2. Hick, JL, Barbera, JA, Kelen, GD. Refining surge capacity: conventional, contingency, and crisis capacity. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3(suppl 1):S59-67.
3. Yi, P, George, SK, Paul, JA, et al. Hospital capacity planning for disaster emergency management. Socioecon Plann Sci. 2010;44:151-160.
4. Jacobson, EU, Argon, NT, Ziya, S. Priority assignment in emergency response. Oper Res. 2012;60:813-832.
5. Comfort, LK. Coordination in rapidly evolving disaster response systems: the role of information. Am Behav Sci. 2004;48:295-313.
7. Aylwin, CJ, König, TC, Brennan, NW, et al. Reduction in critical mortality in urban mass casualty incidents: analysis of triage, surge, and resource use after the London bombings on July 7, 2005. Lancet Lond Engl. 2006;368:2219-2225.
8. Lin, L, Cochran, JK. Metamodels of production line transient behaviour for sudden machine breakdowns. Int J Prod Res. 1990;28:1791-1806.
9. Stolletz, R, Lagershausen, S. Time-dependent performance evaluation for loss-waiting queues with arbitrary distributions. Int J Prod Res. 2013;51:1366-1378.
10. TariVerdi, M, Miller-Hooks, E, Kirsch, TD, et al. A Resource-Constrained, Whole-Hospital Modeling Framework for Evaluating Operational Strategies Under Routine and Surge Demand Scenarios. In review.
11. Whyme, D, Notobartolo, C, Sasenick, D, et al. Multiple interviews on hospital design, operation, and resource management. 2015.
13. Critical Illness & Trauma Foundation, Inc., Bozeman, Montana. http://citmt.org/index2.htm. Published 2016. Accessed January 24, 2017.
14. Paul, JA, George, SK, Yi, P, et al. Transient modeling in simulation of hospital operations for emergency response. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2006;21:223-236.
15. Durkins, ME. Fatalities, nonfatal injuries, and medical aspects of the Northridge Earthquake. In Woods MC, Seiple WR, eds. The Northridge, California Earthquake of 17 January 1994. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology; Special Publication 1996:187-213.
17. Kelen, GD, McCarthy, ML, Kraus, CK, et al. Creation of surge capacity by early discharge of hospitalized patients at low risk for untoward events. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3:S10-S16.
18. Armony, M, Israelit, S, Mandelbaum, A, et al. On patient flow in hospitals: a data-based queueing-science perspective. Stoch Syst. 2015;5:146-194.
20. Khare, RK, Powell, ES, Reinhardt, G, et al. Adding more beds to the emergency department or reducing admitted patient boarding times: which has a more significant influence on emergency department congestion? Ann Emerg Med. 2009;53:575-585.
21. Klein, MG, Reinhardt, G. Emergency department patient flow simulations using spreadsheets. Simul Healthc 2012;7:40-47.
22. Hsia, RY, Asch, SM, Weiss, RE, et al. Hospital determinants of emergency department left without being seen rates. Ann Emerg Med. 2011;58:24-32.e3.
24. Hawkins, RC. Laboratory turnaround time. Clin Biochem Rev. 2007;28:179-194.
25. Gunn, AJ, Mangano, MD, Pugmire, BS, et al. Toward improved radiology reporting practices in the emergency department: a survey of emergency department physicians. J Radiol Radiat Ther. 2013;1(2):1013.
27. Hurwitz, JE, Lee, JA, Lopiano, KK, et al. A flexible simulation platform to quantify and manage emergency department crowding. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2014;14:50.
28. Shi, P, Chou, MC, Dai, JG, et al. Models and insights for hospital inpatient operations: time-dependent ED boarding time. Manag Sci. 2015;62:1-28.
29. Barbagallo, S, Corradi, L, de Ville de Goyet, J, et al. Optimization and planning of operating theatre activities: an original definition of pathways and process modeling. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2015;15:38.
30. QuickStats: Death Rate* From Complications of Medical and Surgical Care Among Adults Aged ≥45 Years, by Age Group — United States, 1999–2009. US Center for Disease Control website. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6137a6.htm. Published 2012. Accessed December 22, 2016.
32. Waddle, JP, Evers, AS, Piccirillo, JF. Postanesthesia care unit length of stay: quantifying and assessing dependent factors. Anesth Analg. 1998;87:628-633.
33. Bhattacharjee, P, Ray, PK. Patient flow modelling and performance analysis of healthcare delivery processes in hospitals: a review and reflections. Comput Ind Eng. 2014;78:299-312.
34. Kirchheimer, B. Full house: after years of decline, inpatient admissions are rising, pushing new construction. Mod Healthc. 2001;31:28-31.