2003). Helping the noncompliant child: Family-based treatment for oppositional behavior. New York: Guilford Press.
Moss, E., Smolla, N., Cyr, C., Dubois-Comtois, K., Mazzarello, T., & Berthiaume, C. (2006). Attachment and behavior problems in middle childhood as reported by adult and child informants. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 425–444.
Muller, D., Judd, C. M., & Yzerbyt, V. Y. (2005). When moderation is mediated and mediation is moderated. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 852–863.
Pardini, D. A. (2008). Novel insights into longstanding theories of bidirectional parent–child influences: Introduction to the special section. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 627–631.
Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 185–227.
Richters, J. E., & Waters, E. (1991). Attachment and socialization: The positive side of social influence. In Lewis, M. & Feinman, S. (Eds.), Social influences and socialization in infancy (pp. 185–213). New York: Plenum Press.
Sanson, A., Hemphill, S. A., & Smart, D. (2004). Connections between temperament and social development: A review. Social Development, 13, 142–170.
Shaw, D. S., Owens, E. B., Vondra, J. I., Keenan, K., & Winslow, E. B. (1996) Early risk factors and pathways in the development of early disruptive behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 679–699.
Shrout, P., & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 420–428.
Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7, 422–445.
Slade, A. (2005). Parental reflective functioning: An introduction. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 269–281.
Sprafkin, J., Gadow, K. D., Salisbury, H., Schneider, J., & Loney, J. (2002). Further evidence of reliability and validity of the Child Symptom Inventory—4: Parent checklist in clinically referred boys. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 513–524.
Sroufe, L. A. (2005). Attachment and development: A prospective, longitudinal study from birth to adulthood. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 349–367.
Sroufe, L. A., Carlson, E. A., Levy, A. K., & Egeland, B. (1999). Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 1–13.
Stupica, B., Sherman, L. J., & Cassidy, J. (2011). Newborn irritability moderates the association between infant attachment security and toddler exploration and sociability. Child Development, 82, 1381–1389.
Suchman, N. E., DeCoste, C., Castiglioni, N., McMahon, T. J., Rounsaville, B., & Mayes, L. (2010). The Mothers and Toddlers Program, an attachment-based parenting intervention for substance using women: Post-treatment results from a randomized clinical pilot. Attachment & Human Development, 12, 483–504.
Thompson, R. A. (2006). The development of the person: Social understanding, relationships, conscience, self. In Damon, W. & Lerner, R. M. (Series Eds.) & Eisenberg, N. (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology. Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 24–98). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Thompson, R. A. (2008). Early attachment and later development: Familiar questions, new answers. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed, pp. 348– 365). New York: Guilford Press.
Toth, S. L., Cicchetti, D., & Kim, J. (2002). Relations among children's perceptions of maternal behavior, attributional styles, and behavioral symptomatology in maltreated children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 487–500.
Toth, S. L., Maughan, A., Manly, J. T., Spagnola, M., & Cicchetti, D. (2002). The relative efficacy of two interventions in altering maltreated preschool children's representational models: Implications for attachment theory. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 877–908.
van IJzendoorn, M. H. (1995). Adult attachment representations, parental responsiveness, and infant attachment—A meta-analysis on the predictive validity of the Adult Attachment Interview. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 387–403.
van IJzendoorn, M. H. (1997). Attachment, emergent morality, and aggression: Toward a developmental socioemotional model of antisocial behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 21, 703–727.
Vittrup, B., & Holden, G. W. (2010). Children's assessments of corporal punishment and other disciplinary practices: The role of age, race, SES, and exposure to spanking. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31, 211–220.
Waters, E., Kondo-Ikemura, K., Posada, G., & Richters, J. E. (1990). Learning to love: Mechanisms and milestones. In Gunnar, M. & Sroufe, L. A. (Eds.), Minnesota symposia on child psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 217–255). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Waters, E., Posada, G., Crowell, J., & Lay, K. L. (1993). Is attachment theory ready to contribute to our understanding of disruptive behavior problems? Development and Psychopathology, 5, 215–224.