Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 33
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Hamilton, K. A. and Haas, C. N. 2016. Critical review of mathematical approaches for quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of Legionella in engineered water systems: research gaps and a new framework. Environ. Sci.: Water Res. Technol., Vol. 2, Issue. 4, p. 599.

    Lück, Christian Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta Rydzewski, Kerstin Koshkolda, Tetyana Sarnow, Katharina Essig, Andreas and Heuner, Klaus 2015. Subtyping of the Legionella pneumophila “Ulm” outbreak strain using the CRISPR–Cas system. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, Vol. 305, Issue. 8, p. 828.

    Conza, Lisa Casati Pagani, Simona and Gaia, Valeria 2014. Influence of climate and geography on the occurrence of Legionella and amoebae in composting facilities. BMC Research Notes, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 831.

    Phin, Nick Parry-Ford, Frances Harrison, Timothy Stagg, Helen R Zhang, Natalie Kumar, Kartik Lortholary, Olivier Zumla, Alimuddin and Abubakar, Ibrahim 2014. Epidemiology and clinical management of Legionnaires' disease. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 14, Issue. 10, p. 1011.

    Azuma, Kenichi Uchiyama, Iwao and Okumura, Jiro 2013. Assessing the risk of Legionnaires’ disease: The inhalation exposure model and the estimated risk in residential bathrooms. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. 65, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    EDELSTEIN, PAUL H. and CIANCIOTTO, NICHOLAS P. 2010. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases.

    Pagnier, Isabelle Merchat, Michèle and La Scola, Bernard 2009. Potentially pathogenic amoeba-associated microorganisms in cooling towers and their control. Future Microbiology, Vol. 4, Issue. 5, p. 615.

    Sakamoto, Ryota Ohno, Akira Nakahara, Toshitaka Satomura, Kazunari Iwanaga, Suketaka Kouyama, Yuuichiro Kura, Fumiaki Kato, Naoyuki Matsubayashi, Kozo Okumiya, Kiyohito and Yamaguchi, Keizo 2009. Legionella pneumophilain Rainwater on Roads. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 15, Issue. 8, p. 1295.

    Tang, J. W. 2009. The effect of environmental parameters on the survival of airborne infectious agents. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, Vol. 6, Issue. Suppl_6, p. S737.

    Guizani, Nejib Al-Shoukri, Ali Obaid Mothershaw, Ann and Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur 2008. Effects of Salting and Drying on Shark (Carcharhinus sorrah) Meat Quality Characteristics. Drying Technology, Vol. 26, Issue. 6, p. 705.

    Armstrong, T. W. and Haas, C. N. 2007. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Model for Legionnaires' Disease: Animal Model Selection and Dose-Response Modeling. Risk Analysis, Vol. 27, Issue. 6, p. 1581.

    Armstrong, Thomas W. and Haas, Charles N. 2007. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Model for Legionnaires' Disease: Assessment of Human Exposures for Selected Spa Outbreaks. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Vol. 4, Issue. 8, p. 634.

    Deloge-Abarkan, Magali Ha, Thi-Lan Robine, Enric Zmirou-Navier, Denis and Mathieu, Laurence 2007. Detection of airborne Legionella while showering using liquid impingement and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). J. Environ. Monit., Vol. 9, Issue. 1, p. 91.

    Pankhurst, Caroline L. and Coulter, Wilson A. 2007. Do contaminated dental unit waterlines pose a risk of infection?. Journal of Dentistry, Vol. 35, Issue. 9, p. 712.

    Ha, T.L. 2006. La légionellose : un risque environnemental. Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement, Vol. 67, Issue. 4, p. 669.

    Borella, Paola Guerrieri, Elisa Marchesi, Isabella Bondi, Moreno and Messi, Patrizia 2005.

    Stites, Frances L. 2003. Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology.

    Lever, M.S. Williams, A. and Bennett, A.M. 2000. Survival of mycobacterial species in aerosols generated from artificial saliva. Letters in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 31, Issue. 3, p. 238.

    Edelstein, P.H. 1999. Handbook of Animal Models of Infection.

    Leach, Steve A Williams, Ann Davies, Angela C Wilson, Jenny Marsh, Philip D and Humphrey, Tom J 1999. Aerosol route enhances the contamination of intact eggs and muscle of experimentally infected laying hens bySalmonella typhimuriumDT104. FEMS Microbiology Letters, Vol. 171, Issue. 2, p. 203.


Survival of virulent Legionella pneumophila in aerosols

  • P. Hambleton (a1), M. G. Broster (a2), P. J. Dennis (a1), R. Henstridge (a2), R. Fitzgeorge (a1) and J. W. Conlan (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 May 2009

Aqueous suspensions of virulent Legionellapneumophila grown on solid medium retained virulence and aerosol survival characteristics for several months. Significant numbers of viable organisms were recovered from aerosols held at various relative humidities (r.h.) for up to 2 h. The organisms survived best at 65% r.h. and were least stable at 55% r.h.

Exponential phase broth-grown organisms survived poorly in aerosols in comparison with stationary phase broth cultures or organisms grown on solid medium, suggesting that the metabolic status of Legionella pneumophila organisms may be an important factor affecting their ability to survive in aerosols and cause respiratory disease.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. D. Anderson (1966). Biochemical studies of lethal processes in aerosols of Escherichia coli. Journal of General Microbiology 45, 303313.

P. M. Arnow , T. Chou , D. Weil , E. N. Shapiro & C. Kretzschmar (1982). Nosocomial legionnaires’ disease caused by aerosolized tap water from respiratory devices. Journal of Infectious Diseases 146, 460467.

J. P. Band , M. La Venture & J. P. Davis (1981). Epidemic legionnaires’ disease: airborne transmission down a chimney. Journal of the American Medical Association 245, 24042407.

J. E. Benbough (1967). Death mechanisms in airborne Escherichia coli. Journal of General Microbiology 47, 325333.

J. E. Benbough (1969). Factors affecting the toxicity of oxygen towards airborne coliform bacteria. Journal of General Microbiology 56, 241250.

R. F. Berendt , H. W. Young , R. G. Allen & G. L. Knutsen (1980). Dose response of guinea pigs experimentally infected with aerosols of Legionella pneumophila. Journal of Infectious Diseases 141, 186192.

C. V. Broome , S. A. J. Goings , S. B. Thacker , R. L. Vogt , H. N. Beaty , D. W. Faser & Field Investigation Team. (1979). The Vermont epidemic of legionnaires’ disease. Annals of Internal Medicine 90, 573577.

L. G. Cordes & D. W. Fraser (1980). Legionellosis. Legionnaires’ disease; Pontiac fever. Medical Clinics of North America 64, 395416.

C. S. Cox (1969). The cause of loss of viability of airborne Escherichia coli K 12. Journal of General Microbiology 57, 7780.

G. K. Morris , C. M. Patton , J. C. Feeley , S. E. Johnson , G. Gorman , W. T. Martin , P. Skaliy , G. F. Mallison , B. I. Politi & M. S. Mackel (1979). Isolation of the legionnaires' bacterium from environmental samples. Annals of Internal Medicine 90, 664666.

F. C. Page (1967). Taxonomic criteria for limax amoebae with descriptions of three new species of Hartmanella and three of Vohlkampfia. Journal of Protozoology 14, 499521.

B. D. Politi , D. W. Fraser , G. F. Mallison , J. V. Mohatt , G. K. Morris , C. M. Patton , J. C. Feeley , R. D. Telle & J. V. Bennett (1979). A major focus of legionnaires' disease in Bloomington, Indiana. Annals of lnternal Medicine 90, 587591.

J. O'H. Tobin , R. A. Swann & C. J. R. Bartlett (1981). Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from water systems: methods and preliminary results. British Medical Journal 282, 515517.

S. J. Webb (1967). The influence of oxygen and inositol on the survival of semi-dried microorganisms. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 13, 733742.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *