Skip to main content
×
×
Home

THE LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF RACIAL/ETHNIC INEQUALITY IN NEIGHBORHOOD AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURE, 1990-2009

  • Nicole Kravitz-Wirtz (a1), Kyle Crowder (a2), Anjum Hajat (a3) and Victoria Sass (a4)
Abstract

Research examining racial/ethnic disparities in pollution exposure often relies on cross-sectional data. These analyses are largely insensitive to exposure trends and rarely account for broader contextual dynamics. To provide a more comprehensive assessment of racial-environmental inequality over time, we combine the 1990 to 2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) with spatially- and temporally-resolved measures of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) in respondents’ neighborhoods, as well as census data on the characteristics of respondents’ metropolitan areas. Results based on multilevel repeated measures models indicate that Blacks and Latinos are, on average, more likely to be exposed to higher levels of NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 than Whites. Despite nationwide declines in levels of pollution over time, racial and ethnic disparities persist and cannot be fully explained by individual-, household-, or metropolitan-level factors.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      THE LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF RACIAL/ETHNIC INEQUALITY IN NEIGHBORHOOD AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURE, 1990-2009
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      THE LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF RACIAL/ETHNIC INEQUALITY IN NEIGHBORHOOD AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURE, 1990-2009
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      THE LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF RACIAL/ETHNIC INEQUALITY IN NEIGHBORHOOD AIR POLLUTION EXPOSURE, 1990-2009
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Nicole Kravitz-Wirtz, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 426 Thompson Street, Rm. 2072, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. E-mail: nicolekw@umich.edu
References
Hide All
Anderton, Douglas L., Anderson, Andy B., Oakes, John M., and Fraser, Michael R. (1994). Environmental Equity: The Demographics of Dumping. Demography, 31(2): 229248.
Ard, Kerry (2015). Trends in Exposure to Industrial Air Toxins for Different Racial and Socioeconomic Groups: A Spatial and Temporal Examination of Environmental Inequality in the U.S. from 1995 to 2004. Social Science Research, 53: 375390.
Ash, Michael, and Fetter, Robert T. (2004). Who Lives on the Wrong Side of the Environmental Tracks? Evidence from the EPA’s Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators Model. Social Science Quarterly, 85(2): 441462.
Barakat-Haddad, Caroline, Elliott, Susan J., and Pengelly, David (2012). Does Chronic Exposure to Air Pollution in Childhood Impact Long-Term Respiratory Health? The Professional Geographer, 64(3): 446463.
Brown, P. (1995). Race, Class, and Environemental Health–A Review and Systematization of the Literature. Environmental Research, 69(1): 1530.
Bullard, Robert D., Mohai, Paul, Saha, Robin, and Wright, Beverly (2008). Toxic Wastes and Race at Twenty: Why Race Still Matters After All of These Years. Envtl. L., 38: 371.
Commission for Racial Justice (1987). Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States: A National Report on the Racial and Socio-economic Characteristics of Communities with Hazardous Waste Sites. New York: United Church of Christ.
Crowder, K., and Downey, L. (2010). Inter-neighborhood Migration, Race, and Environmental Hazards: Modeling Micro-level Processes of Environmental Inequality. American Journal of Sociology, 115(4): 1110.
Delfino, Ralph J., Chang, Joyce, Wu, Jun, Ren, Cizao, Tjoa, Thomas, Nickerson, Bruce, Cooper, Dan, and Gillen, Daniel L. (2009). Repeated Hospital Encounters for Asthma in Children and Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution Near the Home. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 102(2): 138144.
Diez Roux, Ana V., Auchincloss, Amy H., Franklin, Tracy G., Raghunathan, Trivellore, Barr, Graham R., Kaufman, Joel, Astor, Brad, and Keeler, Jerry (2008). Long-term Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter and Prevalence of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167(6): 667675.
Downey, Liam (2005). The Unintended Significance of Race: Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit. Social Forces, 83(3): 9711007.
Downey, Liam (2006). Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit. Social Forces, 85(2): 771796.
Downey, Liam, and Van Willigen, Marieke (2005). Environmental Stressors: The Mental Health Impacts of Living Near Industrial Activity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(3): 289305.
Evans, Gary W., and Kantrowitz, Elyse (2002). Socioeconomic Status and Health: The Potential Role of Environmental Risk Exposure. Annual Review of Public Health, 23(1): 303331.
Farley, Reynolds, Danziger, Sheldon, and Holzer, Harry J. (2000). Detroit Divided. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Geolytics. (2012). Neighborhood Change Database, 1970-2010. <http://www.geolytics.com/USCensus,Neighborhood-Change-Database-1970-2000,Products.asp> (last accessed on June 23, 2016).
