Skip to main content
×
Home

Occurrence and spread of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in Norwegian pig herds based on active serosurveillance from 2010 to 2014

  • C. ER (a1), E. SKJERVE (a2), E. BRUN (a1), T. FRAMSTAD (a2) and B. LIUM (a1)...
Summary
SUMMARY

The incursion of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was detected by Norway's active serosurveillance of its pig population in 2009. Since then, surveillance data from 2010 to 2014 revealed that 54% of 5643 herd tests involving 1567 pig herds and 28% of 23 036 blood samples screened positive for antibodies against influenza A virus. Positive herds were confirmed to have influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection by haemagglutination inhibition test. In 50% of positive herd tests, ⩾60% of the sampled pigs in each herd had antibodies against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. This within-herd animal seroprevalence did not vary for type of production, herd size or year of test. The overall running mean of national herd seroprevalence, and annual herd incidence risks fluctuated narrowly around the means of 45% and 32%, respectively, with the highest levels recorded in the three densest pig-producing counties. The probability of a herd being seropositive varied in the five production classes, which were sow pools, multiplier herds, conventional sow herds, nucleus herds, and fattening herds in descending order of likelihood. Large herds were more likely to be seropositive. Seropositive herds were highly likely to be seropositive the following year. The study shows that influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus is established in the Norwegian pig population with recurrent and new herd infections every year with the national herd seroprevalence in 2014 hovering at around 43% (95% confidence interval 40–46%).

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Occurrence and spread of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in Norwegian pig herds based on active serosurveillance from 2010 to 2014
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Occurrence and spread of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in Norwegian pig herds based on active serosurveillance from 2010 to 2014
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Occurrence and spread of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in Norwegian pig herds based on active serosurveillance from 2010 to 2014
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr C. Er, Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, 0106 Oslo, Norway. (Email: Chiek.Er@vetinst.no)
References
Hide All
1. Van Reeth K, Brown IH, Olsen CW. Influenza virus. In: Zimmerman J, et al. , eds. Diseases of Swine, 10th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
2. Kothalawala H, Toussaint MJM, Gruys E. An overview of swine influenza. Veterinary Quarterly 2006; 28: 4553.
3. Brown IH. History and epidemiology of swine influenza in Europe. Swine Influenza 2013; 370: 133146.
4. Marozin S, et al. Antigenic and genetic diversity among swine influenza A H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in Europe. Journal of General Virology 2002; 83: 735745.
5. Brown IH. The epidemiology and evolution of influenza viruses in pigs. Veterinary Microbiology 2000; 74: 2946.
6. Vincent A, et al. Review of influenza A virus in swine worldwide: a call for increased surveillance and research. Zoonoses and Public Health 2014; 61: 417.
7. Van Reeth K, et al. Seroprevalence of H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 influenza viruses in pigs in seven European countries in 2002–2003. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 2008; 2: 99105.
8. Van Reeth K, Brown IH, Pensaert M. Isolations of H1N2 influenza A virus from pigs in Belgium. Veterinary Record 2000; 146: 588589.
9. Maldonado J, et al. Evidence of the concurrent circulation of H1N2, H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses in densely populated pig areas in Spain. Veterinary Journal 2006; 172: 377381.
10. Brown IH, et al. Multiple genetic reassortment of avian and human influenza A viruses in European pigs, resulting in the emergence of an H1N2 virus of novel genotype. Journal of General Virology 1998; 79: 29472955.
11. Brown IH, Harris PA, Alexander DJ. Serological Studies of influenza viruses in pigs in Great Britain 1991–2. Epidemiology and Infection 1995; 114: 511520.
12. Kyriakis CS, et al. Serological evidence of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infections in Greek swine. Zoonoses and Public Health. doi:10.1111/zph.12235.
13. Simon G, et al. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013. PLoS ONE 2014; 9: e115815.
14. Pensaert M, et al. Evidence for the natural transmission of influenza A virus from wild ducts to swine and its potential importance for man. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1981; 59: 7578.
15. Castrucci M, et al. Genetic reassortment between avian and human influenza A viruses in Italian pigs. Virology 1993; 193: 503506.
16. Watson SJ, et al. Molecular epidemiology and evolution of influenza viruses circulating within European swine between 2009 and 2013. Journal of Virology 2015; 89: 99209931.
17. Centers for Disease, C, Prevention. Outbreak of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection – Mexico, March-April 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2009; 58: 467470.
18. Hofshagen M, et al. Pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v: human to pig transmission in Norway? Eurosurveillance 2009; 14.
19. Torremorell M, et al. Transmission of influenza A virus in pigs. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 2012; 59: 6884.
20. Howden KJ, et al. An investigation into human pandemic influenza virus (H1N1) 2009 on an Alberta swine farm. Canadian Veterinary Journal 2009; 50: 11531161.
21. Layne SP. Human influenza surveillance: the demand to expand. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006; 12: 562568.
22. Itoh Y, et al. In vitro and in vivo characterization of new swine-origin H1N1 influenza viruses. Nature 2009; 460: 1021–U1110.
23. Neumann G Noda T, Kawaoka Y. Emergence and pandemic potential of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus. Nature 2009; 459: 931939.
24. Grontvedt CA, et al. Clinical impact of infection with pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 virus in naive nucleus and multiplier pig herds in Norway. Influenza Research and Treatment 2011; 2011: 163745.
25. Lium B, Er C, Zerihun A. The surveillance and control programme for specific virus infections in swine herd in Norway 2013. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Veterinary Institute, 2014. (Surveillance and Control Programmes for Terrestrial and Aquatic Animals in Norway, Annual Report).
26. Er C, et al. Adverse effects of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection on growth performance of Norwegian pigs – a longitudinal study at a boar testing station. BMC Veterinary Research 2014; 10: 284.
27. Gjerset B, et al. Experiences after twenty months with pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection in the naive Norwegian pig population. Influenza Research and Treatment 2011; 2011: 206975.
28. Grontvedt CA, et al. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in Norwegian swine herds 2009/10: the risk of human to swine transmission. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2013; 110: 429434.
29. Brookes SM, et al. Replication, pathogenesis and transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in non-immune Pigs. PLoS ONE 2010; 5: e9068.
30. Engblom L, et al. Factors affecting length of productive life in Swedish commercial sows. Journal of Animal Science 2008; 86: 432441.
31. Dalin AM, Gidlund K, Eliasson-Selling L. Post-mortem examination of genital organs from sows with reproductive disturbances in a sow-pool. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 1997; 38: 253262.
32. Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A(H1N1) Virus Investigation Team. Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. New England Journal of Medicine 2009; 360: 26052615.
33. Van Reeth K, et al. Protection against a European H1N2 swine influenza virus in pigs previously infected with H1N1 and/or H3N2 subtypes. Vaccine 2003; 21: 13751381.
34. Burnham KP, Anderson DR. Information an likelihood theory: a basis for model selection and inference. In: Model Selection and Multimodel inference, 2nd edn. USA: Springer-Verlag, 2002, pp. 4996.
35. Stata. ci – Confidence intervals for means, proportions, and counts. STATA online manual (http://wwwstatacom/manuals13/rcipdf).
36. Rose N, Madec F. Occurrence of respiratory disease outbreaks in fattening pigs: relation with the features of a densely and a sparsely populated pig area in France. Veterinary Research 2002; 33: 179190.
37. Maes D, et al. Herd factors associated with the seroprevalences of four major respiratory pathogens in slaughter pigs from farrow-to-finish pig herds. Veterinary Research 2000; 31: 313327.
38. Kyriakis CS, et al. Influenza A virus infection dynamics in swine farms in Belgium, France, Italy and Spain, 2006–2008. Veterinary Microbiology 2013; 162: 543550.
39. Rose N, et al. Dynamics of influenza A virus infections in permanently infected pig farms: evidence of recurrent infections, circulation of several swine influenza viruses and reassortment events. Veterinary Research 2013; 44: 72.
40. Folkehelseinstituttet. Norwegian Insitutute of Public Health. Influenza surveillance week 20, 2013–2014 (http://wwwfhino/eway/?pid=240), 2014.
41. Loeffen WLA, et al. Effect of maternally derived antibodies on the clinical signs and immune response in pigs after primary and secondary infection with an influenza H1N1 virus. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 2003; 92: 2335.
42. Loeffen WLA, et al. Estimating the incidence of influenza-virus infections in Dutch weaned piglets using blood samples from a cross-sectional study. Veterinary Microbiology 2003; 91: 295308.
43. Er C, et al. Production impact of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection on fattening pigs in Norway. Journal of Animal Science 2016; 94: 751759.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 159 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 221 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.