Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 6
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Weine, Stevan M. and Kashuba, Adrianna B. 2012. Labor Migration and HIV Risk: A Systematic Review of the Literature. AIDS and Behavior, Vol. 16, Issue. 6, p. 1605.

    Steen, Richard Hontelez, Jan A.C. Veraart, Andra White, Richard G. and de Vlas, Sake J. 2014. Looking upstream to prevent HIV transmission. AIDS, Vol. 28, Issue. 6, p. 891.

    Lau, J. T. F. Zhou, H. Su, X. Y. Feng, T. J. Hong, F. C. Tsui, H. Y. Ma, Y. L. Wang, Z. and Walden, D. 2014. Condoms Used But Sex Not Well Protected. AIDS and Behavior, Vol. 18, Issue. 10, p. 1934.

    Rana, A K. M. Masud Reza, Md. Masud Alam, Md. Shah Khatun, Mahmuda Khan, Sharful Islam and Azim, Tasnim 2016. Effects of In-country and Cross-Border Mobility on Condom Use Among Transgender Women (hijras) in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study. AIDS and Behavior, Vol. 20, Issue. 10, p. 2165.

    Obel, Josephine Larsson, Markus and Sodemann, Morten 2014. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV in border districts affected by migration and poverty in Tanzania. The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care, Vol. 19, Issue. 6, p. 420.

    Hontelez, Jan A.C. Nagelkerke, Nico Bärnighausen, Till Bakker, Roel Tanser, Frank Newell, Marie-Louise Lurie, Mark N. Baltussen, Rob and de Vlas, Sake J. 2011. The potential impact of RV144-like vaccines in rural South Africa: A study using the STDSIM microsimulation model. Vaccine, Vol. 29, Issue. 36, p. 6100.


The impact of mobility on HIV control: a modelling study

  • D. C. J. VISSERS (a1), S. J. DE VLAS (a1), R. BAKKER (a1), M. URASSA (a2), H. A. C. M. VOETEN (a1) and J. D. F. HABBEMA (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 07 February 2011

Mobility is associated with HIV due to more risky sexual behaviour of mobile groups such as travellers and migrants. Limited participation of such groups may reduce the effectiveness of HIV interventions disproportionally. The established STDSIM model, which simulates transmission and control of HIV and STD, was extended to simulate mobility patterns based on data from Tanzania. We explored the impact of non-participation of mobile groups (travellers and recent migrants) on the effectiveness of two interventions: condom promotion and health education aiming at partner reduction. If mobile groups do not participate, the effectiveness of both interventions could be reduced by 40%. The impact of targeting travellers with a combined HIV campaign is close to that of a general population intervention. In conclusion, it is important to account for possible non-participation of migrants and travellers. If non-participation is substantial, impact of interventions can be greatly improved by actively approaching these people.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Dr S. J. de Vlas, Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. (Email:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.AJ Nunn , Migration and HIV-1 seroprevalence in a rural Ugandan population. AIDS 1995; 9: 503506.

2.J Decosas , Migration and AIDS. Lancet 1995; 346: 826828.

3.H Pickering , Sexual mixing patterns in Uganda: small-time urban/rural traders. AIDS 1996; 10: 533536.

4.J Bwayo , Human immunodeficiency virus infection in long-distance truck drivers in east Africa. Archives of Internal Medicine 1994; 154: 13911396.

5.E Lagarde , G Pison , C Enel . A study of sexual behaviour change in rural Senegal. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes & Human Retrovirology 1996; 11: 282287.

6.M Lurie , The impact of migration on HIV-1 transmission in South-Africa: a study of migrant men and non-migrant men and their partners. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2003; 30: 149156.

7.N Lydie , Mobility, sexual behaviour, and HIV infection in an urban population in Cameroon. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2004; 35: 6774.

8.EJ Mmbaga , The role of in-migrants in the increasing rural HIV-1 epidemic: results from a village population survey in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008; 12: 519525.

11.C Kishamawe , Mobility and HIV in Tanzanian couples: both mobile persons and their partners behind show increased risk. AIDS 2006; 20: 601608.

12.S Weller , K Davis . Condom effectiveness in reducing heterosexual HIV transmission. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002; Issue 1. Art. No. CD003255.

13.SD Pinkerton , PR Abramson . Effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV transmission. Social Science & Medicine 1997; 44: 13031312.

14.JD Shelton , Partner reduction is crucial for balanced ‘ABC’ approach to HIV prevention. British Medical Journal 2004; 328: 891893.

15.RL Stoneburner , D Low-Beer . Population-level HIV declines and behavioural risk avoidance in Uganda. Science 2004; 304: 714718.

16.E Lagarde , Mobility and the spread of human immunodefiency virus into rural areas of West-Africa. International Journal of Epidemiology 2003; 32: 744752.

17.RM Anderson , GP Garnett . Mathematical models of the transmission and control of sexually transmitted diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2000; 27: 636643.

18.M Coffee , MN Lurie , GP Garnett . Modelling the impact of migration on the HIV epidemic in South Africa. AIDS 2007; 21: 343350.

19.PT Walker , Interpreting declines in HIV prevalence: impact of spatial aggregation and migration on expected declines in prevalence. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2008; 84(Suppl. 2): ii42ii48.

20.CPB Van der Ploeg , STDSIM: a microsimulation model for decision support on STD control. Interfaces 1998; 28: 84–100.

21.EL Korenromp , HIV spread and partnership reduction for different patterns of sexual behaviour – a study with the microsimulation model STDSIM. Mathematical Population Studies 2000; 8: 135173.

22.EL Korenromp , The effect of HIV, behavioural change, and STD syndromic management on STD epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa: simulations of Uganda. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2002; 78 (Suppl. 1): i55i63.

23.RG White , Can population differences explain the contrasting results of the Mwanza, Rakai, and Masaka HIV/sexually transmitted disease intervention trials? A modeling study. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2004; 37: 15001513.

24.EE Freeman , Proportion of new HIV infections attributable to herpes simplex 2 increases over time: simulations of the changing role of sexually transmitted infections in sub-Saharan African HIV epidemics. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2007; 83 (Suppl. 1): i17i24.

25.KK Orroth , Understanding differences between contrasting HIV epidemics in East and West Africa: results from a simulation model of the Four Cities Study. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2007; 83 (Suppl. 1): i5–i16.

26.RG White , Male circumcision for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: who, what and when? AIDS 2008; 22: 18411850.

27.EL Korenromp , Can behaviour change explain increases in the proportion of genital ulcers attributable to herpes in sub-Saharan Africa? A simulation modelling study. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2002; 29: 228238.

28.EL Korenromp , Determinants of the impact of sexually transmitted infection treatment on prevention of HIV infection: a synthesis of evidence from the Mwanza, Rakai, and Masaka intervention trials. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2005; 191 (Suppl. 1): S168–178.

29.M Wambura , HIV prevalence and incidence in rural Tanzania: results from 10 years of follow-up in an open-cohort study. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2007; 46: 616623.

30.JT Boerma , Socio-demographic context of the AIDS epidemic in a rural area in Tanzania with a focus on people's mobility and marriage. Sexually Transmitted Infections 2002; 78: i97–i105.

31.HACM Voeten , Clients of female sex workers in Nyanza province, Kenya: a core group in STD/HIV transmission. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2002; 29: 444452.

32.KK Orroth , Higher risk behaviours and rates of sexually transmitted diseases in Mwanza compared to Uganda may help explain HIV prevention trial outcomes. AIDS 2003; 17: 26532660.

34.TC Quinn . Population migration and the spread of types 1 and 2 human immunodeficiency viruses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 1994; 91: 24072414.

35.SS Malamba , Risk factors for HIV-1 infection in adults in a rural Ugandan community: a case-control study. AIDS 1994; 8: 253257.

38.C Njue Disco funerals: a risk situation for HIV infection among youth in Kisumu, Kenya. AIDS 2009; 23: 505509.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *