Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 24
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Blanco, María Alejandra de Lucio, Aida Fuentes, Isabel and Carmena, David 2016. Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in Venezuela: First report in a paediatric patient with acute diarrhoea. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, Vol. 34, Issue. 2, p. 142.

    CHALMERS, RACHEL M. ROBINSON, GUY HOTCHKISS, EMILY ALEXANDER, CLAIRE MAY, SOPHIE GILRAY, JANICE CONNELLY, LISA and HADFIELD, STEPHEN J. 2016. Suitability of loci for multiple-locus variable-number of tandem-repeats analysis of Cryptosporidium parvum for inter-laboratory surveillance and outbreak investigations. Parasitology, p. 1.

    de Lucio, Aida Merino, Francisco J. Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío Bailo, Begoña Aguilera, María Fuentes, Isabel and Carmena, David 2016. Molecular genotyping and sub-genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. isolates from symptomatic individuals attending two major public hospitals in Madrid, Spain. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 37, p. 49.

    Lal, Aparna 2016. Spatial Modelling Tools to Integrate Public Health and Environmental Science, Illustrated with Infectious Cryptosporidiosis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 13, Issue. 2, p. 186.

    PAINTER, J. E. GARGANO, J. W. YODER, J. S. COLLIER, S. A. and HLAVSA, M. C. 2016. Evolving epidemiology of reported cryptosporidiosis cases in the United States, 1995–2012. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 144, Issue. 08, p. 1792.

    Roelfsema, Jeroen H. Sprong, Hein Cacciò, Simone M. Takumi, Katsuhisa Kroes, Michiel van Pelt, Wilfrid Kortbeek, Laetitia M. and van der Giessen, Joke W. B. 2016. Molecular characterization of human Cryptosporidium spp. isolates after an unusual increase in late summer 2012. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 9, Issue. 1,

    Sangster, Lucy Blake, Damer P. Robinson, Guy Hopkins, Timothy C. Sa, Ricardo C.C. Cunningham, Andrew A. Chalmers, Rachel M. and Lawson, Becki 2016. Detection and molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium parvum in British European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus). Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 217, p. 39.

    Waters, Edward K. Hamilton, Andrew J. Sidhu, Harvinder S. Sidhu, Leesa A. and Dunbar, Michelle 2016. Zoonotic Transmission of Waterborne Disease: A Mathematical Model. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, Vol. 78, Issue. 1, p. 169.

    Zahedi, Alireza Paparini, Andrea Jian, Fuchun Robertson, Ian and Ryan, Una 2016. Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: Critical insights into better drinking water management. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 88.

    Bosch, Soraya S. Kronenberger, Thales Meissner, Kamila A. Zimbres, Flávia M. Stegehake, Dirk Izui, Natália M. Schettert, Isolmar Liebau, Eva and Wrenger, Carsten 2015. Oxidative Stress Control by Apicomplexan Parasites. BioMed Research International, Vol. 2015, p. 1.

    Certad, Gabriela Osman, Marwan and Benamrouz, Sadia 2015. Human Emerging and Re-emerging Infections.

    DESHPANDE, A. ALEXANDER, C. L. COYNE, M. BROWNLIE, S. SMITH-PALMER, A. and JONES, B. L. 2015. Molecular diversity of Scottish Cryptosporidium hominis isolates. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 143, Issue. 06, p. 1219.

    Lal, Aparna Fearnley, Emily and Kirk, Martyn 2015. The Risk of Reported Cryptosporidiosis in Children Aged. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 12, Issue. 9, p. 11815.

    Stenger, Brianna L.S. Clark, Mark E. Kváč, Martin Khan, Eakalak Giddings, Catherine W. Prediger, Jitka and McEvoy, John M. 2015. North American tree squirrels and ground squirrels with overlapping ranges host different Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 36, p. 287.

    Cho, Yong-il and Yoon, Kyoung-Jin 2014. An overview of calf diarrhea - infectious etiology, diagnosis, and intervention. Journal of Veterinary Science, Vol. 15, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Cui, Zhaohui Wang, Rongjun Huang, Jianying Wang, Haiyan Zhao, Jinfeng Luo, Nannan Li, Junqiang Zhang, Zhenjie and Zhang, Longxian 2014. Cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium parvum subtype IIdA15G1 at a dairy farm in Northwestern China. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 7, Issue. 1,

    Galván, A.L. Magnet, A. Izquierdo, F. Fernández Vadillo, C. Peralta, R.H. Angulo, S. Fenoy, S. and del Aguila, C. 2014. A year-long study of Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in recreational, drinking and wastewater from the central area of Spain. Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 468-469, p. 368.

    Abal-Fabeiro, J. L. Maside, X. Bello, X. Llovo, J. and Bartolomé, C. 2013. Multilocus patterns of genetic variation acrossCryptosporidiumspecies suggest balancing selection at thegp60locus. Molecular Ecology, Vol. 22, Issue. 18, p. 4723.

    Kato, Satomi and Kissinger, Jessica C. 2013. Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes.

    Chavez, Deanna J. LeVan, Ivy K. Miller, Michael W. and Ballweber, Lora R. 2012. Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from eastern Colorado, an area of undefined prevalence. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 185, Issue. 2-4, p. 330.


Epidemiology of anthroponotic and zoonotic human cryptosporidiosis in England and Wales, 2004–2006

  • R. M. CHALMERS (a1), R. SMITH (a2), K. ELWIN (a1), F. A. CLIFTON-HADLEY (a3) and M. GILES (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 12 July 2010

In order to monitor epidemiological trends, Cryptosporidium-positive samples (n=4509) from diarrhoeic patients were typed. Compared to the previous 4 years, the proportion of Cryptosporidium hominis cases in 2004–2006 increased to 57·3%, while 38·5% were C. parvum. The remaining 4·2% cases included mixed C. parvum and C. hominis infections, C. meleagridis, C. felis, C. ubiquitum and a novel genotype. When the typing results were combined with enhanced surveillance data to monitor risk exposures, C. hominis was linked to urban dwelling, previous diarrhoea in the household, any travel especially abroad, and using a swimming or paddling pool. C. parvum was linked to having a private water supply, contact with surface water, visiting or living on a farm, and contact with farm animal faeces. The proportion of laboratory-confirmed indigenous cases acquired from direct contact with farm animals was estimated to be 25% for C. parvum and 10% of all reported Cryptosporidium cases.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr R. M. Chalmers, Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales Microbiology, Singleton Hospital, SwanseaSA2 8QA, UK. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

3.PR Hunter , Case-control study of sporadic cryptosporidiosis with genotyping. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2004; 10: 12411249.

5.RP Smith , Investigation of farms linked to human patients with cryptosporidiosis in England and Wales. Preventative Veterinary Medicine 2010; 94: 9–17.

9.L Xiao , Identification of species and sources of Cryptosporidium oocysts in storm waters with a small subunit rRNA based diagnostic and genotyping tool. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2000; 66: 54925498.

17.BW Mason , A Cryptosporidium hominis outbreak in North-West Wales associated with low oocyst counts in treated drinking water. Journal of Water and Health 2010; 8: 299310.

23.MR Hoek , Outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum among children after a school excursion to an adventure farm, South West England. Journal of Water and Health 2008; 6: 333338.

24.RP Smith , Investigation of the role of companion animals in the zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis. Zoonoses and Public Health 2009; 56: 2433.

30.IR Lake , Case-control study of environmental and social factors influencing cryptosporidiosis. European Journal of Epidemiology 2007; 22: 805811.

32.VA Cama , Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and clinical manifestations in children, Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 15671574.

33.RM Chalmers , Geographic linkage and variation in Cryptosporidium hominis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 496498.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *