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    Waldram, Alison McKerr, Caoimhe Gobin, Maya Adak, Goutam Stuart, James M. and Cleary, Paul 2015. Control selection methods in recent case–control studies conducted as part of infectious disease outbreaks. European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 30, Issue. 6, p. 465.


Added value of a household-level study during an outbreak investigation of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul infections, New Mexico 2008

  • A. L. BOORE (a1) (a2), J. JUNGK (a3), E. T. RUSSO (a1) (a2), J. T. REDD (a4), F. J. ANGULO (a2), I. T. WILLIAMS (a2), J. E. CHEEK (a4) and L. H. GOULD (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 11 December 2012

In 2008, nationwide investigations of a Salmonella serotype Saintpaul outbreak led first to consumer warnings for Roma and red round tomatoes, then later for jalapeño and serrano peppers. In New Mexico, where there were a large number of cases but no restaurant-based clusters, the NM Department of Health and the Indian Health Service participated with CDC in individual-level and household-level case-control studies of infections in New Mexico and the Navajo Nation. No food item was associated in the individual-level study. In the household-level study, households with an ill member were more likely to have had jalapeño peppers present during the exposure period and to have reported ever having serrano peppers in the household. This report illustrates the complexity of this investigation, the limitations of traditional individual-level case-control studies when vehicles of infection are ingredients or commonly eaten with other foods, and the added value of a household-level study.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: A. L. Boore, PhD, MPH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, MS E-04, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. (Email:
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Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
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