American Psychiatric Association (2010) Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Baldwin, DS, Montgomery, SA, Nil, R and Lader, M (2007) Discontinuation symptoms in depression and anxiety disorders. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 10, 73–84.
Burn, W and Baldwin, D (2018) .
Chouinard, G and Chouinard, VA (2015) New classification of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor withdrawal. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 84, 63–71.
Davies, J and Read, J (2019a) A systematic review into the incidence, severity and duration of antidepressant withdrawal effects: are guidelines evidence-based? Addictive Behaviors 97, 111–121.
Davies, J and Read, J (2019b) Authors’ response to a critique by Jauhar and Hayes of ‘A systematic review into the incidence, severity and duration of antidepressant withdrawal effects: are guideline evidence-based?’. Addictive Behaviors 97, 127–130.
Davies, J, Read, J, Hengartner, MP, Cosci, F, Fava, G, Chouinard, G, Van Os, J, Nardi, A, Gotzsche, P, Groot, P, Offidani, E, Timimi, S, Moncrieff, J, Spada, M and Guy, A (2019) Clinical guidelines on antidepressant withdrawal urgently need updating. BMJ 365, l2238.
Ebrahim, S, Bance, S, Athale, A, Malachowski, C and Ioannidis, JP (2016) Meta-analyses with industry involvement are massively published and report no caveats for antidepressants. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 70, 155–163.
Eveleigh, R, Muskens, E, Lucassen, P, Verhaak, P, Spijker, J, Van Weel, C, Oude Voshaar, R and Speckens, A (2018) Withdrawal of unnecessary antidepressant medication: a randomised controlled trial in primary care. BJGP Open 1, .
Fava, GA and Belaise, C (2018) Discontinuing antidepressant drugs: lesson from a failed trial and extensive clinical experience. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 87, 257–267.
Fava, GA and Cosci, F (2019) Addressing clinical challenges of antidepressant discontinuation. American Journal of Psychiatry 176, 487–488.
Fava, GA, Bernardi, M, Tomba, E and Rafanelli, C (2007) Effects of gradual discontinuation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in panic disorder with agoraphobia. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 10, 835–838.
Fava, GA, Gatti, A, Belaise, C, Guidi, J and Offidani, E (2015) Withdrawal symptoms after selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation: a systematic review. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 84, 72–81.
Fava, GA, Benasi, G, Lucente, M, Offidani, E, Cosci, F and Guidi, J (2018) Withdrawal symptoms after serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor discontinuation: systematic review. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 87, 195–203.
Groot, PC and Van Os, J (2018) Antidepressant tapering strips to help people come off medication more safely. Psychosis-Psychological Social and Integrative Approaches 10, 142–145.
Haddad, PM (2001) Antidepressant discontinuation syndromes. Drug Safety 24, 183–197.
Hengartner, MP (2019) Commentary on Jauhar and Hayes. Addictive Behaviors 97, 131.
Hengartner, MP and Plöderl, M (2018) False beliefs in academic psychiatry: the case of antidepressant drugs. Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry 20, 6–16.
Hengartner, MP, Davies, J and Read, J (2019) How long does antidepressant withdrawal typically last? American Journal of Psychiatry 176, 487.
Horowitz, MA and Taylor, D (2019) Tapering of SSRI treatment to mitigate withdrawal symptoms. The Lancet. Psychiatry 6, 538–546.
Huijbregts, KM, Hoogendoorn, A, Slottje, P, Van Balkom, A and Batelaan, NM (2017) Long-term and short-term antidepressant use in general practice: data from a large cohort in the Netherlands. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 86, 362–369.
Jauhar, S and Hayes, J (2019) The war on antidepressants: what we can, and can't conclude, from the systematic review of antidepressant withdrawal effects by Davies and Read. Addictive Behaviors 97, 122–125.
Jauhar, S, Hayes, J, Goodwin, GM, Baldwin, DS, Cowen, PJ and Nutt, DJ (2019) Antidepressants, withdrawal, and addiction; where are we now? Journal of Psychopharmacology 33, 655–659.
Jha, MK, Rush, AJ and Trivedi, MH (2018) When discontinuing SSRI antidepressants is a challenge: management tips. American Journal of Psychiatry 175, 1176–1184.
Kessing, LV, Hansen, HV, Demyttenaere, K and Bech, P (2005) Depressive and bipolar disorders: patients’ attitudes and beliefs towards depression and antidepressants. Psychological Medicine 35, 1205–1213.
Mars, B, Heron, J, Kessler, D, Davies, NM, Martin, RM, Thomas, KH and Gunnell, D (2017) Influences on antidepressant prescribing trends in the UK: 1995–2011. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 52, 193–200.
Narayan, V and Haddad, PM (2011) Antidepressant discontinuation manic states: a critical review of the literature and suggested diagnostic criteria. Journal of Psychopharmacology 25, 306–313.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2009) Depression in Adults: Recognition and Management . London: NICE. nice.org.uk/guidance/cg90 ( 17 November 2017).
Nielsen, M, Hansen, EH and Gotzsche, PC (2012) What is the difference between dependence and withdrawal reactions? A comparison of benzodiazepines and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. Addiction 107, 900–908.
Perahia, DG, Kajdasz, DK, Desaiah, D and Haddad, PM (2005) Symptoms following abrupt discontinuation of duloxetine treatment in patients with major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 89, 207–212.
Read, J and Williams, J (2018) Adverse effects of antidepressants reported by a large international cohort: Emotional blunting, suicidality, and withdrawal effects. Current Drug Safety 13, 176–186.
Read, J, Cartwright, C and Gibson, K (2018) How many of 1829 antidepressant users report withdrawal symptoms or addiction? International Journal of Mental Health Nursing 27, 1805–1815.
Rosenbaum, JF, Fava, M, Hoog, SL, Ascroft, RC and Krebs, WB (1998) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. Biological Psychiatry 44, 77–87.
Schatzberg, AF, Haddad, P, Kaplan, EM, Lejoyeux, M, Rosenbaum, JF, Young, AH and Zajecka, J (1997). Serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation syndrome: a hypothetical definition. Discontinuation Consensus panel. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 58(suppl. 7), 5–10.
Sir, A, D'souza, RF, Uguz, S, George, T, Vahip, S, Hopwood, M, Martin, AJ, Lam, W and Burt, T (2005) Randomized trial of sertraline versus venlafaxine XR in major depression: efficacy and discontinuation symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 66, 1312–1320.
Stockmann, T, Odegbaro, D, Timimi, S and Moncrieff, J (2018) SSRI and SNRI withdrawal symptoms reported on an internet forum. International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine 29, 175–180.