Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Kin, Nathalie Miszczak, Fabien Lin, Wei Gouilh, Meriadeg Vabret, Astrid and Consortium, Epicorem 2015. Genomic Analysis of 15 Human Coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43s) Circulating in France from 2001 to 2013 Reveals a High Intra-Specific Diversity with New Recombinant Genotypes. Viruses, Vol. 7, Issue. 5, p. 2358.

    Zhou, J. Chu, H. Li, C. Wong, B. H.-Y. Cheng, Z.-S. Poon, V. K.-M. Sun, T. Lau, C. C.-Y. Wong, K. K.-Y. Chan, J. Y.-W. Chan, J. F.-W. To, K. K.-W. Chan, K.-H. Zheng, B.-J. and Yuen, K.-Y. 2014. Active Replication of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Aberrant Induction of Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines in Human Macrophages: Implications for Pathogenesis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 209, Issue. 9, p. 1331.

    Mackay, Ian M. Arden, Katherine E. Speicher, David J. O’Neil, Nicholas T. McErlean, Peter K. Greer, Ristan M. Nissen, Michael D. and Sloots, Theo P. 2012. Co-circulation of Four Human Coronaviruses (HCoVs) in Queensland Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Illnesses in 2004. Viruses, Vol. 4, Issue. 12, p. 637.

    Blanchard, Elisabeth G. Miao, Congrong Haupt, Thomas E. Anderson, Larry J. and Haynes, Lia M. 2011. Development of a recombinant truncated nucleocapsid protein based immunoassay for detection of antibodies against human coronavirus OC43. Journal of Virological Methods, Vol. 177, Issue. 1, p. 100.

    Falsey, Ann R. Dallal, Gerard E. Formica, Maria A. Andolina, Gloria G. Hamer, Davidson H. Leka, Lynette L. and Meydani, Simin Nikbin 2008. Long-Term Care Facilities: A Cornucopia of Viral Pathogens. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 56, Issue. 7, p. 1281.

    Gooskens, J. Swaan, C.M. Claas, E.C.J. and Kroes, A.C.M. 2008. Rapid molecular detection of influenza outbreaks in nursing homes. Journal of Clinical Virology, Vol. 41, Issue. 1, p. 7.

    Pozo, Francisco Casas, Inmaculada Ruiz, Guillermo Falcón, Ana and Pérez-Breña, Pilar 2008. Aplicación de los métodos moleculares al diagnóstico y el estudio epidemiológico de las infecciones respiratorias causadas por virus. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, Vol. 26, p. 15.

    Fox, Julie D. 2007. Respiratory virus surveillance and outbreak investigation. Journal of Clinical Virology, Vol. 40, p. S24.

    Miura, Tanya A. Wang, Jieru Holmes, Kathryn V. and Mason, Robert J. 2007. Rat coronaviruses infect rat alveolar type I epithelial cells and induce expression of CXC chemokines. Virology, Vol. 369, Issue. 2, p. 288.


Human coronavirus OC43 causes influenza-like illness in residents and staff of aged-care facilities in Melbourne, Australia

  • C. J. BIRCH (a1), H. J. CLOTHIER (a2) (a3), A. SECCULL (a2), T. TRAN (a1), M. C. CATTON (a1), S. B. LAMBERT (a3) (a4) and J. D. DRUCE (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 22 December 2004

Three outbreaks of respiratory illness associated with human coronavirus HCoV-OC43 infection occurred in geographically unrelated aged-care facilities in Melbourne, Australia during August and September 2002. On clinical and epidemiological grounds the outbreaks were first thought to be caused by influenza virus. HCoV-OC43 was detected by RT–PCR in 16 out of 27 (59%) specimens and was the only virus detected at the time of sampling. Common clinical manifestations were cough (74%), rhinorrhoea (59%) and sore throat (53%). Attack rates and symptoms were similar in residents and staff across the facilities. HCoV-OC43 was also detected in surveillance and diagnostic respiratory samples in the same months. These outbreaks establish this virus as a cause of morbidity in aged-care facilities and add to increasing evidence of the significance of coronavirus infections.

Corresponding author
Ms. H. Clothier, Epidemiology Unit, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, North Melbourne, Victoria 3051, Australia. (Email:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *