Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 37
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Abu Samra, Nada Jori, Ferran Cacciò, Simone M. Frean, John Poonsamy, Bhavani and Thompson, Peter N. 2016. Cryptosporidium genotypes in children and calves living at the wildlife or livestock interface of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 83, Issue. 1,

    Aldeyarbi, Hebatalla M. Abu El-Ezz, Nadia M. T. and Karanis, Panagiotis 2016. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis: the African perspective. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 23, Issue. 14, p. 13811.

    Lal, Aparna 2016. Spatial Modelling Tools to Integrate Public Health and Environmental Science, Illustrated with Infectious Cryptosporidiosis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 13, Issue. 2, p. 186.

    Zahedi, Alireza Paparini, Andrea Jian, Fuchun Robertson, Ian and Ryan, Una 2016. Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: Critical insights into better drinking water management. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 88.

    Bouyou-Akotet, M. K. Owono-Medang, M. Moussavou-Boussougou, M. N. Mamfoumbi, M. Mabika Mintsa-Nguema, R. Mawili-Mboumba, D. P. and Kombila, M. 2015. Low sensitivity of the ImmunocardSTAT® Crypto/Giardia Rapid Assay test for the detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in fecal samples from children living in Libreville, Central Africa. Journal of Parasitic Diseases,

    Gajadhar, A.A. Lalonde, L.F. Al-Adhami, B. Singh, B.B. and Lobanov, V. 2015. Foodborne Parasites in the Food Supply Web.

    Wang, Tao Chen, Zuqin Yu, Hua Xie, Yue Gu, Xiaobing Lai, Weiming Peng, Xuerong and Yang, Guangyou 2015. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in captive lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) in China. Parasitology Research, Vol. 114, Issue. 2, p. 773.

    Wang, Tao Chen, Zuqin Xie, Yue Hou, Rong Wu, Qidun Gu, Xiaobing Lai, Weiming Peng, Xuerong and Yang, Guangyou 2015. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Sichuan province, China. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 8, Issue. 1,

    Ananta, Sylvia Maharani Suharno, Hidayat, Adi and Matsubayashi, Makoto 2014. Survey on gastrointestinal parasites and detection of Cryptosporidium spp. on cattle in West Java, Indonesia. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, Vol. 7, Issue. 3, p. 197.

    Hu, Yue Feng, Yaoyu Huang, Chengchen and Xiao, Lihua 2014. Occurrence, Source, and Human Infection Potential ofCryptosporidiumandEnterocytozoon bieneusiin Drinking Source Water in Shanghai, China, during a Pig Carcass Disposal Incident. Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 48, Issue. 24, p. 14219.

    Izadi, Morteza Jonaidi-Jafari, Nematollah Saburi, Amin Eyni, Hossein Rezaiemanesh, Mohammad-Reza and Ranjbar, Reza 2014. Cryptosporidiosis in Iranian Farm Workers and Their Household Members: A Hypothesis about Possible Zoonotic Transmission. Journal of Tropical Medicine, Vol. 2014, p. 1.

    Jiang, Yanyan Ren, Jinhua Yuan, Zhongying Liu, Aiqin Zhao, Hong Liu, Hua Chu, Lei Pan, Wei Cao, Jianping Lin, Yijin and Shen, Yujuan 2014. Cryptosporidium andersoni as a novel predominant Cryptosporidium species in outpatients with diarrhea in Jiangsu Province, China. BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    Liu, Hua Shen, Yujuan Yin, Jianhai Yuan, Zhongying Jiang, Yanyan Xu, Yuxin Pan, Wei Hu, Yuan and Cao, Jianping 2014. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon, Giardia and Cyclospora in diarrheal outpatients in china. BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    Liu, Xuehan Zhou, Xiaoxiao Zhong, Zhijun Chen, Weigang Deng, Jiabo Niu, Lili Wang, Qiang and Peng, Guangneng 2014. New Subtype ofCryptosporidium cuniculusIsolated from Rabbits by Sequencing the Gp60 Gene. Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 100, Issue. 4, p. 532.

    Liu, Xuehan Zhou, Xiaoxiao Zhong, Zhijun Deng, Jiabo Chen, Weigang Cao, Suizhong Fu, Hualin Zuo, Zhicai Hu, Yanchun and Peng, Guangneng 2014. Multilocus genotype and subtype analysis of Cryptosporidium andersoni derived from a Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) in China. Parasitology Research, Vol. 113, Issue. 6, p. 2129.

    Ma, Jingbo Cai, Jinzhong Ma, Jiawen Feng, Yaoyu and Xiao, Lihua 2014. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in yaks (Bos grunniens) in China. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 202, Issue. 3-4, p. 113.

    Agholi, Mahmoud Hatam, Gholam Reza and Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein 2013. HIV/AIDS-Associated Opportunistic Protozoal Diarrhea. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, Vol. 29, Issue. 1, p. 35.

    Lal, Aparna Baker, Michael G. Hales, Simon and French, Nigel P. 2013. Potential effects of global environmental changes on cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis transmission. Trends in Parasitology, Vol. 29, Issue. 2, p. 83.

    Angus, Scott V. Kwon, Hyuck-Jin and Yoon, Jeong-Yeol 2012. Field-deployable and near-real-time optical microfluidic biosensors for single-oocyst-level detection of Cryptosporidium parvum from field water samples. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 14, Issue. 12, p. 3295.

    Berrilli, Federica D’Alfonso, Rossella Giangaspero, Annunziata Marangi, Marianna Brandonisio, Olga Kaboré, Yolande Glé, Christoph Cianfanelli, Cristina Lauro, Renato and Di Cave, David 2012. Giardia duodenalis genotypes and Cryptosporidium species in humans and domestic animals in Côte d’Ivoire: occurrence and evidence for environmental contamination. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 106, Issue. 3, p. 191.


Incidence of cryptosporidiosis species in paediatric patients in Malawi

  • T. D. MORSE (a1), R. A. B. NICHOLS (a2), A. M. GRIMASON (a1) (a2), B. M. CAMPBELL (a2), K. C. TEMBO (a3) and H. V. SMITH (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2007

We determined the incidence of cryptosporidiosis in children aged <5 years presenting with diarrhoea in an urban and rural hospital-based setting in Malawi. Stools were collected over a 22-month period during both rainy and dry seasons. A range of microscopic methods were used to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Species determination was by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) of oocyst-extracted DNA using 18S rRNA and COWP gene loci. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were seen in 5·9% (50/848) of samples, of which 43 amplified by PCR–RFLP indicated the following species: C. hominis, C. parvum, C. hominis/C. parvum, C. meleagridis and C. andersoni. Seven samples could not be amplified by PCR. Wider species diversity was found in the rural setting, and may be a result of increased malnutrition and zoonotic exposure in this area. Improvements in water, sanitation, household hygiene and animal control are required to reduce the incidence of infection in this population.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr T. D. Morse, Division of Environmental Health, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

3. C Mwachari , Chronic diarrhoea among HIV infected adult patients in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Infection 1998; 37: 4853.

5. B Amadi , Intestinal and systemic infection, HIV, and mortality in Zambian children with persistent diarrhoea and malnutrition. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2001; 32: 550554.

7. L Xiao , Cryptosporidium Taxonomy: recent advances and implications for public health. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2004; 17: 7297.

8. UM Ryan , Cryptosporidium suis n.sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in pigs (Sus scrofa). Journal of Parasitology 2004; 90: 769773.

10. BA Leav , Analysis of sequence diversity at the highly polymorphic Cpgp40/15 locus among Cryptosporidium isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in South Africa. Infection and Immunity 2002; 70: 38813890.

11. W Gatei , Molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium parasites from patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus infections living in Kenya, Malawi, Brazil, the United Kingdom and Vietnam. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2003; 41: 14581462.

12. MM Peng , Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in children in Malawi. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 2003; 50 (Suppl.): 557559.

15. HV Smith , GD Corcoran . New drugs and treatment for cryptosporidiosis. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 2004; 17: 557564.

16. DP Casemore , M Armstrong , RL Sands . Laboratory diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. Journal of Clinical Pathology 1985; 38: 13371341.

17. AM Grimason , Application of DAPI and immunofluorescence for enhanced identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water samples. Water Research 1994; 28: 733736.

20. RAB Nichols , JE Moore , HV Smith . A rapid method for extracting oocyst DNA from Cryptosporidium-positive human faeces for outbreak investigations. Journal of Microbiological Methods 2006; 65: 512524.

21. RAB Nichols , BM Campbell , HV Smith . Molecular fingerprinting of Cryptosporidium oocysts isolated during regulatory monitoring. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2006; 72: 54285435.

25. W Homan , Characterisation of Cryptosporidium parvum in human and animal faeces by single tube nested polymerase chain reaction and restriction analysis. Parasitology Research 1999; 85: 707712.

28. M Varea , Fuschin fluorescence and autofluorescence of Cryptosporidium, Isospora and Cyclospora oocysts. International Journal of Parasitology 1998; 28: 18811883.

30. W Gatei , Cryptosporidium muris infection in an HIV-infected adult, Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2002; 8: 204206.

31. K Guyot , Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium isolates obtained from humans in France. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2001; 39: 34723480.

32. CJ Palmer , Cryptosporidium muris, a rodent pathogen, recovered from a human in Peru. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2003; 9: 11741176.

33. C Amar , S Pedraza-Diaz , J McLauchlin . Extraction and genotyping of Cryptosporidium parvum DNA from fecal smears on glass slides stained conventionally for direct microscope examination. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2001; 39: 401403.

34. CFL Amar , Blinded evaluation of DNA extraction and genotyping of stained Cryptosporidium on glass slides. Letters in Applied Microbiology 2002; 35: 486488.

35. L Monteiro , Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in human faeces by PCR: DNA stability and removal of inhibitors. Journal of Microbiological Methods 2001; 45: 8994.

36. S Pedraza-Diaz , C Amar , J McLauchlin . The identification and characterisation of an unusual genotype of Cryptosporidium from human faeces as Cryptosporidium meleagridis. FEM Microbiology Letters 2000; 189: 189194.

37. S Pedraza-Diaz , Cryptosporidium meleagridis from humans: molecular analysis and description of affected patients. Journal of Infection 2001: 42: 243250.

39. AD Steele , E Gove , PJ Meewes . Cryptosporidiosis in white patients in South Africa. Journal of Infection 1989; 19: 281285.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *