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Shellfish toxicity: human health implications of marine algal toxins

  • K. J. JAMES (a1) (a2), B. CAREY (a1) (a2), J. O'HALLORAN (a2) (a3), F. N. A. M. van PELT (a2) (a4) and Z. ŠKRABÁKOVÁ (a1) (a2)...

Five major human toxic syndromes caused by the consumption of shellfish contaminated by algal toxins are presented. The increased risks to humans of shellfish toxicity from the prevalence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) may be a consequence of large-scale ecological changes from anthropogenic activities, especially increased eutrophication, marine transport and aquaculture, and global climate change. Improvements in toxin detection methods and increased toxin surveillance programmes are positive developments in limiting human exposure to shellfish toxins.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Professor K. J. James, PROTEOBIO, Cork Institute of Technology, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland. (Email:
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