Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 22
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Firlieyanti, Antung S. Connerton, Phillippa L. and Connerton, Ian F. 2016. Campylobacters and their bacteriophages from chicken liver: The prospect for phage biocontrol. International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 237, p. 121.

    Jones, Anna K. Rigby, Dan Burton, Michael Millman, Caroline Williams, Nicola J. Jones, Trevor R. Wigley, Paul O’Brien, Sarah J. and Cross, Paul 2016. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 22, Issue. 7, p. 1208.

    Kassem, Issmat Kehinde, Olugbenga Helmy, Yosra Pina-Mimbela, Ruby Kumar, Anand Chandrashekhar, Kshipra and Rajashekara, Gireesh 2016. Foodborne Diseases.

    Lahti, E. Löfdahl, M. Ågren, J. Hansson, I. and Olsson Engvall, E. 2016. Confirmation of a Campylobacteriosis Outbreak Associated with Chicken Liver Pâté Using PFGE and WGS. Zoonoses and Public Health,

    MOFFATT, C. R. M. GREIG, A. VALCANIS, M. GAO, W. SEEMANN, T. HOWDEN, B. P. and KIRK, M. D. 2016. A large outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infection in a university college caused by chicken liver pâté, Australia, 2013. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 144, Issue. 14, p. 2971.

    Osimani, Andrea and Clementi, Francesca 2016. The catering industry as a source of campylobacteriosis in Europe—A review. International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 54, p. 68.

    Abdalrahman, Lubna and Fakhr, Mohamed 2015. Incidence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Toxin Genes Possession Screening of Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Chicken Livers and Gizzards. Foods, Vol. 4, Issue. 2, p. 115.

    Hutchison, Mike Harrison, Dawn Richardson, Ian and Tchórzewska, Monika 2015. A Method for the Preparation of Chicken Liver Pâté that Reliably Destroys Campylobacters. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 12, Issue. 5, p. 4652.

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O. Mitchell, Hazel M. and Man, Si Ming 2015. Molecular Medical Microbiology.

    Lemos, André Morais, Luísa Fontes, Maria da Conceição Pires, Isabel and Vieira-Pinto, Madalena 2015. Campylobacter spp. isolation from infected poultry livers with and without necrotic lesions. Food Control, Vol. 50, p. 236.

    Havelaar, A. H. and Swart, A. N. 2014. Impact of Acquired Immunity and Dose-Dependent Probability of Illness on Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment. Risk Analysis, Vol. 34, Issue. 10, p. 1807.

    Millman, Caroline Rigby, Dan Edward-Jones, Gareth Lighton, Lorraine and Jones, Davey 2014. Perceptions, behaviours and kitchen hygiene of people who have and have not suffered campylobacteriosis: A case control study. Food Control, Vol. 41, p. 82.

    YOUNG, N. J. DAY, J. MONTSHO-HAMMOND, F. VERLANDER, N. Q. IRISH, C. PANKHANIA, B. and OLIVER, I. 2014. Campylobacter infection associated with consumption of duck liver pâté: a retrospective cohort study in the setting of near universal exposure. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 142, Issue. 06, p. 1269.

    Abid, Muhammad Wimalarathna, Helen Mills, Janette Saldana, Luisa Pang, Winnie Richardson, Judith F. Maiden, Martin C. J. and McCarthy, Noel D. 2013. Duck Liver–associated Outbreak of Campylobacteriosis among Humans, United Kingdom, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 19, Issue. 08, p. 1310.

    Harrison, D. Corry, J.E.L. Tchórzewska, M.A. Morris, V.K. and Hutchison, M.L. 2013. Freezing as an intervention to reduce the numbers of campylobacters isolated from chicken livers. Letters in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 57, Issue. 3, p. 206.

    Stafford, Russell 2013. Foodborne campylobacteriosis in Australia. Microbiology Australia, Vol. 34, Issue. 2, p. 98.

    Calciati, Eugenio Lafuente, Sarah De Simó, Mercé Balfagon, Pere Bartolomé, Rosa and Caylà, Joan 2012. A Campylobacter outbreak in a Barcelona school. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, Vol. 30, Issue. 5, p. 243.

    Farmer, S. Keenan, A. and Vivancos, R. 2012. Food-borne Campylobacter outbreak in Liverpool associated with cross-contamination from chicken liver parfait: Implications for investigation of similar outbreaks. Public Health, Vol. 126, Issue. 8, p. 657.

    GORMLEY, F. J. RAWAL, N. and LITTLE, C. L. 2012. Choose your menu wisely: cuisine-associated food-poisoning risks in restaurants in England and Wales. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 140, Issue. 06, p. 997.

    Noormohamed, Aneesa and Fakhr, Mohamed K. 2012. Incidence and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiling ofCampylobacterin Retail Chicken Livers and Gizzards. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, Vol. 9, Issue. 7, p. 617.


A recipe for disaster: outbreaks of campylobacteriosis associated with poultry liver pâté in England and Wales

  • C. L. LITTLE (a1), F. J. GORMLEY (a1), N. RAWAL (a1) and J. F. RICHARDSON (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 23 August 2010

Despite the frequency of Campylobacter as the principal cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the UK, outbreaks attributed to this pathogen are rare. One hundred and fourteen general foodborne outbreaks of campylobacteriosis were reported to the Health Protection Agency from 1992 to 2009 with most occurring in food service establishments (64%, 73/114). Poultry meat (38%, 43/114) was the most commonly reported vehicle of infection, of which poultry liver pâté, and undercooking, were strongly associated with this pathogen. Notably, the number of outbreaks of campylobacteriosis linked to consumption of poultry liver pâté in England and Wales increased significantly from 2007 (74% as opposed to 12%, P<0·00001) with a preponderance of these occurring in December. These outbreaks highlight the hazards associated with inappropriate culinary practices leading to undercooking of poultry liver pâté and suggest that improving catering practice is an important last line of defence in reducing exposure to Campylobacter-contaminated products.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr C. L. Little, Department of Gastrointestinal, Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2.Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food. Second Report on Campylobacter. London: Food Standards Agency, 2005.

3.T Humphrey , S O'Brien , M Madsen . Campylobacters as zoonotic pathogens: a food production perspective. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2007; 117: 237257.

6.CL Little , Prevalence, characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in raw poultrymeat in the United Kingdom, 2003 to 2005. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 2008; 18: 403414.

7.R Whyte , JA Hudson , C Graham . Campylobacter in chicken livers and their destruction by pan frying. Letters in Applied Microbiology 2006; 43: 591595.

10.H de Valk , Two consecutive nationwide outbreaks of Listeriosis in France, October 1999–February 2000. American Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 154: 944950.

12.Food Standards Agency. Raw drinking milk and raw cream control requirements in the different countries of the UK, 11 May 2009 ( Accessed 22 March 2010.

15.KJ Forbes , Campylobacter immunity and coinfection following a large outbreak in a farming community. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2009; 47: 111116.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *