Skip to main content

The Ecology of Rawa Aopa, a Peat-swamp in Sulawesi, Indonesia

  • Robert Zwahlen (a1)

Rawa Aopa is a large swamp in South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia — the only major peat-swamp in this mainly mountainous island. Its vegetation and fauna are still quite poorly known. The existing information is summarized here. With the creation of new villages as part of Indonesia's transmigration programme, the human population in this area has increased very rapidly. Pressure on natural resources — especially soils and forests — is increasing, and primary forests are dwindling rapidly. This in turn increases the threats to Rawa Aopa, as erosion in its catchment area inevitably leads to a rapid silting up of the swamp. The swamp has a potential as a source of food (fish and sago) and income (rattan and other products), and it might to some degree become a tourist attraction.

From a scientific point of view, the gaps in the knowledge about water-regime, vegetation, and fauna, ought to be remedied. In order to attain sustainable utilization of this area, a thorough plan ought to be made for the whole catchment of Rawa Aopa. The most important measure to take is the protection of the forests covering the hills and the surroundings of the swamp. Also important very widely is the protection of soils. Furthermore, it is recommended to include the northern part of the swamp in the already-existing Rawa Aopa—Watumohai National Park.

Hide All
Anon. (1978). Laporan Survai Inventarisasi Satwa di Rawa Opadan Sekitarnya Sulawesi Tenggara. Direktorat Perlindungan dan Pengawetan Alam, Bogor, Indonesia: 33 pp. (typescript).
Anon. (1983). Inventarisasi flora dan fauna di Rawa Aopa, Sulawesi Tenggara. Sub Balai Perlindungan dan Pelestarian Alam, Sulawesi Tenggara, Indonesia: 32 pp. (typescript).
Anon. (1985 a). Laporan Inventarisasi flora di Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa-Watumohai, Propinsi Sulawesi Tenggara. Proyek Pembinaan Suaka Alam dan Hutan Wisata, Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa-Watumohai 1984–1985, Sulawesi, Indonesia: 45 pp. (typescript).
Anon. (1985 b). Rencana Karya Lima Tahun Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa 1985–1990. Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia: 92 pp. (typescript).
Anon. (1987). Rencana Karya Tahunan Calon Taman Nasional Rawa Aopa Watumohai. Departemen Kehutanan, Kabupaten Kendari, Sulawesi, Indonesia: 29 pp. (typescript, no longer available for checking).
CLU (1989 a). Studi identifikasi perencanaan sistem drainase dataran Wawotobi. (Draft Inception Report.) Citra Lahan Utama, Bandung, Indonesia: (typescript).
CLU (1989 b). Analisis Dampak Lingkungan. (Draft Final Report.) Citra Lahan Utama, Bandung, Indonesia: 133 pp. (typescript).
Corner, E.J.H. (1966). The Natural History of Palms. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, USA: 393 pp., illustr.
Davidson, J. (1987). Strategies for Forest Development in South-East Sulawesi. UNDP/IBRD, Kendari, Sulawesi, Indonesia: 119 pp. (typescript).
DEH (Direktion für Entwicklungszusammenarbeit und humanitaere Hilfe) (1989). Entwicklungszusammenarbeit der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft, Jahresbericht 1988. Eidg. Dep. für ausw. Angelegenheiten (EDA), Bern, Switzerland: 36 pp., illustr.
EWI (1988 a). Southeast Sulawesi Irrigation Project: Feasibility Study for Konaweha Right Bank Subproject. EWI, Zurich, CECI, Taiwan, and BIEC, Bandung, Indonesia: (typescript).
EWI (1988 b). Agro-institutional Profile: Project Benefit Monitoring for the South-East Sulawesi Irrigation Project (Lahumbuti-Asera). EWI, Zürich, Switzerland and LBDS, Jakarta, Indonesia: (typescript).
EWI (1988 c). Agro-economic Profile: Project Benefit Monitoring for the South-East Sulawesi Irrigation Project (Lahumbuti-Asera). EWI, Zürich, Switzerland, and LBDS, Jakarta, Indonesia: (typescript).
EWI (1989). Southeast Sulawesi Irrigation Project (Lahumbuti-Asera), Feasibility Study. EWI, Zürich, CECI, Taiwan, and BIEC, Bandung, Indonesia: (typescript).
FAO (1982). National Conservation Plan for Indonesia. Vol. VI: Sulawesi. FAO, Bogor, Indonesia: [not available for checking].
Franke, W. (1981). Nutzpflanzenkunde. Thieme, Stuttgart, Germany: ix + 470 pp., illustr.
Goodwin, H.A. & Holloway, C.W. (1978). IUCN Red Data Book, Vol. 1: Mammalia. IUCN, Morges, Switzerland.
Groves, G.P. (1976). The origin of the mammalian fauna of Sulawesi (Celebes). Z. Saeugetierk., 41, pp. 201–16.
Haryono, S.K. (1985). Indigenous crops need to be explored. p. 179 in Proceedings of the International Symposium on South-East Asian Plant Genetic Resources (Eds Mehra, K.L. & Sastrapraoja, S.), held in Jakarta, 20–24 08 1985. Bogor, Indonesia: 211 pp., illustr.
Henderson, H.F. & Welcomme, R.L. (1974). The Relationship of Yield to Morpho-edaphic Index and Numbers of Fishermen in African Inland Fisheries. FAO, Rome, Italy: CIFA Occ. Paper No. 1, pp. 119.
Honegger, R.E. (1968). IUCN Red Data Book, Vol. 3: Amphibia and Reptilia. IUCN, Merges, Switzerland.
Jacobs, M. (1978). Preliminary Report on a First Botanical Exploration of the Opa Swamp and Surrounding Forests in S.E. Sulawesi. Rijksherbariurn, Leiden, The Netherlands: 25 pp. (unpublished manuscript).
Kantor Statistik, Kandari (1989). Penduduk Sulawesi Tenggara: Hasil Registrasi Penduduk Akhir Tahun 1988. Kantor Statistik Prov. Sulawesi Tenggara, Kendari, Indonesia: 48 pp.
Kondrashin, A.V. & Rashid, K.M. (1987). Epidemiological Considerations for Planning Malaria Control in South-East Asia Region. WHO, New Delhi, India: xii + 411 pp.
Ledec, G. & Goodland, R. (1988). Wildlands. Their Protection and Management in Economic Development. The World Bank, Washington, DC, USA: xxii + 278 pp.
Levine, J. (1981). Tolaki Farming Systems in Kecamatan Wawotobi of Sulawesi Tenggara: Preliminary Results. SESTADP Occ. Paper No. 3, [not available for checking].
MacKinnon, J. (1988). Field Guide to the Birds of Java and Bali. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta, Indonesia: xiii + 390 pp., illustr.
MacKinnon, J. & , K. (1986). Review of the Protected Areas System in the Indo-Malayan Realm. IUCN and UNEP: iv + 284 pp.
Myers, N. (1988). Tropical forests: much more than stocks of wood. J. Trap. Ecol., 5(2), pp. 209–21.
Setiady, I.F. (Ed.) (1979). Survey Penyakit Menular dan Air Minum di Proyek-Proyek Transmigrasi, Sulawesi Tenggara. Direktorat Jenderal P3.M. dan Direktorat Jenderal Transmigrasi, Kendari, Sulawesi, Indonesia: (typescript). [Not available for checking.]
Stresemann, E. (19391941). Die Voegel von Celebes.
Stresemann, E.J. Orn., 87 (1939), pp. 299425
Stresemann, E.J. Orn., 88 (1940), pp. 1135, pp. 389487
Stresemann, E.J. Orn., 89(1941), pp. 1102.
Stuerchler, D. (1981). Endemiegebiete tropischer Infektions-krankheiten. Huber, Bern, Switzerland: 246 pp., illustr.
UNEP (1987). The State of the World Environment. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya: xi + 76 pp.
Welcomme, R.L. (1979). Fisheries Ecology of Floodplain Rivers. Longman, London & New York: 315 pp.
Whitmore, T.C. (1977). Palms of Malaya. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: xv + 132 pp., illustr.
Whitmore, T.C. (1984). Tropical Rain Forests of the Far East. Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, UK: 352 pp., illustr.
Whitten, A.J., Mustafa, M. & Henderson, G.S. (1987). The Ecology of Sulawesi. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia: xxi + 777 pp., illustr.
Zwahlen, R. (1989). Environmental Evaluation Study: Annexe 5 to Wawotobi Drainage Improvement Study. EWI, Zürich, CECI, Taiwan, and BIEC, Bandung: 101 pp. illustr. (typescript).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Environmental Conservation
  • ISSN: 0376-8929
  • EISSN: 1469-4387
  • URL: /core/journals/environmental-conservation
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed