Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Effects of different doses of oral ketamine for premedication of children

  • S. Turhanoğlu (a1), A. Kararmaz (a1), M. A. Özyilmaz (a1), S. Kaya (a1) and D. Tok (a1)...


Background and objective: A need exists for a safe and effective oral preanaesthetic medication for use in children undergoing elective surgery. The study sought to define the dose of oral ketamine that would facilitate induction of anaesthesia without causing significant side-effects.

Methods: We studied 80 children undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia who received oral ketamine 4, 6 or 8 mg kg−1 in a prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study. We compared the reaction to separation from parents, transport to the operating room, the response to intravenous cannula insertion and application of an anaesthetic facemask, the induction of anaesthesia and recovery from anaesthesia.

Results: In the group receiving ketamine 8 mg kg−1, the children were significantly calmer than those of the other groups, and anaesthesia induction was more comfortable. Recovery from anaesthesia was longer in the group receiving ketamine 8 mg kg−1 compared with the other groups, but no differences between the groups were observed after 2 h in the recovery room.

Conclusions: It is concluded that oral ketamine 8 mg kg−1 is an effective oral premedication in inpatient children undergoing elective surgery.

Corresponding author
Correspondence to: Selim Turhanoğlu, Dicle University Hospital, Department of Anaesthesiology, Diyarbakir, Turkey. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

WeldonBC, WatchaMF, WhitePF. Oral midazolam in children: effect of time and adjunctive therapy.Anesth Analg1992; 75: 5155.

GutsteinHB, JohnsonKL, HeardMB, GregoryGA. Oral ketamine preanesthetic medication in children.Anesthesiology1992; 76: 2833.

KlugerMT, OwenH. Premedication: an audit.Anaesthesia1991; 46: 224227.

WhitePF, HamJ, WayWL, TrevorAJ. Pharmacology of ketamine isomers in surgical patients.Anesthesiology1980; 52: 231239.

PetrosAJ. Oral ketamine: its use for mentally retarded adults requiring day case dental treatment.Anaesthesia1991; 46: 646647.

GrantIS, NimmoWS, ClementsJA. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of im and oral ketamine.Br J Anaesth1981; 53: 805810.

SekerciC, DönmezA, AtesY, OktenF. Oral ketamine premedication in children (placebo controlled double-blind study).Eur J Anaesthesiol1996; 13: 606611.

WarnerDL, CabaretJ, VellingD. Ketamine plus midazolam, a most effective paediatric oral premedicant.Paediatr Anaesth1995; 5: 293295.

ClementsJA, NimmoWS, GrantIS. Bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and analgesic activity of ketamine in humans.J Pharm Sci1982; 71: 539542.

FeldLH, NegusJB, WhitePF. Oral midazolam preanesthetic medication in paediatric outpatients.Anesthesiology1990; 73: 831834.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

European Journal of Anaesthesiology
  • ISSN: 0265-0215
  • EISSN: 1365-2346
  • URL: /core/journals/european-journal-of-anaesthesiology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Abstract views

Total abstract views: 91 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.