Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 22
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Abu Samra, Nada Jori, Ferran Cacciò, Simone M. Frean, John Poonsamy, Bhavani and Thompson, Peter N. 2016. Cryptosporidium genotypes in children and calves living at the wildlife or livestock interface of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 83, Issue. 1,

    Galuppi, R. Piva, S. Castagnetti, C. Sarli, G. Iacono, E. Fioravanti, M.L. and Caffara, M. 2016. Cryptosporidium parvum: From foal to veterinary students. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 219, p. 53.

    Abeywardena, Harshanie Jex, Aaron R. and Gasser, Robin B. 2015.

    Abeywardena, Harshanie Jex, Aaron R Koehler, Anson V Rajapakse, RPV Udayawarna, Kanchana Haydon, Shane R Stevens, Melita A and Gasser, Robin B 2014. First molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from bovines (Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis) in Sri Lanka: unexpected absence of C. parvum from pre-weaned calves. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 75.

    Izadi, Morteza Jonaidi-Jafari, Nematollah Saburi, Amin Eyni, Hossein Rezaiemanesh, Mohammad-Reza and Ranjbar, Reza 2014. Cryptosporidiosis in Iranian Farm Workers and Their Household Members: A Hypothesis about Possible Zoonotic Transmission. Journal of Tropical Medicine, Vol. 2014, p. 1.

    Almawly, J. Prattley, D. French, N.P. Lopez-Villalobos, N. Hedgespeth, B. and Grinberg, A. 2013. Utility of halofuginone lactate for the prevention of natural cryptosporidiosis of calves, in the presence of co-infection with rotavirus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 197, Issue. 1-2, p. 59.

    Rossle, Nurul Fariza and Latif, Baha 2013. Cryptosporidiosis as threatening health problem: A review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Vol. 3, Issue. 11, p. 916.

    2013. Compendium of Measures to Prevent Disease Associated with Animals in Public Settings, 2013. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 243, Issue. 9, p. 1270.

    Hale, C. R. Scallan, E. Cronquist, A. B. Dunn, J. Smith, K. Robinson, T. Lathrop, S. Tobin-D'Angelo, M. and Clogher, P. 2012. Estimates of Enteric Illness Attributable to Contact With Animals and Their Environments in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 54, Issue. suppl 5, p. S472.

    Ng, Josephine Su Yin Eastwood, Keith Walker, Belinda Durrheim, David N. Massey, Peter D. Porigneaux, Philippe Kemp, Ross McKinnon, Bob Laurie, Kate Miller, David Bramley, Elizabeth and Ryan, Una 2012. Evidence of Cryptosporidium transmission between cattle and humans in northern New South Wales. Experimental Parasitology, Vol. 130, Issue. 4, p. 437.

    Maikai, Beatty V. Umoh, Jalarth U. Kwaga, Jacob K.P. Lawal, Idris A. Maikai, Victor A. Cama, Vitaliano and Xiao, Lihua 2011. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in native breeds of cattle in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 178, Issue. 3-4, p. 241.

    Bowman, Dwight D. and Lucio-Forster, Araceli 2010. Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in dogs and cats: Veterinary and public health importance. Experimental Parasitology, Vol. 124, Issue. 1, p. 121.

    Khan, Shahbaz Manzoor Debnath, Chanchal Pramanik, Amiya Kumar Xiao, Lihua Nozaki, Tomoyoshi and Ganguly, Sandipan 2010. Molecular characterization and assessment of zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium from dairy cattle in West Bengal, India. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 171, Issue. 1-2, p. 41.

    Lee, Marilyn B. and Greig, Judy D. 2010. A Review of Gastrointestinal Outbreaks in Schools: Effective Infection Control Interventions. Journal of School Health, Vol. 80, Issue. 12, p. 588.

    McGuigan, Christopher C. Steven, Kirsty and Pollock, Kevin G.J. 2010. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Wildlife Center, Scotland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 16, Issue. 5, p. 895.

    Putignani, Lorenza and Menichella, Donato 2010. Global Distribution, Public Health and Clinical Impact of the Protozoan PathogenCryptosporidium. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, Vol. 2010, p. 1.

    Yoder, Jonathan S. and Beach, Michael J. 2010. Cryptosporidium surveillance and risk factors in the United States. Experimental Parasitology, Vol. 124, Issue. 1, p. 31.

    PINTAR, K. D. M. POLLARI, F. WALTNER-TOEWS, D. CHARRON, D. F. McEWEN, S. A. FAZIL, A. and NESBITT, A. 2009. A modified case-control study of cryptosporidiosis (using non- Cryptosporidium-infected enteric cases as controls) in a community setting. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 137, Issue. 12, p. 1789.

    Conn, David Bruce Weaver, Jennifer Tamang, Leena and Graczyk, Thaddeus K. 2007. Synanthropic Flies as Vectors ofCryptosporidiumandGiardiaamong Livestock and Wildlife in a Multispecies Agricultural Complex. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 7, Issue. 4, p. 643.

    Feng, Yaoyu Ortega, Ynes He, Guosheng Das, Pradeep Xu, Meiqian Zhang, Xichen Fayer, Ronald Gatei, Wangeci Cama, Vitaliano and Xiao, Lihua 2007. Wide geographic distribution of Cryptosporidium bovis and the deer-like genotype in bovines. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 144, Issue. 1-2, p. 1.


Recurrent outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis associated with calves among students at an educational farm programme, Minnesota, 2003

  • K. M. KIANG (a1) (a2), J. M. SCHEFTEL (a1), F. T. LEANO (a3), C. M. TAYLOR (a3), P. A. BELLE-ISLE (a3), E. A. CEBELINSKI (a3), R. DANILA (a1) and K. E. SMITH (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 May 2006

Enteric illness outbreaks among middle-/high-school students in consecutive semesters of an educational farm programme were investigated with retrospective cohort studies. During the first outbreak, 31/92 (34%) interviewed students were ill. Risk factors included participating in animal science class (RR 8·1, 95% CI 1·2–55·2) and contact with calves (RR 4·2, 95% CI 1·1–16·2). Stool samples from seven students and two calves yielded Cryptosporidium parvum. Students cared for animals in street clothes and practised poor hand washing. During the second outbreak, 37/81 (46%) interviewed animal science students were ill. Risk factors included having visible manure on hands, and wearing coveralls and boots. Stool samples from seven students and eight calves yielded C. parvum. Student hand washing was still inadequate. Coveralls/boots were cleaned infrequently and removed after hand washing. These outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis resulted from calf contact and inadequate hygiene practices. The failure to adequately implement recommended interventions contributed to the second outbreak.

Corresponding author
Minnesota Department of Health, Acute Disease Investigation and Control Section, 717 Delaware St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, USA 55414. (Email:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *