Skip to main content Accesibility Help

Shellfish toxicity: human health implications of marine algal toxins

  • K. J. JAMES (a1) (a2), B. CAREY (a1) (a2), J. O'HALLORAN (a2) (a3), F. N. A. M. van PELT (a2) (a4) and Z. ŠKRABÁKOVÁ (a1) (a2)...

Five major human toxic syndromes caused by the consumption of shellfish contaminated by algal toxins are presented. The increased risks to humans of shellfish toxicity from the prevalence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) may be a consequence of large-scale ecological changes from anthropogenic activities, especially increased eutrophication, marine transport and aquaculture, and global climate change. Improvements in toxin detection methods and increased toxin surveillance programmes are positive developments in limiting human exposure to shellfish toxins.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Shellfish toxicity: human health implications of marine algal toxins
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Shellfish toxicity: human health implications of marine algal toxins
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Shellfish toxicity: human health implications of marine algal toxins
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Professor K. J. James, PROTEOBIO, Cork Institute of Technology, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland. (Email:
Hide All
1.Martinez, R, Dubinsky, Z. Useful products from algal photosynthesis. In: Archer, M, ed. Molecular to Global Photosynthesis, vol. 2. London: Imperial College Press, 2004, p. 340.
2.Huss, HH. Control of indigenous pathogenic bacteria in seafood. Food Control 1997; 18: 9198.
3.Smayda, TJ. Harmful algal blooms: their ecophysiology and general relevance to phytoplankton blooms in the sea. Limnology Oceanography 1997; 42: 11371153.
4.James, KJ, et al. Phycotoxins. In: Pico, Y, ed. Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry Vol. 51, Food Contaminants and Residue Analysis. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2008, pp. 429452.
5.Anon. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain on a request from the European Commission on Marine Biotoxins in Shellfish – Summary on regulated marine biotoxins. EFSA Journal 2009; 1306: 123.
6.Fusetani, N, Kem, W. Marine toxins: an overview In: Fusetani, N, Kem, W, eds. Marine Toxins as Research Tools, vol. 46. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, pp. 144.
7.Aune, T. Risk assessment of marine toxins. In: Botana, LM, ed. Seafood and Freshwater Toxins, Pharmacology, Physiology and Detection. New York: CRC Press, 2008, pp. 3–20.
8.Hallegraeff, GM. A review of harmful algae and their apparent global increase. Phycologia 1993; 32: 7999.
9.Scholin, CA, et al. Mortality of sea lions along the central California coast linked to a toxic diatom bloom. Nature 2000; 403: 8084.
10.Chevallier, A. Report on poisoning cases from oysters, mussels and crabs [in French]. Annales d'hygiene publique et de medecine legale 1851; 1.
11.Narahashi, T. Mechanism of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin action. In: Tu, AT, ed. Marine Toxins and Venoms, vol. 3. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 1988, pp. 185210.
12.Levin, RE. Paralytic shellfish toxins: the origins, characteristics, and methods of detection: a review. Journal of Food Biochemistry 1992; 15: 405417.
13.Anon. Paralytic shellfish poison. Biological method. Final action [M]. In: Hellrich, K, ed. Official Methods of Analysis. Arlington, Virginia, USA: Association of Official Methods of Analytical Chemists, 1990, pp. 881882.
14.Gessner, BD, Middaugh, JP. Paralytic shellfish poisoning in Alaska – a 20-year retrospective analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology 1995; 141: 766770.
15.Van Dolah, FM. Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrences. Environmental Health Perspectives 2000; 108: 133141.
16.Sommer, H, Meyer, KF. Paralytic shellfish poisoning. Archives Pathology 1937; 24: 560598.
17.Prakash, A, Medcof, J, Tennant, A. Paralytic shellfish poisoning in Eastern Canada. Bulletin Fisheries Research Board Canada 1971; 117: 188.
18.Gessner, D. Epidemiological impact of toxic episodes: neurotoxic toxins. In: Botana, LM, ed. Seafood and freshwater toxins, pharmacology, physiology and detection. New York: CRC Press, 2008, pp. 77–103.
19.Anderson, DM. Red tides. Scientific American 1994; August 1994, pp. 5258.
20.Anderson, DM, Sullivan, JJ, Reguera, B. Paralytic shellfish poisoning in northwest Spain: the toxicity of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. Toxicon 1989; 27: 665674. Carvalho, M, et al. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: clinical and electrophysiological observations. Journal of Neurology 1998; 245: 551554.
22.Ingham, HR, Mason, J, Wood, PC. Distribution of toxin in molluscan shellfish following the occurence of mussel toxicity in northeast England. Nature 1968; 220: 2527.
23.Lagos, N. Microalgal blooms: a global issue with negative impact in Chile. Biological Research 1998; 31: 375386.
24.García, C, et al. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post-mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords. Toxicon 2004; 43: 149158.
25.Jacinto, GS, Azanza RV, Velasquez, IB, Siringan, FP. Manila bay: Environmental challenges and opportunities. In: Wolanski, E, ed. The Environment in Asia Pacific Harbours. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, 2006, pp. 309328.
26.Maclean, JL. Indo-Pacific red tides, 1985–1988. Marine Pollution Bulletin 1989; 20: 304310.
27.Murata, M, et al. Isolation and structural elucidation of the causative toxin of the diarrhetic shellfish Poisoning. Bulletin Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 1982; 48: 549552.
28.Yasumoto, T, et al. Diarrhetic shellfish toxins. Tetrahedron 1985; 41: 10191025.
29.Ogino, H, Kugami, M, Yasumoto, T. Toxicologic evaluation of yessotoxin. Natural Toxins 1997; 5: 255259.
30.Aune, T, et al. Comparison of oral and intraperitoneal toxicity of yessotoxin towards mice. Toxicon 2002; 40: 7782.
31.EU Commission. Commission decision of 15 March 2002: maximum levels and methods of analysis of certain marine biotoxins in bivalve molluscs, echinoderms, tunicates and marine gastropods. Official Journal of the European Communities, vol. L 75 (2002/225/EC), 2002, pp. 6264.
32.Bialojan, C, Takai, A. Inhibitory effect of a marine-sponge toxin, okadaic acid, on protein phosphatases. Specificity and kinetics. Journal of Biochemistry 1988; 256: 283290.
33.Cohen, P, Holmes, CFB, Tsukitani, Y. Okadaic acid – a new probe for the study of cellular-regulation. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 1990; 15: 98–102.
34.Draisci, R, et al. Determination of diarrhoetic shellfish toxins in mussels by microliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of AOAC International 1998; 81: 441447.
35.James, KJ, et al. Chapter 11: Detection methods for okadaic acid & analogues. In: Botana, LM, ed. Seafood and Freshwater Toxins: Pharmacology, Physiology and Detection. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2000, pp. 217238.
36.Suganuma, M, et al. Okadaic acid: an additional non-phorbol-12-tetradecanoate- 13-acetate-type tumor promoter. Proceedings of the National. Academy of Sciences USA 1988; 85: 17681771.
37.Fujiki, H, et al. Significant marine natural products in cancer research. Gazzetta Chimica Italiana 1993; 123: 309316.
38.Manerio, E, et al. Shellfish consumption: a major risk factor for colorectal cancer. Medical Hypotheses 2008; 70: 409412.
39.Yasumoto, T, Oshima, Y, Yamaguchi, M. Occurrence of a new type of toxic shellfish poisoning in the Tohoku district. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 1978; 44: 12491255.
40.Kawabata, T. Regulatory aspects of marine biotoxins in Japan. In: Natori, S, Hashimoto, K, Ueno, Y, eds. Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1989, pp. 469476.
41.van Egmond, HP, et al. Paralytic and diarrhoeic shellfish poisons: occurrence in Europe, toxicity, analysis and regulation. Journal of Natural Toxins 1993; 2: 4183.
42.Belin, C. Distribution of Dinophysis spp. and Alexandrium minutum along French coast since 1984 and their DSP and PSP toxicity levels. In: Smayda, TJ, Shimizu, Y, eds. Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea. New York: Elsevier, 1991, pp. 469474.
43.Gestal-Otero, JJ. Non neurotoxic toxins. In: Botana, LM, ed. Seafood and Freshwater Toxins, Pharmacology, Physiology and Detection. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2000, pp. 4564.
44.Gestal-Otero, JJ. Epidemiological impact of diarrheic toxins. In: Botana, LM, ed. Seafood and Freshwater Toxins: Pharmacology, Physiology and Detection. Boca Raton: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, 2008, pp. 5376.
45.Durborow, R. Health and safety concerns in fisheries and aquaculture. Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews 1999; 14: 373406.
46.Carmody, EP, James, KJ, Kelly, SS. Dinophysistoxin-2: The predominant diarrhetic shellfish toxin in Ireland. Toxicon 1996; 34: 351359.
47.De Schrijver, K, et al. An outbreak of diarrhoeic poisoning in Antwerp, Belgium. Eurosurveillance Monthly 2002; 7: 138141.
48.Murakami, Y, Oshima, Y, Yasumoto, T. Identification of okadaic acid as a toxic component of a marine dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum lima. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 1982; 48: 6972.
49.Yasumoto, T, et al. Identification of Dinophysis fortii as the causative organism of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 1980; 46: 14051411.
50.Fernández Puente, P, et al. Studies of polyether toxins in the marine phytoplankton, Dinophysis acuta, in Ireland using multiple tandem mass spectrometry. Toxicon 2004; 44: 919926.
51.Blanco, J, et al. A preliminary model of toxin accumulation in mussels. In: Lassus, P et al. , ed. Harmful Marine Algal Blooms Paris: Lavoisier Science Publishers, 1995, pp. 777782.
52.Suzuki, T, et al. Quantification of lipophilic toxins associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in Japanese bivalves by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and comparison with mouse bioassay. Fisheries Science 2005; 71: 13701378.
53.Baden, DG. Marine food-borne dinoflagellate toxins. International Review of Cytology 1983; 82: 99–150.
54.Steidinger, KA, Baden, DG. Toxic marine dinoflagellates. In: Spector, DL, ed. Dinoflagellates. New York: Academic Press, 1984, pp. 201299.
55.Furey, A, et al. Brevetoxins: Structure, Toxicology and Origin. In: Botana, L, Hui, YH, eds. Phycotoxins: Chemistry and Biochemistry. Ames: Blackwell Publishing, 2007, pp. 1946.
56.Watkins, SM, et al. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. Marine Drugs 2008; 6: 431455.
57.Flewelling, LJ, et al. Red tides and marine mammal mortalities: unexpected brevetoxin vectors may account for deaths long after or remote from an algal bloom. Nature 2005; 435: 755756.
58.Morohashi, A, et al. Brevetoxin B3, a new brevetoxin analog isolated from the greenshell mussel Perna canaliculus involved in neurotoxic shellfish poisoning in New Zealand. Tetrahedron Letters 1995; 36: 89958998.
59.Sim, J, Wilson, N. Surveillance of marine biotoxins, 1993–1996. New Zealand Public Health Report 1997; 4: 9–16.
60.Morris, PD, et al. Clinical and epidemiological features of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning in North Carolina. American Journal of Public Health 1991; 81: 471–471.
61.Poli, MA, et al. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning and brevetoxin metabolites: a case study from Florida. Toxicon 2000; 38: 981993.
62.Fleming, LE, Backer, LC, Baden, DG. Overview of aerosolized Florida red tide toxins: Exposure and effects. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005; 113: 618620.
63.Dechraoui, MY, et al. Ciguatoxins and brevetoxins, neurotoxic polyether compounds active on sodium channels. Toxicon 1999; 37: 125143.
64.Poli, MA, Rein, KS, Baden, DG. Radioimmunoassay for PbTx-2-Type brevetoxins: Epitope specificity of two anti-PbTx sera. Journal of AOAC International 1995; 78: 538542.
65.Perl, TM, et al. An outbreak of toxic encephalopathy caused by eating mussels contaminated with domoic acid. New England Journal of Medicine 1990; 322: 17751780.
66.Todd, ECD. Domoic acid and amnesic shellfish poisoning – a review. Journal of Food Protection 1993; 56: 6983.
67.Wright, JLC, et al. Identification of domoic acid, a neuroexcitory amino acid, in toxic mussels from eastern PEI, Canada. Canadian Journal of Chemistry 1989; 67: 481490.
68.Bates, SS, et al. Pennate diatom Nitzschia pungens as the primary source of domoic acid, a toxin in shellfish from Prince Edward Island, Canada. Canadian Journal of Aquatic Science 1989; 46: 12031215.
69.Daigo, K. Studies on the constituents of Chondria armata, II. Isolation of an anthelmentical constituent. Journal of the Japanese Pharmaceutical Association 1959; 79: 353356.
70.Wekell, JC, et al. Occurrence of domoic acid in Washington state razor clams (Siliqua patula) during 1991–1993. Natural Toxins 1994; 2: 197205.
71.James, KJ, et al. Amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins in bivalve molluscs in Ireland. Toxicon 2005; 46: 852858.
72.Powell, CL, et al. Development of a protocol for determination of domoic acid in the sand crab (Emerita analoga): a possible new indicator species. Toxicon 2002; 40: 485492.
73.Wright, JLC. Dealing with seafood toxins: present approaches and future options. Food Research International 1995; 28: 347358.
74.Lawrence, JF, Charbonneau, CF, Menard, C. Liquid chromatographic determination of domoic acid in mussels, using AOAC paralytic shellfish poison extraction procedure: collaborative study. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 1991; 74: 6872.
75.López-Rivera, A, et al. Improved high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of domoic acid and analogues in shellfish. Analytical Bioanalytical Chemistry 2005; 381: 15411545.
76.Beltran, AS, et al. Sea bird mortality at Cabo San lucas, Mexico: evidence that toxic diatom blooms are spreading. Toxicon 1997; 35: 447453.
77.Work, TM, et al. Epidemiology of domoic acid poisoning in brown pelicans (Pelecanus-Occidentalis) and Brandt cormorants (Phalacrocorax-Penicillatus) in California. Journal of Zoological Wildlife Medicine 1993; 24: 5462.
78.Trainer, VL, Hickey, BM, Bates, SS. Toxic Diatoms. In: Walsh, PJ et al. , eds. Oceans and Human Health: Risks and Remedies from the Seas. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2008, pp. 219237.
79.Miguez, A, Luisa Fernandez, M, Fraga, S. First detection of domoic acid in Galicia (NW Spain). In: Yasumoto, T, Oshima, Y, Fukuro, Y, eds. Harmful and Toxic Algal Blooms. Paris: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, 1998, pp. 143145.
80.James, KJ, et al. New fluorimetric method of liquid chromatography for the determination of the neurotoxin domoic acid in seafood and marine phytoplankton. Journal of Chromatography A 2000; 871: 16.
81.Vale, P, Sampayo, MA. Domoic acid in Portuguese shellfish and fish. Toxicon 2001; 39: 893904.
82.Hess, P, et al. Determination and confirmation of the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, domoic acid in shellfish from Scotland by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Journal of AOAC International 2001; 84: 16571667.
83.Amzil, Z, et al. Domoic acid accumulation in French shellfish in relation to toxic species of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. pseudodelicatissima. Toxicon 2001; 39: 12451251.
84.Pulido, OM. Domoic acid toxicologic pathology: a review. Marine Drugs 2008; 6: 180219.
85.Satake, M, et al. Azaspiracid, a new marine toxin having unique spiro ring assemblies, isolated from Irish mussels, Mytilus edulis. Journal of American Chemical Society 1998; 120: 99679968.
86.Ofuji, K, et al. Two analogs of azaspiracid isolated from mussels, Mytilus edulis, involved in human intoxications in Ireland. Natural Toxins 1999; 7: 99–102.
87.Ofuji, K, et al. Structures of azaspiracid analogs, azaspiracid-4 and azaspiracid-5, causative toxins of azaspiracid poisoning in Europe. Bioscience Biotechnology Biochemistry 2001; 65: 740742.
88.Nicolaou, KC, et al. Total synthesis of the proposed azaspiracid-1 structure, part 2: Coupling of the C1-C20, C21-C27, and C28-C40 fragments and completion of the synthesis. Angewandte Chemie – International Edition 2003; 42: 36493653.
89.James, KJ, et al. Azaspiracid Poisoning, The food-borne illness associated with shellfish consumption. Food Additives and Contaminants 2004; 21: 879892.
90.Draisci, R, et al. Development of a method for the identification of azaspiracid in shellfish by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 2000; 871: 1321.
91.Furey, A, et al. Determination of azaspiracids in shellfish using liquid chromatography-tandem electrospray mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 2002; 16: 238242.
92.Lehane, M, et al. Liquid chromatography – multiple tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ten azaspiracids, including hydroxyl analogues, in shellfish. Journal of Chromatography A 2004; 1024: 6370.
93.James, KJ, et al. First evidence of an extensive Northern European distribution of Azaspiracid Poisoning (AZP) toxins in shellfish. Toxicon 2002; 40: 909915.
94.Braña Magdalena, A, et al. The first identification of azaspiracids in shellfish from France and Spain. Toxicon 2003; 42: 105108.
95.Furey, A, et al. Geographical, temporal and species variation of the polyether toxins, azaspiracids. Enviromental Science and Technolology 2003; 37: 30783084.
96.Taleb, H, et al. First detection of azaspiracids in mussels in North West Africa. Journal of Shellfisheries Research 2006; 25: 10671070.
97.Ueoka, R, et al. Isolation of azaspiracid-2 from a marine sponge Echinoclathria sp. as a potent cytotoxin. Toxicon 2009; 53: 680684.
98.James, KJ, et al. Detection of five new hydroxyl analogues of azaspiracids in shellfish using multiple tandem mass spectrometry. Toxicon 2003; 41: 277283.
99.Rehmann, N, Hess, P, Quilliam, MA. Discovery of new analogs of the marine biotoxin azaspiracid in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 2008; 22: 549558.
100.Ito, E, et al. Multiple organ damage caused by a new toxin azaspiracid, isolated from mussels produced in Ireland. Toxicon 2000; 38: 917930.
101.Ito, , et al. Chronic effects in mice caused by the oral administration of sublethal doses of azaspiracid, a new marine toxin isolated from mussels. Toxicon 2002; 40: 193203.
102.Román, Y, et al. Azaspiracid-1, a potent, nonapoptotic new phycotoxin with several cell targets. Cellular Signalling 2002; 14: 703716.
103.Roman, Y, et al. Effects of azaspiracids 2 and 3 on Intracellular cAMP, Ca2+, and pH. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2004; 17: 13381349.
104.Vilariño, N. Marine toxins and the cytoskeleton: azaspiracids. FEBS Journal 2008; 275: 60756081.
105.James, KJ, et al. Ubiquitous ‘benign’ alga emerges as the cause of shellfish contamination responsible for the human toxic syndrome, azaspiracid poisoning. Toxicon 2003; 41: 145151.
106.Tillmann, U, et al. Azadinium spinosum gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) identified as a primary producer of azaspiracid toxins. European Journal of Phycology 2009; 44: 6379.
107.James, KJ, et al. Azaspiracid shellfish poisoning: unusual toxin dynamics in shellfish and the increased risk of acute human intoxications. Food Additives and Contaminants 2002; 19: 555561.
108.James, KJ, et al. Azaspiracids: chemistry, bioconversion and determination. In: Botana, LM, Hui, YH, eds. Phycotoxins: Detection and Analysis. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2008, pp. 763784.
109.Hallegeaeff, GM. Harmful algae blooms: a global overview. In: Hallegraeff, GM, Anderson, DM, Cembella, AD, eds. Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae. Paris: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO), 1995, pp. 2549.
110.Maso, M, Garces, E. Harmful microalgae blooms (HAB); problematic and conditions that induce them. Marine Pollution Bulletin 2006; 53: 620630.
111.Peperzak, L. Future increase in harmful algal blooms in the North Sea due to climate change. Water Science & Technology 2005; 51: 3136.
112.Kelly, V. The Role of eutrophication in the global proliferation of harmful algal blooms. Oceanography 2005; 18: 198209.
113.Moore, SK, et al. Impacts of climate variability and future climate change on harmful algal blooms and human health. (Centers for Oceans and Human Health Investigators Meeting). Environmental Health 7. Woods Hole, MA, USA. 24–27 April 2007, BioMed Central Ltd, 2008; S4.
114.Pearl, HW, Whitall, DR. Anthropogenically-driven atmospheric nitrogen deposition, marine eutrophication and harmful algal bloom expansion: is there a link? Ambio 1999; 28: 307311.
115.Hodgkiss, IJ, Ho, KC. Are changes in N:P ratios in coastal waters the key to increased red tide blooms? Hydrobiologia 1999; 352: 141147.
116.Hallegraeff, GM, et al. Microalgal spores in ship's ballast water: a danger to aquaculture. In: Graneli, E et al. , eds. Toxic Marine Phytoplankton. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1990, pp. 475480.
117.Ciminiello, P, et al. The Genoa 2005 outbreak. Determination of putative palytoxin in Mediterranean Ostreopsis ovata by a new liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Analytical Chemistry 2006; 78: 61536159.
118.Louzao, MC, Ares, IR, Cagide, E. Marine toxins and the cytoskeleton: a new view of palytoxin toxicity. FEBS Journal 2008; 275: 60676074.
119.Cagide, E, et al. Production of functionally active palytoxin-like compounds by Mediterranean Ostreopsis cf. siamensis. Cell Physiolology and Biochemistry 2009; 23: 431440.
120.Noguchi, T, Arakawa, O. Tetrodotoxin – distribution and accumulation in aquatic organisms, and cases of human intoxication. Marine Drugs 2008; 6: 220242.
121.Fernández-Ortega, JF, et al. Seafood intoxication by tetrodotoxin: first case in Europe. Journal of Emergency Medicine 2009 (in press).
122.Anon. EU project. ATLANTOX: advanced tests about new toxins appeared in the Atlantic, 2009 (
123.Sobel, J, Painter, J. Illnesses caused by marine toxins. Clinical Infections Diseases 2005; 41: 12901296.
124.Mons, MN, van Egmond, HP, Speijers, GJA. Paralytic shellfish poisoning, a review. Report: National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), The Netherlands, 1998, pp. 147.
125.Dahl, E, Yndestad, M. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in Norway in the autumn 1984 related to the occurrence of Dinophysis spp. In: Anderson, DM, White, DW, Baden, DG, eds. Toxic Dinoflagellates. New York: Elsevier, 1985, pp. 495500.
126.Correia, AM, Goncalves, G, Saraiva, M. Foodborne outbreaks in northern Portugal, 2002. Eurosuveillance 2004; 9: 1820.
127.Quilliam, MA, et al. Confirmation of an incident of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. In: Smayda, TJ, Shimizu, Y, eds. Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea, 1993, pp. 547552.
128.Lembeye, G, Yasumoto, T, Zhao, J, Fernandez, R. DSP outbreak in Chilean fiords. In: Smayda, TJ, Shimizu, Y, eds. Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea: Elsevier, 1993, pp. 525529.
129.Gayoso, AM, et al. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning associated with Prorocentrum lima (Dinophyceae) in Patagonian Gulfs (Argentina). Journal of Shellfish Research 2002; 21: 461463.
130.Sakamoto, Y, Lockey, RF, Krzanowski, JJ. Shellfish and fish poisoning related to the toxic dinoflagellates. Southern Medical Journal 1987; 80: 866872.
131.Ahmed, FE. Naturally occurring seafood toxins. Journal of Toxicology and Toxin Reviews 1991; 10: 263287.
132.Morohashi, A, et al. Brevetoxin B4 isolated from greenshell mussels Perna canaliculus, the major toxin involved in neurotoxic shellfish poisoning in New Zealand. Natural Toxins 1999; 7: 4548.
133.Satake, M, et al. New toxic event caused by Irish mussels. In: Reguera, B, Blanco, J, Fernandez, ML, Wyatt, T, eds. Harmful Algae. Santiago de Compostela: Xunta de Galicia and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, 1998, pp. 468469.
134.Anon. Illness due to AZP. Food Safety Authority of Ireland; 2008 (Newsletter May/June) (
135.Oshima, Y, et al. Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum as the source of paralytic shellfish toxins in Tasmanian shellfish. Toxicon 1987; 25: 11051111
136.Oshima, Y, Blackburn, SI, Hallegraeff, GM. Comparative study on paralytic shellfish toxin profiles of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catnatum from three different countries. Marine Biology 1993; 116: 471476.
137.James, KJ, et al. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric, mass spectrometric and tandem mass spectrometric detection to investigate the seafood toxin producing phytoplankton, Dinophysis acuta. Journal of Chromatography 1997; 777: 213221.
138.Lee, JS, et al. Determination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in various dinoflagellate species. Journal of Applied Phycology 1989; 1: 147152.
139.Dickey, RW, et al. Identification of okadaic acid from a Caribbean dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum concavum. Toxicon 1990; 28: 371377.
140.Lin, YY, et al. Isolation and structure of brevetoxin B from the ‘red tide’ dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis (Gymnodinium breve). Journal of the American Chemical Society 1981; 103: 67736775.
141.Baden, DG, Mende, TJ, Roszell, LE. Detoxification mechanisms of Florida's red tide dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis. In: Okaichi, T, Anderson, DM, Nemoto, T, eds. Red Tides: Biology, Environmental Science, and Toxicology. New York: Elsevier, 1989, pp. 391394.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed