Hostname: page-component-588bc86c8c-pkxkl Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-11-30T19:29:45.740Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

The effect of cigarette smoking on susceptibility to epidemic influenza and on serological responses to live attenuated and killed subunit influenza vaccines

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 May 2009

J. S. MacKenzie
University Department of Microbiology, Perth Medical Centre, NedlandsWA 6009
I. H. MacKenzie
University Department of Microbiology, Perth Medical Centre, NedlandsWA 6009
P. G. Holt
University Department of Microbiology, Perth Medical Centre, NedlandsWA 6009
Rights & Permissions [Opens in a new window]


Core share and HTML view are not possible as this article does not have html content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

The effects of cigarette smoking on the incidence of epidemic influenza and on the serological response to influenza vaccination with killed subunit and live attenuated vaccines have been investigated during comparative vaccine trials in Western Australia. It was found that cigarette smokers with no pre-epidemic haemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody (titres of ≤ 12) were significantly more susceptible to epidemic influenza than non-smokers. Smokers were no more susceptible however, if they had possessed detectable pre-epidemic HI antibody. A significantly higher proportion of smokers sero-converted after receiving the live virus vaccine than their non-smoking counterparts, but this could not be correlated with pre-vaccination HI antibody titres. The longevity of the immune response to the subunit vaccine was severely depressed 50 weeks post-vaccination in smokers who had possessed little or no immunity before vaccination (titres of ≤ 12). This antibody deficit was not observed in live virus vaccinees or subunit vaccinees with pre-vaccination HI antibody (titres of ≥ 24). Post-vaccinal symptoms were similar regardless of vaccine group or smoking history.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1976



Cambridge, G., MacKenzie, J. S. & Keast, D. (1976). Cell-mediated immune response to influenza virus infection in mice. Infection and Immunity 13, 3643.Google Scholar
Chalmer, J., Holt, P. G. & Keast, D. (1975). Cell-mediated immune response to transplanted tumors in mice chronically exposed to fresh cigarette smoke. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 52, 1129–34.Google Scholar
Finklea, J. F., Hasselblad, V., Sandifer, S. H., Hammer, D. I. & Lowrimore, O. R. (1971 a). Cigarette smoking and acute non-influenzal respiratory disease in college males. American Journal of Epidemiology 93, 457–62.Google Scholar
Finklea, J. F., Sandifer, S. H. & Smith, D. D. (1969). Cigarette smoking and epidemic influenza. American Journal of Epidemiology 90, 390–9.Google Scholar
Finklea, J. F., Hasselblad, V., Riggan, W. B., Nelson, W. C., Hammer, D. I. & Newill, V. A. (1971b). Cigarette smoking and haemagglutination inhibition response to influenza after natural disease and immunization. American Review of Respiratory Disease 104, 368–76.Google Scholar
Fletcher, R. D., Sumney, D. L., Langkamp, H. H. & Platt, D. (1969). The ability of human serum to agglutinate sheep eythrocytes and the effect of tobacco mosaic virus. American Review of Respiratory Disease 100, 92–4.Google Scholar
Friedman, D. G., Siegelaub, A. B., Seltzer, C. C., Feldman, R. & Collen, M. F. (1973). Smoking habits and the leukocyte count. Archives of Environmental Health 26, 137–43.Google Scholar
Harris, J. O., Swenson, E. W. & Johnson, J. E. (1970). Human alveolar macrophages: comparison of phagocytic ability, glucose ut ultrastructure in smokers and nonsmokers. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 49, 2086–96.Google Scholar
Haynes, W. F., Krstulovic, V. J. & Bell, A. L. L. (1966). Smoking habit and incidence of respiratory tract infections in a group of adolescent males. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 93, 730–5.Google Scholar
Heiskell, C. L., Miller, J. N., Aldrich, J. J. & Carpenter, C. M. (1962). Smoking and serologic abnormalities. Journal of the American Medical Association, 181, 647–7.Google Scholar
Holt, P. G., Thomas, W. R. & Keast, D. (1974). Smoking and immunity. Lancet i, 152.Google Scholar
MacKenzie, J. S. (1976). The effect of cigarette smoke on influenza virus infection: a murine model system. Life Sciences, August 1976 (in press).Google Scholar
MacKenzie, J. S. & Houghton, M. (1974). Influenza infections during pregnancy: association with congenital malformations and with subsequent neoplasms in children, and potential hazards of live virus vaccines. Bacteriological Reviews 38, 356–70.Google Scholar
MacKenzie, J. S., MacKenzie, I. H., Lloyd, J. & Dent, V. (1975). Comparative trials of live attentuated and detergent split influenza virus vaccines. Journal of Hygiene 75, 425–43.Google Scholar
Martin, R. R. (1973). Altered morphology and increased acid hydrolase content of pulmonary macrophages from cigarette smokers. American Review of Respiratory Disease 107, 596601.Google Scholar
Nymand, O. (1974). Maternal smoking and immunity. Lancet ii, 1379–80.Google Scholar
Parnell, J. L., Anderson, D. O. & Kinnis, C. (1966). Cigarette smoking and respiratory infections in a class of student nurses. New England Journal of Medicine 274, 979–84.Google Scholar
Silverman, N. A., Potvin, C., Alexander, J. C. & Chretien, P. B. (1975). In vitro lymphocyte reactivity and T-cell levels in chronic cigarette smokers. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 22, 285–92.Google Scholar
Spurgash, A., Ehrlich, R. & Petzold, R. (1968). Effect of cigarette smoking on resistance to respiratory infection. Archives of Environmental Health 16, 385–91.Google Scholar
Thomas, W. R., Holt, P. O. & Keast, D. (1973 a). Effect of cigarette smoking on primary and secondary humoral responses in mice. Nature, London 243, 240–1.Google Scholar
Thomas, W. R., Holt, P. O. & Keast, D. (1973 b). Cellular immunity in mice chronically exposed to fresh cigarette smoke. Archives of Environmental Health 27, 372–5.Google Scholar
Thomas, W. R., Holt, P. G. & Keast, D. (1974). The development of alterations in the primary immune response of mice by exposure to fresh cigarette smoke. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology 46, 481–6.Google Scholar
Warr, G. A. & Martin, R. R. (1973). In vitro migration of human alveolar macrophages: effects of cigarette smoking. Infection and Immunity 8, 222–7.Google Scholar
Vos-Brat, L. C. & Rüieke, P. (1969). Immunglobuline concentraties, PHA reacties van lyrnfocyten in vitro en enkele antistof titers van gezonde rokers. Jaarboek van Kankeronderzoek en Kankerbestrijding in Nederland 19, 4953.Google Scholar