Skip to main content
×
Home

Reconciling conflict between the direct and indirect effects of marine reserve protection

  • NICK T. SHEARS (a1), DAVID J. KUSHNER (a2), STEPHEN L. KATZ (a3) and STEVEN D. GAINES (a4)
Summary
SUMMARY

No-take marine reserves directly promote the recovery of predatory species, which can have negative indirect effects on prey populations in reserves. When harvesting also occurs on prey species there is potential conflict between the direct and indirect effects of protection, and reserves may not have conservation benefits for prey species. For example, sea urchins are fished in many regions, but may decline in reserves due to increased predation rates. To investigate this potential conflict, this paper compares density, size, biomass and reproductive potential of both a harvested and an unharvested urchin species between a long-term reserve and unprotected sites in California. Consistent with density-mediated indirect interactions, densities of the unharvested species were 3.4-times higher at unprotected sites compared to reserve sites. However, for the harvested species, densities were comparable between reserve and unprotected sites. Both species were consistently larger at reserve sites, and the biomass and reproductive potential of the harvested species was 4.8- and 7.0-times higher, respectively, than at unprotected sites. This is likely due to differences in size-selectivity between harvesting and predators, and potential compensatory effects of predators. While the generality of these effects needs to be tested, these results suggest mechanisms whereby reserves can benefit both predator and prey species.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Correspondence: Dr Nick Shears, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand e-mail: n.shears@auckland.ac.nz
References
Hide All
Andrew N.L., Agatsuma Y., Ballesteros E., Bazhin A.G., Creaser E.P., Barnes D.K.A., Botsford L.W., Bradbury A., Campbell A., Dixon J.D., Einarsson S., Gerring P.K., Hebert K., Hunter M., Hur S.B., Johnson C.R., Juinio-Menez M.A., Kalvass P., Miller R.J., Moreno C.A., Palleiro J.S., Rivas D., Robinson S.M.L., Schroeter S. C., Steneck R.S., Vadas R.L., Woodby D.A. & Xiaoqi Z. (2002) Status and management of world sea urchin fisheries. Oceanography and Marine Biology 40: 343425.
Babcock R.C., Shears N.T., Alcala A.C., Barrett N.S., Edgar G.J., Lafferty K.D., McClanahan T.R. & Russ G.R. (2010) Decadal trends in marine reserves reveal differential rates of change in direct and indirect effects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107: 1825618261.
Barrett N.S., Buxton C.D. & Edgar G.J. (2009) Changes in invertebrate and macroalgal populations in Tasmanian marine reserves in the decade following protection. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 370: 104119.
Behrens M.D. & Lafferty K.D. (2004) Effects of marine reserves and urchin disease on southern Californian rocky reef communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series 279: 129139.
Botsford L.W., Morgan L.E., Lockwood D.R. & Wilen J.E. (1999) Marine reserves and management of the northern California red sea urchin fishery. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 40: 8793.
CDFG (2006) Review of some California fisheries for 2005: coastal pelagic finfish, market squid, Dungeness crab, sea urchin, abalone, Kellet's whelk, groundfish, highly migratory species, ocean salmon, nearshore live-fish, pacific herring, and white seabass. CALCOFI Reports 47: 929 [www document]. URL http://www.calcofi.org/publications/calcofireports/v47/calcofi_Rpt_Vol_47_2006.pdf
CDFG (2008) California Department of Fish and Game, Marine Region. Master plan for marine protected areas, revised draft January 2008. California Marine Life Protection Act California, Sacramento, CA, USA [www document]. URL http://www.dfg.ca.gov/mlpa/pdfs/revisedmp0108.pdf
Cole R.G. & Keuskamp D. (1998) Indirect effects of protection from exploitation: patterns from populations of Evechinus chloroticus (Echinoidea) in northeastern New Zealand. Marine Ecology Progress Series 173: 215226.
Davis G.E., Kushner D.J., Mondragon J.M., Mondragon J.E., Lerma D. & Richards D.V. (1997) Kelp forest monitoring handbook, Volume 1: Sampling protocol. 96 pp. [www document]. URL http://knb.ecoinformatics.org/knb/metacat/bowdish.217.3/nceas
Dayton P.K., Tegner M.J., Edwards P.B. & Riser K.L. (1998) Sliding baselines, ghosts, and reduced expectations in kelp forest communities. Ecological Applications 8: 309322.
Ebert T.A. (2008) Longevity and lack of senescence in the red sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus . Experimental Gerontology 43: 734738.
Estes J.A. & Duggins D.O. (1995) Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation in a community ecological paradigm. Ecological Monographs 65: 75100.
Freeman A. (2006) Size-dependent trait-mediated indirect interactions among sea urchin herbivores. Behavioral Ecology 17 (2): 182.
Gaines S.D., White C., Carr M.H. & Palumbi S.R. (2010) Designing marine reserve networks for both conservation and fisheries management. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107: 1825118255.
Gerber L.R., Keller A.C. & DeMaster D.P. (2007) Ten thousand and increasing: is the western Arctic population of bowhead whale endangered? Biological Conservation 137: 577583.
Graham N.A.J., Evans R.D. & Russ G.R. (2003) The effects of marine reserve protection on the trophic relationships of reef fishes on the Great Barrier Reef. Environmental Conservation 30: 200208.
Guidetti P. (2006) Marine reserves reestablish lost predatory interactions and cause community changes in rocky reefs. Ecological Applications 16: 963976.
Guidetti P., Terlizzi A. & Boero F. (2004) Effects of the edible sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, fishery along the Apulian rocky coast (SE Italy, Mediterranean Sea). Fisheries Research 66: 287297.
Halpern B.S., Gaines S.D. & Warner R.R. (2004) Confounding effects of the export of production and the displacement of fishing effort from marine reserves. Ecological Applications 14: 12481256.
Hamilton S.L., Caselle J.E., Malone D.P. & Carr M.H. (2010) Incorporating biogeography into evaluations of the Channel Islands marine reserve network. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107: 1827218277.
Hamilton S.L., Caselle J.E., Lantz C.A., Egglof T. & Kondo E. (2011) Extensive geographic and ontogenetic variation characterizes the trophic ecology of a temperate reef fish on southern California rocky reefs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 429: 227244.
Harrold C. & Reed D.C. (1985) Food availability, sea urchin grazing, and kelp forest community structure. Ecology 66: 11601169.
Lafferty K.D. (2004) Fishing for lobsters indirectly increases epidemics in sea urchins. Ecological Applications 14: 15661573.
Lafferty K.D. & Behrens M.D. (2005) Temporal variation in the state of rocky reefs: does fishing increase the vulnerability of kelp forest to disturbance? In. Proceedings of the Sixth California Islands Symposium, Ventura, California, December 1–3, 2003. National Park Service Technical Publication CHIS-05–01, Institute for Wildlife Studies, Arcata, CA, USA [www document]. URL http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/units/medn/symposia/6th%20California%20Islands%20Symposium%20%282003%29/Marine%20Ecology%20and%20Restoration/Lafferty_Temporal_Variation_Rocky_Reef_Fishing_Disturbance.pdf
Lau D.C.C., Dumont C.P., Lui G. & Qiu J.W. (2011) Effectiveness of a small marine reserve in southern China in protecting the harvested sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina: a mark-and-recapture study. Biological Conservation 144: 26742683.
Leslie H.M. & McLeod K.L. (2007) Confronting the challenges of implementing marine ecosystem-based management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5: 540548.
Levitan D.R. (1991) Influence of body size and population density on fertilization success and reproductive output in a free-spawning invertebrate. The Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole) 181: 261268.
Levitan D.R., Sewell M.A. & Chia F. (1992) How distribution and abundance influence fertilization success in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus . Ecology 73: 248254.
Linnell J.D.C., Swenson J.E. & Anderson R. (2001) Predators and people: conservation of large carnivores is possible at high human densities if management policy is favourable. Animal Conservation 4: 345349.
McClanahan T.R. (2000) Recovery of a coral reef keystone predator, Balistapus undulatus, in East African marine parks. Biological Conservation 94: 191198.
Micheli F., Halpern B.S., Botsford L.W. & Warner R.R. (2004) Trajectories and correlates of community change in no-take marine reserves. Ecological Applications 14: 17091723.
Mumby P.J., Dahlgren C.P., Harborne A.R., Kappel C.V., Micheli F., Brumbaugh D.R., Holmes K.E., Mendes J.M., Broad K. & Sanchirico J.N. (2006) Fishing, trophic cascades, and the process of grazing on coral reefs. Science 311: 98101.
Pais A., Chessa L.A., Serra S., Ruiu A., Meloni G. & Donno Y. (2007) The impact of commercial and recreational harvesting for Paracentrotus lividus on shallow rocky reef sea urchin communities in North-western Sardinia, Italy. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 73: 589597.
Pauly D., Christensen V., Dalsgaard J., Froese R. & Torres F.J. (1998) Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279: 860863.
Pederson H.G., Barrett N.S., Frusher S.D. & Buxton C.D. (2008) Effect of predator-prey and competitive interactions on size at emergence in the black-lip abalone Haliotis rubra in a Tasmanian MPA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 366: 9198.
Reed D.C., Raimondi P.T., Carr M.H. & Goldwasser L. (2000) The role of dispersal and disturbance in determining spatial heterogeneity in sedentary organisms. Ecology 81 (7): 20112026.
Ripple W.J. & Beschta R.L. (2004) Wolves and the ecology of fear: can predation risk structure ecosystems? BioScience 54: 755766.
Roemer G.W. & Wayne R.K. (2003) Conservation in conflict: the tale of two endangered species. Conservation Biology 17: 1251.
Rogers-Bennett L. (2007) The ecology of Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. In: Edible Sea Urchins: Biology and Ecology, ed. Lawrence J.M., pp-393425. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier Science BV.
Rogers-Bennett L., Bennett W.A., Fastenau H.C. & Dewees C.M. (1995) Spatial variation in red sea urchin reproduction and morphology: implications for harvest refugia. Ecological Applications 5: 11711180.
Salomon A.K., Gaichas S.K., Shears N.T., Smith J.E., Madin E.M.P. & Gaines S.D. (2010) Fishery-induced trophic cascades: key features and context-dependent effects. Conservation Biology 24: 382394.
Shears N.T. & Babcock R.C. (2003) Continuing trophic cascade effects after 25 years of no-take marine reserve protection. Marine Ecology Progress Series 246: 116.
Shears N.T., Babcock R.C. & Salomon A.K. (2008) Context-dependent effects of fishing: variation in trophic cascades across environmental gradients. Ecological Applications 18: 18601873.
Shears N.T. & Ross P.M. (2010) Toxic cascades: multiple anthropogenic stressors have complex and unanticipated interactive effects on temperate reefs. Ecology Letters 13: 11491159.
Smith B.D., Botsford L.W. & Wing S.R. (1998) Estimation of growth and mortality parameters from size frequency distributions lacking age patterns: the red sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) as an example. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55: 12361247.
Steneck R.S., Graham M.H., Bourque B.J., Corbett D., Erlandson J.M., Estes J.A. & Tegner M.J. (2002) Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future. Environmental Conservation 29: 436459.
Tegner M.J. & Dayton P.K. (1981) Population Structure, recruitment and mortality of two sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and S. purpuratus) in a kelp forest. Marine Ecology Progress Series 5: 255268.
Tegner M.J. & Levin L.A. (1983) Spiny lobsters and sea urchins: analysis of a predator-prey interaction. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 73: 125150.
Tetreault I. & Ambrose R.F. (2007) Temperate marine reserves enhance targeted but not untargeted fishes in multiple no-take MPAs. Ecological Applications 17: 22512267.
Treves A. & Karanth K.U. (2003) Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology 17: 1491.
Tuya F.C., Soboil M.L. & Kido J. (2000) An assessment of the effectiveness of marine protected areas in the San Juan Islands, Washington, USA. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 57: 1218.
Wabakken P., Sand H., Liberg O. & Bjärvall A. (2001) The recovery, distribution, and population dynamics of wolves on the Scandinavian peninsula, 1978–1998. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 710725.
Willis T.J. & Anderson M.J. (2003) Structure of cryptic reef fish assemblages: relationships with habitat characteristics and predator density. Marine Ecology Progress Series 257: 209221.
Wing S.R. (2009) Decadal-scale dynamics of sea urchin population networks in Fiordland, New Zealand are driven by juxtaposition of larval transport against benthic productivity gradients. Marine Ecology Progress Series 378: 125134.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Environmental Conservation
  • ISSN: 0376-8929
  • EISSN: 1469-4387
  • URL: /core/journals/environmental-conservation
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 8
Total number of PDF views: 45 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 164 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.