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Internet–Based Communication: Rights, Risks and Opportunities

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Nicola Lucchi*
Affiliation:
Department of Accounting & Law, Jönköping International Business School, email: Nicola.Lucchi@jibs.hj.se

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to recognize and discuss the inherent risks associated with Internet regulation and control over digital content. The key point of this analysis is that Internet regulation can present human rights risks. In particular, the paper examines how restrictions over Internet content are posing regulatory issues directly related to the growing importance of an equitable access to digital information. It also considers the relevance and impact of computer–mediated communication, its potential on democratization of freedom of expression and the problem of conflicting rights. Drawing upon comparative and case study material, the paper finally discusses and investigates the potential risks and vulnerabilities related to communication technologies focusing on legislative reforms in the area of digital communications and their implications for fundamental freedoms.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013

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References

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39 See Stefano Rodotà, Perchè Serve un Internt Bill of Rights, cit.

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41 Conseil constitutionnel, Décision No. 2009-580DC, du 10 Juin, 2009, relative à la loi favorisant la diffusion et la protection de la création sur Internet, June 13, Journal Officiel de la République Française (2009), pp. 9675 et sqq.

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44 On this court's decision, I beg to refer the reader to my Access to Network Services and Protection of Constitutional Rights: Recognizing the Essential Role of Internet Access for the Freedom of Expression, supra note 40.

45 See Yu, Peter K., “The Graduated Response,” 62 Florida Law Review (2010) pp. 1373 et sqq., at 1376–77Google Scholar (“[S]imilar laws and policies have been adopted, considered, or rejected by Australia, Germany, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom. Thus far, proposals for the development of a graduated response system have been rejected by Germany, Hong Kong, Spain, and Sweden as well as the European Parliament.”); see also International Federation of the Phonographic Industry, Digital Music Report 2011, (2011), at 18–19 available on the Internet at <http://www.ifpi.org/content/library/DMR2011.pdf> (reporting that France, South Korea, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Taiwan, and Chile have implemented a graduated response system) (last accessed on 6 October 2014).

46 It is just worth to mention that on July 8, 2013 – after an heated debate and the approval of a revised version of the HADOPI law according to the judgement issued by the French Supreme Court – the French Culture minister issued a new decree amending completely the former law and replacing the disconnection penalty with a fine. See Loi 2013-596 du 8 juillet 2013 supprimant la peine contraventionnelle complémentaire de suspension de l'accès à un service de communication au public en ligne et relatif aux modalités de transmission des informations prévue à l’article L331-21 du code de la propriété intellectuelle [Decree No. 2013-596 of 8 July 2013 abolishing the additional misdemeanor punishable by suspension of access to a communication service to the public online and on the procedure for transmission of information under Article L. 331-21 of the code IP], Journal Officiel de la République Française [J.O.] [Official Gazette of France], Jul. 9, 2013, p. 11428, available at http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affich-Texte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000027678782

47 Digital Economy Act, 2010, c. 24, available at http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/24/pdfs/ukpga_20100024_en.pdf.

48 This term “graduate response” refers to an indirect mechanism to target Internet piracy essentially based on a co–operation with the internet access providers that goes beyond the classical ‘‘notice and take down’’ approach, where online content is simply taken down after a complaint. In particular, this enforcement method implies a “notification mechanism for alleged online infringers before more stringent measures can be imposed including” the suspension of the internet service. See Alain Strowel, Internet Piracy as a Wake–up Call for Copyright Law MakersIs theGraduated Response” a Good Reply?, 1 W.I.P.O Journal 2009 pp. 75 et sqq., at 77.

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50 See Rebecca Giblin, Evaluating Graduated Response, 37 Colum. J.L. & Arts 2014, pp.147 et sqq. at 172;

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