Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in healthy children

  • A. J. Howard (a1), K. T. Dunkin (a1) and G. W. Millar (a1)
Summary
SUMMARY

An investigation was undertaken to determine the isolation rate and antibiotic resistance of Haemophilus influenzae from the nasopharynx of young children. The 996 subjects studied were up to 6 years of age. H. influenzae was isolated from 304 (30·5%) and strains of capsular type b from 11 (1·1%). Age, sibling status, season, respiratory infection and antibiotic therapy all influenced isolation rates. The overall prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the strains isolated was ampicillin 5·4% (all β-lactamase producers), cefaclor 0·3%, chloramphenicol 1·3%, erythromycin 38·2%, tetracycline 1·3%, trimethoprim 5·4% and sulphamethoxazole 0%. Ampicillin resistance was more common in type b than non-capsulated strains.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Bass J. W., Steklk R. W. & Wiebe R. A. (1974). Acute epiglottitis: a surgical emergency. Journal of the American Medical Association 229, 671675.
Campos J., Garcia-Tornel S. Cairi J. M. & Fabreoues I. (1980). Multiply resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b causing meningitis: Comparative clinical and laboratory study. Journal of Pediatrics 108, 897902.
Chapin K. C. & Doern G. V. (1983). Selective media for recovery of Haemophilus influenzae from specimens contaminated with upper respiratory tract microbial flora. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 17, 11631165.
Committee on Infectious Diseases 1984–1985. (1985). Haemophilus type b polysaccharide vaccine. Paediatrics 76, 322324.
Coulehan J. C., Michaels R. H. & Williams K. E. (1970). Bacterial meningitis in Navajo indians. Public Health Report 91, 464468.
Dawson B. & Zimmerman K. (1952). Incidence and type distribution of capsulated. H. influenzae strains. British Medical Journal 1 740742.
Doern G. V., Jorgensen J. H., Thornsberry C. & Preston D. A. (1986). Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 4, 95107.
Domz C. A. & Dickson D. R. (1957). The agammaglobulinaemias. Relations and implications. American Journal of Medicine 23, 917927.
Feldman R. A., Fraser D. V. & Koehler R. E. (1973). Death certificates as a measure of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis mortality in the United States, 1962–1968. In Haemophilns influenzae (ed. Sell S. H. W. & Karzon D. T.). pp. 221230. Vanderbilt University Press.
Fraser D. W. (1982). Haemophilus influenzae in the community and the home. In Haemophilus influenzae, Epidemiology, Immunology and Prevention of Disease (ed. Sell S. H. W. & Wright P. F.), pp. 1122. Elsevier Biomedical.
Garvey R. J. P. & McMullin F. P. (1983). Meningitis due to beta-lactamase producing type b Haemophilus influenzae resistant to chloramphenmicol. British Medical Jouranl 287, 11831184.
Goldacre M. J. (1976). Acute bacterial meningitis in childhood. Incidence and mortality in a defined population. Lancet i 2831.
Henderson F. W., Collier A. M., Sanyal M. A., Watkins J. M., Fairclough D. L., Clyde W. A. & Denny F. W. (1982). A longitudinal study of respiratory viruses and bacteria in the etiology of acute otitis media with effusion. New England Journal of Medicine 306, 13771383.
Howard A. J. (1987). Systemic disease produced by Haemophilus influenzae. In The Pathogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae (ed. Cole P. J.), pp. 5566. MCI International Ltd.
Howard A. J., Hince C. J. & Williams J. D. (1978). Antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumonia and Haemophilus influenzae. British Medical Journal 1 1967–1660.
Howard A. J., Williams H. M. & Poole M. C. (1986). Chloramphemnicol resistance in Haemophilus influenzae. Lancet ii 745.
Istre G. R., Conner J. S., Broome C. V., Hightower A. & Hopkins R. S. (1985). Risk factors for primary invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease: Increased risk from day care attendance and school aged household members. Journal of Paediatric 106, 190195.
Jones H. M. (1970). Acute epiglottitis: a personal study over 20 years. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 63, 706712.
Kenny J. F., Isburg C. D. & Michaels R. M. (1980). Meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b resistant to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Paediatrics 66, 1416.
Kilian M., Heine-Jensen J. & Bulow P. (1972). Haemophilus in the upper respiratory tract of children. Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica B 80, 571578.
Kilian M. A. (1976). A taxonomic study of the genus Haemophilus with a proposal of a new species. Journal of General Microbiology 93, 962.
Lehman S. J., Kucera J. C. & Brunken J. M. (1979). Nasopharyngeal carriage of antibiotic-resistant Haemophilus influenzae in healthy children. Paediatrics 64, 287291.
Malmborg A. (1979). Effect of food on absorption of erythromycin: A study of two derivatives, the stearate and the base. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 5, 591599.
Masters P. L., Brumfitt W., Mendez R. L. & Likar M. (1958). The bacterial flora of the upper respiratory tract in Paddington families, 1952–4. British Medical Journal 1, 12001205.
Michaels R. H., Poziviak C. S., Stonehraker F. E. & Norden C. W. (1970). Factors affecting pharyngeal Haemophilus influenzae type b colonisation rates in children. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 4, 413417.
Michaels R. H. & Schultz W. F. 1973. The frequency of Haemophilus influenzae infections. In Haemophilus influenzae (ed. Sell S. H. W. & Karzon D. T.), pp. 245250. Vanderbilt University Press.
Mpaire Y. (1970). Observations on the nasopharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae type b in children in Kampala, Uganda. Journal of Hygiene 68, 337341
Neu H. C. & Fu K. P. (1978). Cefaclor: in vitro spectrum of activity and beta-lactamase stability. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 13, 584588.
O'Callaghan C. H., Morris A. & Kirby S. M. (1972). Novel method for the detection of beta lactamases using a chromogenic cephalosporin substrate. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1, 283288.
Ounsted C. (1950). Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. A possible ecological factor. Lancet i, 161162.
Philpott-Howard J. & Williams J. D. (1982). Increase in antibiotic resistance in the United Kingdom since 1977; Report of a study group. British Medical Journal 284, 15971599.
Scheifele D. W. & Fussell S. J. (1981). Ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae colonising ambulatory children. American Journal of Disease of Children 135, 406409.
Sell S. H., Turner D. J. & Federspiel C. F. (1973). Natural infections with Haemophilus influenzae in children: Types indentified. In Haemophilus influenzae (ed. Sell S. H. W. & Karzon D. T.), pp. 312. Vanderbilt University Press.
Simasathien S., Duangmani C. & Echeverria P. (1980). Haemophilus influenzae type b resistant to both ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Paediatrics 66, 1416.
Snyder S. N. & Brunjes S. S. (1965). Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in adults. Review of the literature and report of 18 cases. American Journal of Medical Sciences 250, 658667.
Stephenson W. P., Doern G., Gantz N., Lipworth L. & Citapin K. (1985). Pharyngeal carriage rates of Haemophilus influenzae, type b and non-b and prevalence of ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae among healthy day-care children in Central Massachusetts. American Journal of Epidemiology 122, 868875.
Straker E. A., Hill A. B. & Lovell R. (1939). In Report on Public Health and Medical Subjects, pp. 101106. London: H.M.S.O.
Turk D. C. (1963). Nasopharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae type b. Journal of Hygiene 61, 247256.
Turk D. C. (1975). An investigation of the family background of acute haemophilus infections of children. Journal of Hygiene 75, 315332.
Turk D. C. & May J. R. (1967). In Haemophilus influenzae. Its Clinical Importance, pp. 5859. English Universities Press Ltd.
Uchiyama N., Greene G. R., Kitts D. B. & Thrupp L. D. (1980). Meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Journal of Paediatrics 97, 421424.
Ward J. L., Fraser D. W., Baraff L. J. & Plikaytees B. D. (1970). Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. A national study of secondary spread in household contacts. New England Journal of Medicine 301, 122126.
Ward J. L., Margolis H. S., Lum V. M. K. W., Fraser D. W. & Bender T. R. (1981). Haemophilus influenzae disease in Alaskan eskimos: Characteristics of a population with an unusual incidence of invasive disease. Lancet i 12811285.
Writzman S. A., Aisenbergh A. C., Silver G. R. & Smith D. H. (1977). Impaired humoral immunity in treated Hodgkin's disease. New England Journal of Medicine 297, 245248.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 2 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 83 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.