Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-x64cq Total loading time: 0.394 Render date: 2022-05-23T15:28:41.011Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Public Health Workers After the 2004 Florida Hurricanes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 April 2013

Abstract

Objective

We examined the relationship of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and increased alcohol and/or tobacco use to disaster exposure and work demand in Florida Department of Health workers after the 2004 hurricanes.

Methods

Participants (N = 2249) completed electronic questionnaires assessing PTSD, depression, alcohol and tobacco use, hurricane exposure, and work demand.

Results

Total mental and behavioral health burden (probable PTSD, probable depression, increased alcohol and/or tobacco use) was 11%. More than 4% had probable PTSD, and 3.8% had probable depression. Among those with probable PTSD, 29.2% had increased alcohol use, and 50% had increased tobacco use. Among those with probable depression, 34% indicated increased alcohol use and 55.6% increased tobacco use. Workers with greater exposure were more likely to have probable PTSD and probable depression (ORs = 3.3 and 3.06, respectively). After adjusting for demographics and work demand, those with high exposure were more likely to have probable PTSD and probable depression (ORs = 3.21 and 3.13). Those with high exposure had increased alcohol and tobacco use (ORs = 3.01 and 3.40), and those with high work demand indicated increased alcohol and tobacco use (ORs = 1.98 and 2.10). High exposure and work demand predicted increased alcohol and tobacco use, after adjusting for demographics, work demand, and exposure.

Conclusions

Work-related disaster mental and behavioral health burden indicate the need for additional mental health interventions in the public health disaster workforce.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;7:89-95)

Type
Original Research
Copyright
Copyright © Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc. 2013

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1.Acierno, R, Ruggiero, K, Galea, S, etal. Psychological sequelae resulting from the 2004 Florida hurricanes: implications for postdisaster intervention. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(suppl 1):S103-S108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2. 2004 Atlantic Hurricane Season. Miami, FL: National Hurricane Center. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/2004atlan.shtml. Accessed February 16, 2009.Google Scholar
3. 2004 Hurricanes lead record disaster year for FEMA. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency; January 5, 2005. http://www.fema.gov/news/newsrelease.fema?id=15967. Accessed January 9, 2005.Google Scholar
4.Benedek, DM, Fullerton, CS, Ursano, RJ. First responders: mental health consequences of natural and human-made disasters for public health and public safety workers. Annual Rev Public Health. 2007;28: 55-68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5.Bills, CB, Levy, NAS, Sharma, V, etal. Mental health of workers and volunteers responding to events of 9/11: review of the literature. Mount Sinai J Med. 2008;75: 115-127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6.Berger, W, Coutinho, ES, Figueira, I, etal. Rescuers at risk: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of the worldwide current prevalence and correlates of PTSD in rescue workers. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012;47(6):1001-1111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7.Perrin, MA, DiGrande, L, Wheeler, K, etal. Differences in PTSD prevalence and associated risk factors among world trade center disaster rescue and recovery workers. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164: 1385-1394.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8.Fullerton, CS, McCarroll, JE, Ursano, RJ, etal. Psychological responses of rescue workers: fire fighters and trauma. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1992;62: 371-378.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9.McCarroll, JE, Fullerton, CS, Ursano, RJ, etal. Posttraumatic stress symptoms following forensic dental identification: Mt. Carmel, Waco, Texas. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153(6):778-782.Google ScholarPubMed
10.North, CS, Tivis, L, McMillen, JC, etal. Psychiatric disorders in rescue workers after the Oklahoma City bombing. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159: 857-859.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11.Ward, CL, Lombard, CJ, Gwebushe, N. Critical incident exposure in South African emergency services personnel: prevalence and associated mental health issues. Emerg Med J. 2006;23(3):226-231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
12.Tak, S, Discoll, R, Bernard, B. Depressive symptoms among firefighters and related factors after the response to Hurricane Katrina. J Urban Health. 2007;84(2):153-161.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13.Stellman, JM, Smith, RP, Katz, CL, etal. Enduring mental health morbidity and social function impairment in world trade center rescue, recovery, and cleanup workers: the psychological dimension of an environmental health disaster. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116(9):1248-1253.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14.Van der Velden, PG, Kleber, RJ, Koenen, KC. Smoking predicts posttraumatic stress symptoms among rescue workers: a prospective disaster study of ambulance personnel. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;94: 267-271.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15.Bars, MP, Banauch, GI, Appel, D, etal. Tobacco free with FDNY: the New York City fire department world trade center tobacco cessation study. Chest. 2006;129: 979-987.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16.Weathers, F, Ford, J. Psychometric review of PTSD checklist (PCL-C, PCL-S, PCL-M, PCL-PR). In: Stamm BH, ed. Measurement of Stress, Trauma, and Adaptation. Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press; 1996: 250-251.Google Scholar
17.Lang, AJ, Laffaye, C, Satz, etal. Sensitivity and specificity of the PTSD checklist in detecting PTSD in female veterans in primary care. J Trauma Stress. 2003;16(3):257-264.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
18.Walker, EA, Newman, E, Dobie, DJ, etal. Validation of the PTSD checklist in an HMO sample of women. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2002;24: 375-380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
19.Spitzer, RL, Kroenke, K, Williams, JBW. Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ Primary Care Study. JAMA. 1999;282(18):1737-1744.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20.Kroenke, K, Spitzer, RL, Williams, JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16(9):606-613.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
21.Spitzer, RL, Williams, JBW, Kroenke, K, etal. Validity and utility of the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire in the assessment of 3000 obstetric-gynecological patients: the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire Obstetrics-Gynecology Study. Am J Obstetrics Gynecol. 2000;183(3):759-769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
22.Grieger, TA, Fullerton, CS, Ursano, RJ. Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol use, and perceived safety after the terrorist attack on the pentagon. Psychiatr Serv. 2003;54: 1380-1382.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23.Biggs, QM, Fullerton, CS, Reeves, JJ, etal. Acute stress disorder, depression and tobacco use in disaster workers following 9/11. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2010;80(4):586-592.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
24.Hosmer, DW, Lemeshow, S. Goodness of fit tests for the multiple logistic regression model. Commun Stat Theory Methods. 1980;A9(10):1043-1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25.SPSS for Windows: Release 16.0.2. Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc; 2008.Google Scholar
26.Stata Statistical Software: Release 9. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP; 2005.Google Scholar
27.Kessler, RC, Chiu, WT, Demler, O, Merikangas, KR, Walters, EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62: 617-627.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
28.Kessler, RC, Barker, PR, Colpe, LJ, etal. Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60: 184-189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
29.Kessler, RC, Ormel, J, Petukhova, M, etal. Development of lifetime comorbidity in the world health organization world mental health surveys. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(1):90-100.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Public Health Workers After the 2004 Florida Hurricanes
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Public Health Workers After the 2004 Florida Hurricanes
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Public Health Workers After the 2004 Florida Hurricanes
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *