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  • Nicole Kravitz-Wirtz (a1), Kyle Crowder (a2), Anjum Hajat (a3) and Victoria Sass (a4)

Research examining racial/ethnic disparities in pollution exposure often relies on cross-sectional data. These analyses are largely insensitive to exposure trends and rarely account for broader contextual dynamics. To provide a more comprehensive assessment of racial-environmental inequality over time, we combine the 1990 to 2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) with spatially- and temporally-resolved measures of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) in respondents’ neighborhoods, as well as census data on the characteristics of respondents’ metropolitan areas. Results based on multilevel repeated measures models indicate that Blacks and Latinos are, on average, more likely to be exposed to higher levels of NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 than Whites. Despite nationwide declines in levels of pollution over time, racial and ethnic disparities persist and cannot be fully explained by individual-, household-, or metropolitan-level factors.

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Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Nicole Kravitz-Wirtz, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 426 Thompson Street, Rm. 2072, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. E-mail:
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Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race
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  • EISSN: 1742-0598
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