Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Integrated cluster- and case-based surveillance for detecting stage III zoonotic pathogens: an example of Nipah virus surveillance in Bangladesh

  • A. M. NASER (a1), M. J. HOSSAIN (a1), H. M. S. SAZZAD (a1), N. HOMAIRA (a1), E. S. GURLEY (a1), G. PODDER (a1), S. AFROJ (a1), S. BANU (a1), P. E. ROLLIN (a2), P. DASZAK (a3), B.-N. AHMED (a4), M. RAHMAN (a5) and S. P. LUBY (a1) (a2) (a6)...
Summary

This paper explores the utility of cluster- and case-based surveillance established in government hospitals in Bangladesh to detect Nipah virus, a stage III zoonotic pathogen. Physicians listed meningo-encephalitis cases in the 10 surveillance hospitals and identified a cluster when ⩾2 cases who lived within 30 min walking distance of one another developed symptoms within 3 weeks of each other. Physicians collected blood samples from the clustered cases. As part of case-based surveillance, blood was collected from all listed meningo-encephalitis cases in three hospitals during the Nipah season (January–March). An investigation team visited clustered cases’ communities to collect epidemiological information and blood from the living cases. We tested serum using Nipah-specific IgM ELISA. Up to September 2011, in 5887 listed cases, we identified 62 clusters comprising 176 encephalitis cases. We collected blood from 127 of these cases. In 10 clusters, we identified a total of 62 Nipah cases: 18 laboratory-confirmed and 34 probable. We identified person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus in four clusters. From case-based surveillance, we identified 23 (4%) Nipah cases. Faced with thousands of encephalitis cases, integrated cluster surveillance allows targeted deployment of investigative resources to detect outbreaks by stage III zoonotic pathogens in resource-limited settings.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Integrated cluster- and case-based surveillance for detecting stage III zoonotic pathogens: an example of Nipah virus surveillance in Bangladesh
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Integrated cluster- and case-based surveillance for detecting stage III zoonotic pathogens: an example of Nipah virus surveillance in Bangladesh
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Integrated cluster- and case-based surveillance for detecting stage III zoonotic pathogens: an example of Nipah virus surveillance in Bangladesh
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
* Author for correspondence: Mr A. M. Naser, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh. (Email: abunaser@icddrb.org)
References
Hide All
1. Wolfe, ND, Dunavan, CP, Diamond, J. Origins of major human infectious diseases. Nature 2007; 447: 279283.
2. Antia, R, et al. The role of evolution in the emergence of infectious diseases. Nature 2003; 426: 658661.
3. Blumberg, S, Lloyd-Smith, JO. Inference of R 0 and transmission heterogeneity from the size distribution of stuttering chains. PLoS Computational Biology 2013; 9: e1002993.
4. Lloyd-Smith, JO, et al. Epidemic dynamics at the human-animal interface. Science 2009; 326: 13621367.
5. de Groot, RJ, et al. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV): announcement of the Coronavirus Study Group. Journal of Virology 2013; 87: 77907792.
6. Coker, RJ, et al. Emerging infectious diseases in Southeast Asia: regional challenges to control. Lancet 2011; 377: 599609.
7. Luby, SP, et al. Recurrent zoonotic transmission of nipah virus into humans, Bangladesh, 2001–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2009; 15: 12291235.
8. Ferguson, NM, et al. Public health risk from the Avian H5N1 Influenza epidemic. Science 2004; 304: 968969.
9. Rahman, MA, et al. Date palm sap linked to nipah virus outbreak in Bangladesh, 2008. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 2012; 12: 6572.
10. Sazzad, HM, et al. Nipah virus infection outbreak with nosocomial and corpse-to-human transmission, Bangladesh. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2013; 19: 210217.
11. Luby, SP, Gurley, ES, Hossain, MJ. Transmission of human infection with nipah virus. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2009; 49: 17431748.
12. Homaira, N, et al. Nipah virus outbreak with person-to-person transmission in a district of Bangladesh, 2007. Epidemiology and Infection; 138: 16301636.
13. Gurley, ES, et al. Person-to-person transmission of nipah virus in a Bangladeshi community. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007; 13: 10311037.
14. Aziz, KMA. Kinship in Bangladesh: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh Dhaka, 1979. (Monograph series no. 1)
15. Hossain, MJ, et al. Clinical presentation of nipah virus infection in Bangladesh. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2008; 46: 977984.
16. Yu, F, et al. Serodiagnosis using recombinant Nipah virus nucleocapsid protein expressed in Escherichia coli . Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2006; 44: 31343138.
17. Gay, NJ. A model of long-term decline in the transmissibility of an infectious disease: Implications for the incidence of Hepatitis A. International Journal of Epidemiology 1996; 25: 854861.
18. De Serres, G, Gay, NJ, Farrington, CP. Epidemiology of transmissible diseases after elimination. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 151: 10391048.
19. Dietz, K. The estimation of the basic reproduction number for infectious diseases. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 1993; 2: 2341.
20. Schulz, M, Mielke, M, Wischnewski, N. Clusters of infectious diseases in german nursing homes: observations from a prospective infection surveillance study, October 2008 to August 2009. Eurosurveillance 2011; 16:15.
21. Orr, H, et al. Cluster of meningococcal disease in rugby match spectators. Communicable Disease and Public Health 2001; 4: 316318.
22. Lloyd-Smith, JO, et al. Superspreading and the effect of individual variation on disease emergence. Nature 2005; 438: 355359.
23. Pepin, KM, et al. Identifying genetic markers of adaptation for surveillance of viral host jumps. Nature Reviews Microbiology 2010; 8: 802813.
24. Gurley, ES, et al. Behaviour change intervention to reduce caregivers’ exposure to patients’ oral and nasal secretions in Bangladesh. International Journal of Infection Control 2013; 9.
25. Khan, SU, et al. A randomized controlled trial of interventions to impede date palm sap contamination by bats to prevent nipah virus transmission in Bangladesh. PLoS ONE 2012; 7: e42689.
26. Nahar, N, et al. Piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent nipah virus infection by interrupting bats' access to date palm sap in Bangladesh. Health Promotion International 2013; 28: 378386.
27. ICDDR, B. Surveillance for encephalitis in bangladesh: Preliminary results. Health and Science Bulletin 2004; 2: 711.
28. Hossain, MJ, et al. Hospital-based surveillance for Japanese encephalitis at four sites in Bangladesh, 2003–2005. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene; 82: 344349.
29. Ahmed, NU, et al. Reaching the unreachable: barriers of the poorest to accessing ngo healthcare services in Bangladesh. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition 2006; 24: 456466.
30. Gurley, ES, et al. Family and community concerns about post-mortem needle biopsies in a muslim society. BMC Medical Ethics 2011; 12: 10.
31. Jones, KE, et al. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature 2008; 451: 990993.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed