Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

High prevalence rates of antibody to three sandfly fever viruses (Sicilian, Naples and Toscana) among Cypriots

  • R. Eitrem (a1) (a2), M. Stylianou (a3) and B. Niklasson (a1) (a4)

Neutralizing antibodies to sandfly fever Naples, sandfly fever Sicilian and Toscana viruses were investigated among 479 sera collected from a normal human population in Cyprus. Antibody prevalence rates of 57%, 32% and 20% were found to Naples, Sicilian and Toscana viruses, respectively. The observed frequency of dual and triple infections was higher than would be expected with a random chance of infection. Antibody prevalence rates were similar for men and women for all three viruses tested, but one of two study sites had significantly higher antibody prevalence to Naples and Sicilian viruses than the other. Individuals with antibodies to both Naples and Toscana viruses had higher antibody levels to Naples virus than those with antibodies to Naples virus only. If the antibody prevalence rates found in this study reflect a history of clinical disease as described in the literature, sandfly fever poses a significant public health problem in Cyprus.

Corresponding author
*Rickard Eitrem, MD. Department of Infectious Disease Control. Central Hospital. S-371 85 Karlskrona, Sweden
Hide All
1.Tesh RB, Saidi S, Gaidamovic SJa, Rodhain F, Vesenjak-Hirjan J. Serological studies on the epidemiology of sandfly fever in the Old World. Bull WHO 1976; 54: 663–74.
2.Nicoletti L, Verani P, Ciufolini MG, Lopes MC, Zampetti P. Studies on Phlebotomus-transmitted viruses in Italy: II. Serologic status of human beings. In: Vesenjak-Hirjan J, Porterfield JS, Arslanagic E, eds. Arboviruses in the Mediterranean countries. Stuttgart. New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1980; 203–8.
3.Ehrnst A, Peters CJ, Niklasson B, Svedmyr A, Holmgren B. Neurovirulent Toscana virus (a sandfly fever virus) in Swedish man after a visit to Portugal. Lancet 1985: 1: 1212–13.
4.Rodhain F, Madulo-Leblond G, Hannoun C, Tesh RB. Le virus Corfou: Un nouveau Phlebovirus isolé de phlébotomes en Grèce. Ann Inst Pasteur/Virol. 1985; 136E: 161–6.
5.Verani P, Ciufolini MG, Caoiolli S, et al. Ecology of viruses isolated from sand flies in Italy and characterization of a new Phlebovirus (Arbia virus). Am J Trop Med Hyg 1988; 32: 433–9.
6.Karabatsos N. International catalogue of arboviruses including certain other viruses of vertebrates, 3rd ed.San Antonio Texas: American Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. 1985.
7.Verani P, Nicoletti L, Ciufolini MG. Antigenic and biological characterization of Toscana virus, a new Phlebotomus fever group virus isolated in Italy. Acta Virol 1984; 28: 3947.
8.Vesenjak-Hirjan J. Arboviruses in Yugoslavia. In: Vesenjak-Hirjan J, Porterfield JS, Arslanagic E, eds. Arboviruses in the Mediterranean countries. Stuttgart. New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1980: 165–77.
9.Earley E, Peralta PH, Johnson KM. A plaque neutralization method for arboviruses. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1967; 125: 741–7.
10.Niklasson B, Eitrem R. Sandfly fever among Swedish UN troops in Cyprus. Lancet 1985: 1: 1212.
11.Eitrem R, Vene S, Niklasson B. Incidence of sand fly fever among Swedish United Nations soldiers on Cyprus during 1985. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1990; 43: 207–11.
12.Eitrem R, Niklasson B, Weiland O. Sandfly fever among Swedish Tourists. Scand J Infect Dis. 1991; 23: 451–7.
13.Sabin AB, Philip CB, Paul JR. Phlebotomus (Pappataci or sandfly) fever, a disease of miilitary importance. Summary of existing knowledge and preliminary report of original investigations. JAMA 1944; 125: 603–6, 693–9.
14.MeCown JM, Brandt WE, Bancroft WH, Russell PK. Dimethyl sulfoxide enhancement of Phlebotomus fever virus plaque formation. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1979; 28; 733–9.
15.Tesh RB, Duboise SM. Viremia and immune response with sequential phlebovirus infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1987; 36: 662–8.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 2 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 102 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.