Institute of Medicine, Committee on Environmental Justice (1999). Toward Environmental Justice: Research, Education, and Health Policy Needs. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Jacquez, Geoffrey M., Sabel, Clive E., and Shi, Chen (2015). Genetic GIScience: Toward a Place-Based Synthesis of the Genome, Exposome, and Behavome. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 105(3): 454472.
Michael, Jerrett, Burnett, Richard T., Pope, Arden C., Ito, Kazuhiko, Thurston, George, Krewski, Daniel, Shi, Yuanli, Calle, Eugenia, and Thun, Michael (2009). Long-Term Ozone Exposure and Mortality. New England Journal of Medicine, 360(11): 10851095.
Kampa, Marilena, and Castanas, Elias (2008). Human Health Effects of Air Pollution. Environmental Pollution, 151(2): 362367.
Liao, Duanping, Heiss, Gerardo, Chinchilli, Vernon M., Duan, Yinkang, Folsom, Aaron R., Lin, Hung-Mo, and Salomaa, Veikko (2004). Association of Criteria Pollutants with Plasma Hemostatic//Inflammatory Markers: A Population-Based Study. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 15(4): 319328.
Liu, Feng (2001). Environmental Justice Analysis: Theories, Methods, and Practice. Washington, DC: Lewis Publishers.
Maantay, Juliana (2001). Zoning, Equity, and Public Health. American Journal of Public Health, 91(7): 10331041.
Massey, Douglas S., and Denton, Nancy A. (1993). American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Miller, Kristin A., Siscovick, David S., Sheppard, Lianne, Shepherd, Kristen, Sullivan, Jeffrey H., Anderson, Garnet L., and Kaufman, Joel D. (2007). Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Incidence of Cardiovascular Events in Women. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(5): 447458.
Mohai, Paul, and Bryant, Bunyan (1992). Environmental Racism: Reviewing the Evidence. In Bryant, Bunyan and Mohai, Paul (Eds.), Race and the Incidence of Environmental Hazards: A Time for Discourse, pp. 163176. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Mohai, Paul, Pellow, David, and Roberts, J. T. (2009). Environmental Justice. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 34(1): 405430.
Morello-Frosch, Rachel, Pastor, Manuel, and Sadd, James (2001). Environmental Justice and Southern California’s ‘Riskscape’: The Distribution of Air Toxics Exposures and Health Risks Among Diverse Communities. Urban Affairs Review, 36(4): 551578.
Morello-Frosch, Rachel A. (2002). Discrimination and the Political Economy of Environmental Inequality. Environment and Planning C: Government & Policy, 20(4): 477496.
Pais, Jeremy, Crowder, Kyle, and Downey, Liam (2014). Unequal Trajectories: Racial and Class Differences in Residential Exposure to Industrial Hazard. Social Forces, 92(3): 11891215.
Pastor, Manuel Jr., Sadd, James L., and Morello-Frosch, Rachel (2002). Who’s Minding the Kids? Pollution, Public Schools, and Environmental Justice in Los Angeles. Social Science Quarterly, 83(1): 263280.
Pastor, Manuel Jr., Sadd, James L., and Morello-Frosch, Rachel (2004). Reading, Writing, and Toxics: Children’s Health, Academic Performance, and Environmental Justice in Los Angeles. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 22(2): 271290.
Payne-Sturges, Devon, and Gee, Gilbert C. (2006). National Environmental Health Measures for Minority and Low-income Populations: Tracking Social Disparities in Environmental Health. Environmental Research, 102(2): 154171.
Peterson, Ruth D., and Krivo, Lauren J. (2010). Divergent Social Worlds: Neighborhood Crime and the Racial-Spatial Divide. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Reardon, Sean F., and Firebaugh, Glenn (2002). Measures of Multigroup Segregation. Sociological Methodology, 32(1): 3367.
Ringquist, Evan J. (2005). Assessing Evidence of Environmental Inequities: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 24(2): 223247.
Ross, Catherine E., Reynolds, John R., and Geis, Karlyn J. (2000). The Contingent Meaning of Neighborhood Stability for Residents’ Psychological Well-being. American Sociological Review, 65(4): 581597.
Sadd, James L., Pastor, Manuel Jr., Boer, Thomas J., and Snyder, Lori D. (1999). ‘Every Breath You Take...’: The Demographics of Toxic Air Releases in Southern California. Economic Development Quarterly, 13(2): 107123.
Sampson, Paul D., Szpiro, Adam A., Sheppard, Lianne, Lindström, Johan, and Kaufman, Joel D. (2011). Pragmatic Estimation of a Spatio-temporal Air Quality Model with Irregular Monitoring Data. Atmospheric Environment, 45(36): 65936606.
Soobader, M., Cubbin, C., Gee, G. C., Rosenbaum, A., and Laurenson, J. (2006). Levels of Analysis for the Study of Environmental Health Disparities. Environmental Research, 102(2): 172180.
Szasz, Andrew, and Meuser, Michael (1997). Environmental Inequalities: Literature Review and Proposals for New Directions in Research and Theory. Current Sociology, 45(3): 99120.
Whitsel, Eric A., Quibrera, Miguel P., Christ, Sharon L., Liao, Duanping, Prineas, Ronald J., Anderson, Garnet L., and Heiss, Geraldo (2009). Heart Rate Variability, Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution, and Glucose Homeostasis: The Environmental Epidemiology of Arrhythmogenesis in the Women’s Health Initiative. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169(6): 693703.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race
  • ISSN: 1742-058X
  • EISSN: 1742-0598
  • URL: /core/journals/du-bois-review-social-science-research-on-race
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed