People living in endemic areas acquire Lyme disease from the bite of an infected tick. This infection, when diagnosed and treated early in its course, usually responds well to antibiotic therapy. A minority of patients develops more serious disease, particularly after a delay in diagnosis or therapy, and sometimes chronic neurological, cardiac, or rheumatological manifestations. In 1998, the FDA approved a new recombinant Lyme vaccine, LYMErix™, which reduced new infections in vaccinated adults by nearly 80%. Just 3 years later, the manufacturer voluntarily withdrew its product from the market amidst media coverage, fears of vaccine side-effects, and declining sales. This paper reviews these events in detail and focuses on the public communication of risks and benefits of the Lyme vaccine and important lessons learned.
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