Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 11
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Sharma, Chandresh Sankhyan, Anurag Sharma, Tarang Khan, Naeem Chaudhuri, Susmita Kumar, Niraj Bhatnagar, Shinjini Khanna, Navin and Tiwari, Ashutosh 2015. A repertoire of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies specific to S. typhi: as potential candidate for improved typhoid diagnostic. Immunologic Research, Vol. 62, Issue. 3, p. 325.

    Mogasale, Vittal Maskery, Brian Ochiai, R Leon Lee, Jung Seok Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V Ramani, Enusa Kim, Young Eun Park, Jin Kyung and Wierzba, Thomas F 2014. Burden of typhoid fever in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic, literature-based update with risk-factor adjustment. The Lancet Global Health, Vol. 2, Issue. 10, p. e570.

    Waddington, Claire S. Darton, Thomas C. Woodward, William E. Angus, Brian Levine, Myron M. and Pollard, Andrew J. 2014. Advancing the management and control of typhoid fever: A review of the historical role of human challenge studies. Journal of Infection, Vol. 68, Issue. 5, p. 405.

    Al Mamun, Mohammad Rahman, Shah Md. Mahfuzur and Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury 2013. Knowledge and Awareness of Children's Food Safety Among School-Based Street Food Vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, Vol. 10, Issue. 4, p. 323.

    Al Mamun, Mohammad Rahman, Shah Md. Mahfuzur and Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury 2013. Microbiological quality of selected street food items vended by school-based street food vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh. International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 166, Issue. 3, p. 413.

    Islam, Ausraful Mikolon, Andrea Mikoleit, Matthew Ahmed, Dilruba Khan, Salah Udddin Sharker, M. A. Yushuf Hossain, M. Jahangir Islam, Ariful Epstein, Jonathan H. Zeidner, Nord and Luby, Stephen P. 2013. Isolation of Salmonella Virchow from a Fruit Bat (Pteropus giganteus). EcoHealth, Vol. 10, Issue. 4, p. 348.

    Deloria-Knoll, M. Feikin, D. R. Scott, J. A. G. O'Brien, K. L. DeLuca, A. N. Driscoll, A. J. and Levine, O. S. 2012. Identification and Selection of Cases and Controls in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health Project. Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 54, Issue. suppl 2, p. S117.

    Parry, Christopher M Wijedoru, Lalith Arjyal, Amit and Baker, Stephen 2011. The utility of diagnostic tests for enteric fever in endemic locations. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, Vol. 9, Issue. 6, p. 711.

    Khan, M Imran Ochiai, R Leon and Clemens, John D 2010. Population impact of Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine. Expert Review of Vaccines, Vol. 9, Issue. 5, p. 485.

    Naheed, Aliya Ram, Pavani K. Brooks, W. Abdullah Hossain, M. Anowar Parsons, Michele B. Talukder, Kaisar Ali Mintz, Eric Luby, Stephen and Breiman, Robert F. 2010. Burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in a densely populated urban community, Dhaka, Bangladesh. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 14, p. e93.

    Sharma, Puran K. Ramakrishnan, R. Hutin, Y. Manickam, P. and Gupte, M. D. 2009. Risk factors for typhoid in Darjeeling, West Bengal, India: evidence for practical action. Tropical Medicine & International Health, Vol. 14, Issue. 6, p. 696.


Risk factors for typhoid fever in a slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh

  • P. K. RAM (a1) (a2), A. NAHEED (a3), W. A. BROOKS (a3), M. A. HOSSAIN (a3), E. D. MINTZ (a1), R. F. BREIMAN (a3) and S. P. LUBY (a1) (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 08 August 2006

We systematically investigated risk factors for typhoid fever in Kamalapur, a poor urban area of Bangladesh, to inform targeted public health measures for its control. We interviewed patients with typhoid fever and two age-matched controls per case about exposures during the 14 days before the onset of illness. The municipal water supply was used by all 41 cases and 81of 82 controls. In multivariate analysis, drinking unboiled water at home was a significant risk factor [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 12·1, 95% CI 2·2–65·6]. Twenty-three (56%) cases and 21 (26%) controls reported that water from the primary source was foul-smelling (aOR 7·4, 95% CI 2·1–25·4). Eating papaya was associated with illness (aOR 5·2, 95% CI 1·2–22·2). Using a latrine for defecation was significantly protective (aOR 0·1, 95% CI 0·02–0·9). Improved chlorination of the municipal water supply or disinfecting drinking water at the household level may dramatically reduce the risk of typhoid fever in Kamalapur. The protective effect of using latrines, particularly among young children, should be investigated further.

Corresponding author
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Health Professions, Farber Hall, Rm. 270, Buffalo, NY, 14214-8001, USA. (Email:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *