Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 32
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Acharya, Dhiraj and Bai, Fengwei 2016. West Nile Virus.

    Busch, Michael P. Sabino, Ester C. Brambilla, Donald Lopes, Maria Esther Capuani, Ligia Chowdhury, Dhuly McClure, Christopher Linnen, Jeffrey M. Prince, Harry Simmons, Graham Lee, Tzong-Hae Kleinman, Steven and Custer, Brian 2016. Duration of Dengue Viremia in Blood Donors and Relationships Between Donor Viremia, Infection Incidence and Clinical Case Reports During a Large Epidemic. Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 214, Issue. 1, p. 49.

    Das, Rituparna Loughran, Kerry Murchison, Charles Qian, Feng Leng, Lin Song, Yan Montgomery, Ruth R. Loeb, Mark and Bucala, Richard 2016. Association between high expression macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) alleles and West Nile virus encephalitis. Cytokine, Vol. 78, p. 51.

    Ewing, D.A. Cobbold, C.A. Purse, B.V. Nunn, M.A. and White, S.M. 2016. Modelling the effect of temperature on the seasonal population dynamics of temperate mosquitoes. Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 400, p. 65.

    Kaidarova, Zhanna Bravo, Marjorie D. Kamel, Hany T. Custer, Brian S. Busch, Michael P. and Lanteri, Marion C. 2016. Blood group A and D negativity are associated with symptomatic West Nile virus infection. Transfusion, Vol. 56, Issue. 7, p. 1699.

    LaKind, Judy S Overpeck, Jonathan Breysse, Patrick N Backer, Lorrie Richardson, Susan D Sobus, Jon Sapkota, Amir Upperman, Crystal R Jiang, Chengsheng Beard, C Ben Brunkard, J M Bell, Jesse E Harris, Ryan Chretien, Jean-Paul Peltier, Richard E Chew, Ginger L and Blount, Benjamin C 2016. Exposure science in an age of rapidly changing climate: challenges and opportunities. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology,

    Montell, C. and Zwiebel, L.J. 2016.

    NESHER, L. HADI, C. M. SALAZAR, L. WOOTTON, S. H. GAREY, K. W. LASCO, T. LUCE, A. M. and HASBUN, R. 2016. Epidemiology of meningitis with a negative CSF Gram stain: under-utilization of available diagnostic tests. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 144, Issue. 01, p. 189.

    Pridjian, Gabriella Sirois, Patricia A. McRae, Scott Hinckley, Alison F. Rasmussen, Sonja A. Kissinger, Patricia Buekens, Pierre Hayes, Edward B. O'Leary, Dan Kuhn, Stephanie Swan, Kenneth F. Xiong, Xu and Wesson, Dawn M. 2016. Prospective study of pregnancy and newborn outcomes in mothers with West nile illness during pregnancy. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology,

    Taylor, Travis J. Diaz, Fernando Colgrove, Robert C. Bernard, Kristen A. DeLuca, Neal A. Whelan, Sean P.J. and Knipe, David M. 2016. Production of immunogenic West Nile virus-like particles using a herpes simplex virus 1 recombinant vector. Virology, Vol. 496, p. 186.

    Vasek, Michael J. Garber, Charise Dorsey, Denise Durrant, Douglas M. Bollman, Bryan Soung, Allison Yu, Jinsheng Perez-Torres, Carlos Frouin, Arnaud Wilton, Daniel K. Funk, Kristen DeMasters, Bette K. Jiang, Xiaoping Bowen, James R. Mennerick, Steven Robinson, John K. Garbow, Joel R. Tyler, Kenneth L. Suthar, Mehul S. Schmidt, Robert E. Stevens, Beth and Klein, Robyn S. 2016. A complement–microglial axis drives synapse loss during virus-induced memory impairment. Nature, Vol. 534, Issue. 7608, p. 538.

    WILLIAMSON, P. C. CUSTER, B. BIGGERSTAFF, B. J. LANCIOTTI, R. S. SAYERS, M. H. EASON, S. J. DIXON, M. R. WINKELMAN, V. LANTERI, M. C. PETERSEN, L. R. and BUSCH, M. P. 2016. Incidence of West Nile virus infection in the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area during the 2012 epidemic. Epidemiology and Infection, p. 1.

    Chancey, Caren Grinev, Andriyan Volkova, Evgeniya and Rios, Maria 2015. The Global Ecology and Epidemiology of West Nile Virus. BioMed Research International, Vol. 2015, p. 1.

    Day, Jonathan F. Tabachnick, Walter J. and Smartt, Chelsea T. 2015. Factors That Influence the Transmission of West Nile Virus in Florida. Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 52, Issue. 5, p. 743.

    Garcia, Melissa N. Hasbun, Rodrigo and Murray, Kristy O. 2015. Persistence of West Nile virus. Microbes and Infection, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 163.

    Hinton, M. G. Reisen, W. K. Wheeler, S. S. and Townsend, A. K. 2015. West Nile Virus Activity in a Winter Roost of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos): Is Bird-To-Bird Transmission Important in Persistence and Amplification?. Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 52, Issue. 4, p. 683.

    Pavitrakar, Daya V. Ayachit, Vijay M. Mundhra, Sonal and Bondre, Vijay P. 2015. Development and characterization of reverse genetics system for the Indian West Nile virus lineage 1 strain 68856. Journal of Virological Methods, Vol. 226, p. 31.

    Qian, Feng Goel, Gautam Meng, Hailong Wang, Xiaomei You, Fuping Devine, Lesley Raddassi, Khadir Garcia, Melissa N. Murray, Kristy O. Bolen, Christopher R. Gaujoux, Renaud Shen-Orr, Shai S. Hafler, David Fikrig, Erol Xavier, Ramnik Kleinstein, Steven H. Montgomery, Ruth R. and Hodinka, R. L. 2015. Systems Immunology Reveals Markers of Susceptibility to West Nile Virus Infection. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, Vol. 22, Issue. 1, p. 6.

    Strauss-Albee, D. M. Fukuyama, J. Liang, E. C. Yao, Y. Jarrell, J. A. Drake, A. L. Kinuthia, J. Montgomery, R. R. John-Stewart, G. Holmes, S. and Blish, C. A. 2015. Human NK cell repertoire diversity reflects immune experience and correlates with viral susceptibility. Science Translational Medicine, Vol. 7, Issue. 297, p. 297ra115.

    Tsioris, Konstantinos Gupta, Namita T. Ogunniyi, Adebola O. Zimnisky, Ross M. Qian, Feng Yao, Yi Wang, Xiaomei Stern, Joel N. H. Chari, Raj Briggs, Adrian W. Clouser, Christopher R. Vigneault, Francois Church, George M. Garcia, Melissa N. Murray, Kristy O. Montgomery, Ruth R. Kleinstein, Steven H. and Love, J. Christopher 2015. Neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus identified directly from human B cells by single-cell analysis and next generation sequencing. Integr. Biol., Vol. 7, Issue. 12, p. 1587.


Estimated cumulative incidence of West Nile virus infection in US adults, 1999–2010

  • L. R. PETERSEN (a1), P. J. CARSON (a2) (a3), B. J. BIGGERSTAFF (a1), B. CUSTER (a4), S. M. BORCHARDT (a2) (a5) (a6) and M. P. BUSCH (a4) (a7)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 28 May 2012

West Nile virus (WNV) was first recognized in the USA in 1999. We estimated the cumulative incidence of WNV infection in the USA from 1999 to 2010 using recently derived age- and sex-stratified ratios of infections to WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND) and the number of WNND cases reported to national surveillance. We estimate that over 3 million persons have been infected with WNV in the USA, with the highest incidence rates in the central plains states. These 3 million infections would have resulted in about 780 000 illnesses. A substantial number of WNV infections and illnesses have occurred during the virus' first decade in the USA.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: L. R. Petersen, MD, MPH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2.S Zou , West Nile fever characteristics among viremic persons identified through blood donor screening. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010; 202: 13541361.

3.F Mostashari , Epidemic West Nile encephalitis, New York, 1999: results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey. Lancet 2001; 358: 261264.

6.AM Mandalakas , West Nile virus epidemic, northeast Ohio, 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 17741777.

7.BK Schweitzer , Geographic factors contributing to a high seroprevalence of West Nile virus-specific antibodies in humans following an epidemic. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 2006; 13: 314318.

9.MP Busch , West Nile virus infections projected from blood donor screening data, United States, 2003. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 395402.

10.PJ Carson , Neuroinvasive disease and West Nile virus infection, North Dakota, USA, 1999–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2012; 18: 684686.

11.LM Barber , JJ Schleier 3rd, RK Peterson . Economic cost analysis of West Nile virus outbreak, Sacramento County, California, USA, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2010; 16: 480486.

12.AS De Groot , Rapid determination of HLA B*07 ligands from the West Nile virus NY99 genome. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2001; 7: 706713.

13.MC Gates , RC Boston . Irrigation linked to a greater incidence of human and veterinary West Nile virus cases in the United States from 2004 to 2006. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2009; 89: 134137.

14.L Eisen , Irrigated agriculture is an important risk factor for West Nile virus disease in the hyperendemic Larimer-Boulder-Weld area of north central Colorado. Journal of Medical Entomology 2010; 47: 939951.

15.MJ Turell , An update on the potential of north American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile Virus. Journal of Medical Entomology 2005; 42: 5762.

16.LB Goddard , Vector competence of California mosquitoes for West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2002; 8: 13851391.

17.VO Ezenwa , Land cover variation and West Nile virus prevalence: patterns, processes, and implications for disease control. Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases 2007; 7: 173180.

18.MG Walsh . The role of hydrogeography and climate in the landscape epidemiology of West Nile virus in New York State from 2000 to 2010. PLoS One 2012; 7: e30620.

19.J Shaman , JF Day , N Komar . Hydrologic conditions describe West Nile virus risk in Colorado. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2010; 7: 494508.

20.BF Allan , Ecological correlates of risk and incidence of West Nile virus in the United States. Oecologia 2009; 158: 699708.

21.JP Swaddle , SE Calos . Increased avian diversity is associated with lower incidence of human West Nile infection: observation of the dilution effect. PLoS One 2008; 3: e2488.

22.H Liu , Q Weng , D Gaines . Geographic incidence of human West Nile virus in northern Virginia, USA, in relation to incidence in birds and variations in urban environment. Science of the Total Environment 2011; 409: 42354241.

23.HE Brown , Ecological factors associated with West Nile virus transmission, northeastern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008; 14: 15391545.

24. IRochlin , Predictive mapping of human risk for West Nile virus (WNV) based on environmental and socioeconomic factors. PLoS One 2011; 6: e23280.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *