Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 14
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Rezaei, Farhad Sarshari, Behrang Ghavami, Nastaran Meysami, Parisa Shadab, Azadeh Salimi, Hamid and Mokhtari-Azad, Talat 2016. Prevalence and genotypic characterization of Human Parvovirus B19 in children with measles- and rubella-like illness in Iran. Journal of Medical Virology, Vol. 88, Issue. 6, p. 947.

    Lalana-Josa, Pilar Galindo-Rubio, Carlos Benedé-Azagra, Carmen Belén and Caro-Rebollo, Josefina 2014. Enfermedad por parvovirus B19 en adultos inmunocompetentes. Descripción de un brote en un centro de salud urbano de Zaragoza. Medicina Clínica, Vol. 143, Issue. 10, p. 470.

    Gallinella, Giorgio 2013. Parvovirus B19 Achievements and Challenges. ISRN Virology, Vol. 2013, p. 1.

    PEDRANTI, M. S. BARBERO, P. WOLFF, C. GHIETTO, L. M. ZAPATA, M. and ADAMO, M. P. 2012. Infection and immunity for human parvovirus B19 in patients with febrile exanthema. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 140, Issue. 03, p. 454.

    Puccetti, C. Contoli, M. Bonvicini, F. Cervi, F. Simonazzi, G. Gallinella, G. Murano, P. Farina, A. Guerra, B. Zerbini, M. and Rizzo, N. 2012. Parvovirus B19 in pregnancy: possible consequences of vertical transmission. Prenatal Diagnosis, p. 1.

    Schleiss, Mark R. and Patterson, Janna C. 2012. Avery's Diseases of the Newborn.

    Adler, Stuart P. and Koch, William C. 2011. Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn.

    Goeyvaerts, N. Hens, N. Aerts, M. and Beutels, P. 2011. Model structure analysis to estimate basic immunological processes and maternal risk for parvovirus B19. Biostatistics, Vol. 12, Issue. 2, p. 283.

    Ke, Ling He, Miao Li, Changqing Liu, Yu Gao, Lei Yao, Fuzhu Li, Julin Bi, Xinhong Lv, Yunlai Wang, Jingxing Hirsch, Matthew L. and Li, Wuping 2011. The prevalence of human parvovirus B19 DNA and antibodies in blood donors from four Chinese blood centers. Transfusion, Vol. 51, Issue. 9, p. 1909.

    Lamont, RF Sobel, JD Vaisbuch, E Kusanovic, JP Mazaki-Tovi, S Kim, SK Uldbjerg, N and Romero, R 2011. Parvovirus B19 infection in human pregnancy. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Vol. 118, Issue. 2, p. 175.

    Plentz, Annelie and Modrow, Susanne 2011. Diagnosis, management and possibilities to prevent parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy. Future Virology, Vol. 6, Issue. 12, p. 1435.

    Satake, Masahiro Hoshi, Yuji Taira, Rikizo Momose, Shun-ya Hino, Satoru and Tadokoro, Kenji 2011. Symptomatic parvovirus B19 infection caused by blood component transfusion. Transfusion, Vol. 51, Issue. 9, p. 1887.

    Chen, Yee-Chun Chen, Mao-Yuan Lu, Chun-Yi Chang, Hsin-Hsin Hung, Chien-Ching Chen, Mei-Yu and Chen, Mei-Ling 2010. Cluster of Parvovirus Infection Among Hospital Staff Working in Coronary Care Units. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Vol. 109, Issue. 12, p. 886.

    van Rijckevorsel, G.G.C. Sonder, G.J.B. Schim van der Loeff, M.F. and van den Hoek, J.A.R. 2009. Population-based study on the seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 in Amsterdam. Journal of Medical Virology, Vol. 81, Issue. 7, p. 1305.


The burden of parvovirus B19 infection in women of childbearing age in England and Wales

  • A. J. VYSE (a1), N. J. ANDREWS (a2), L. M. HESKETH (a3) and R. PEBODY (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 February 2007

A serological survey has been used to investigate the epidemiology of parvovirus B19 infection in England and Wales. A total of 2835 sera representing the complete age range were selected from a convenience collection obtained in 1996 that reflects the general population and screened for parvovirus B19-specific IgG. Antibody prevalence rose nonlinearly with age from 21% in those aged 1–4 years to >75% in adults aged ⩾45 years. Force-of-infection estimates were similar to those previously made in 1991, being highest in those aged <15 years. There was no association between evidence of previous infection and sex or region. Quantitatively strongest antibody responses were found in those aged 15–34 years and IgG levels in females were 28·5% higher than those found in males (P=0·004, 95% CI 8·2–52·6). Applying the upper 95% confidence interval for the force of infection to maternity estimates for England and Wales in 1996, parvovirus infection in pregnancy was estimated to occur on average in up to 1 in every 512 pregnancies each year. This represents 1257 maternal infections, causing up to an estimated 59 fetal deaths and 11 cases of hydrops fetalis annually. An analysis of all available laboratory-confirmed parvovirus infections found a mean of 944 infections per year in women aged 15–44 years highlighting a need for enhanced surveillance of maternal parvovirus B19 infection in England and Wales, including information on both pregnancy and outcome of pregnancy.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr A. J. Vyse, Health Protection Agency CfI – CDSC, Immunisation Department, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

4. E Miller , Immediate and long term outcome of human parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1998; 105: 174178.

5. HA Kelly , The age-specific prevalence of human parvovirus immunity in Victoria, Australia compared with other parts of the world. Epidemiology and Infection 2000; 124: 449457.

6. BJ Cohen , MM Buckley . The prevalence of antibody to human parvovirus B19 in England and Wales. Journal of Medical Microbiology 1988; 25: 151153.

7. K Osborne , Ten years of serological surveillance in England and Wales: methods, results, implications and action. International Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 29: 362368.

8. H Kelly , A random cluster survey and a convenience sample give comparable estimates of immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in children of school age in Victoria, Australia. Vaccine 2002; 20: 31303136.

9. NJ Gay . Analysis of serological surveys using mixture models: application to a survey of parvovirus B19. Statistics in Medicine 1996; 15: 15671573.

10. PHLS Working Party on Fifth Disease. Prospective study of human parvovirus (B19) infection in pregnancy. British Medical Journal 1990; 300: 11661170.

14. AD Woolf , Clinical manifestations of human parvovirus B19 in adults. Archives of Internal Medicine 1989; 149: 11531156.

15. BS Blumberg . Sex differences in response to hepatitis B virus. Arthritis & Rheumatism 1979; 22: 12611266.

16. JW Fang , Female children respond to recombinant hepatitis B vaccine with a higher titre than male. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1994; 40: 104107.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *