Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A milk-borne campylobacter outbreak following an educational farm visit

  • M. R. Evans (a1), R. J. Roberts (a2), C. D. Ribeiro (a3), D. Gardner (a4) and D. Kembrey (a5)...

Summary

After a nursery school trip to a dairy farm, 20 (53%) of 38 children and 3 (23%) of 13 adult helpers developed gastrointestinal infection. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 15 primary cases and from 3 of 9 secondary household cases. A cohort study of the school party found illness to be associated with drinking raw milk (relative risk 5·4, 95 % confidence interval 1·4–20·4, P = 0·001). There was a significant dose response relationship between amount of raw milk consumed and risk of illness (X2-test for linear trend 12·1, P = 0·0005) but not with incubation period, severity of symptoms or duration of illness. All 18 human campylobacter isolates were C. jejuni resistotype 02 and either biotype I (number 16) or biotype II (number 2). Campylobacter was also isolated from samples of dairy cattle and bird faeces obtained at the farm but these were of different resisto/biotypes. Educational farm visits have become increasingly popular in recent years and this outbreak illustrates the hazard of exposure to raw milk in this setting.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A milk-borne campylobacter outbreak following an educational farm visit
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A milk-borne campylobacter outbreak following an educational farm visit
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A milk-borne campylobacter outbreak following an educational farm visit
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
1.Galbraith, NS, Forbes, P, Clifford, C. Communicable disease associated with milk and dairy products in England and Wales 1951–80. BMJ 1982; 284: 1761–5.
2.Robinson, DA, Jones, DM. Milk-borne campylobacter infection. BMJ 1981; 282: 1374–6.
3.Finch, MJ, Blake, PA. Foodborne outbreaks of campylobacteriosis: the United States experience, 1980–1982. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 122: 262–8.
4.Joseph, CA, Noah, N, White, JM, Hoskins, T. A review of outbreaks of infectious disease in school in England and Wales. Epidemiol Infect 1990; 105: 419–34.
5.Wood, RC, MacDonald, KL, Osterholm, MT. Campylobacter enteritis outbreaks associated with drinking raw milk during youth activities. A 10-year review of outbreaks in the United States. JAMA 1991; 268: 3228–30.
6.Department of Health Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food. Interim Report on Campylobacter. London: HMSO, 1993.
7.Dean, AD, Dean, JA, Burton, JH, Dicker, RC. Epi info, version 6: a word processing, database and statistics package for epidemiology on microcomputer. Stone Mountain, Georgia: USD Incorporated, 1994.
8.Ribeiro, CD, Thomas, MT, Kembrey, D, Magee, JT, North, Z. Resistotyping of campylobacters: fulfilling a need. Epidemiol Infect 1996; 116: 169–75.
9.Blaser, MJ, Sazie, E, Williams, P. The influence of immunity on raw milk-associated Campylobacter infection. JAMA 1987; 257: 43–6.
10.Waterman, S, Park, RWA, Bramley, AJ. A search for the source of Campylobacter jejuni in milk. J Hyg 1984; 92: 333–7.
11.Humphrey, TJ, Beckett, P. Campylobacter jejuni in dairy cows and raw milk. Epidemiol Infect 1987; 98: 263–9.
12.Hutchinson, DN, Bolton, FJ, Hinchliffe, PM et al. , Evidence of udder excretion of Campylobacter jejuni as the cause of a milk-borne Campylobacter outbreak. J Hyg 1985; 94: 205–15.
13.Orr, KE, Lightfoot, NF, Sisson, PR et al. , Direct milk excretion of Campylobacter jejuni in a dairy cow causing cases of human enteritis. Epidemiol Infect 1995; 114: 1524.
14.Robinson, DA. Infective dose of Campylobacter jejuni in milk. BMJ 1981; 282: 1584.
15.Black, RE, Levine, MM, Clements, ML, Hughes, TP, Blaser, MJ. Experimental Campylobacter jejuni infection in humans. J Infect Dis 1988; 157: 472–9.
16.Korlath, JA, Osterholm, MT, Judy, LA, Forfang, JC, Robinson, RA. A point-source outbreak of campylobacteriosis associated with consumption of raw milk. J Infect Dis 1985; 152: 592–6.
17.Blaser, MJ, Walderman, RJ, Barrett, T, Erlandson, AL. Outbreaks of Campylobacter enteritis in two extended families: evidence for person to person transmission. J Pediatr 1981; 98: 254–7.
18.Jones, PH, Willis, AT, Robinson, DA et al. , Campylobacter enteritis associated with the consumption of free school milk. J Hyg 1981; 87: 155–62.
19.Hutchinson, DN, Bolton, FJ, Jones, DM, Sutcliffe, EM, Abbott, JD. Application of three typing schemes (Penner, Lior, Preston) to strains of Campylobacter spp. isolated from three outbreaks. Epidemiol Infect 1987; 98: 139–44.
20.Owen, RJ, Hernandez, J, Bolton, F. DNA restriction digest and ribosomal RNA gene patterns of Campylobacter jejuni: a comparison with bio-, sero- and bacteriophage-types of United Kingdom outbreak strains. Epidemiol Infect 1990; 105: 265–75.
21.Humphrey, TJ, Hart, RJC. Campylobacter and salmonella contamination of unpasteurized cow's milk on sale to the public. J Appl Bacteriol 1988; 65: 463–7.
22.Dawson, A, Griffin, R, Fleetwood, A, Barrett, NJ. Farm visits and zoonoses. Communicable Disease Report 1995; 5: R816.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed