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Foreign Direct Investment and transition

  • Lawrence P. King (a1)

Abstract

This article examines the debate on the developmental impact of foreign direct investment (FDI). While the most frequent finding within sociology is that FDI is harmful or at least less beneficial than domestic investment, most who study the transition from socialism or make economic policy in the region consider FDI to be a major motor of development. This paper examines the impact of FDI with a novel methodology. Rather than employing the standard analytic strategy that uses state-level macroeconomic data in a crossnational comparison, this article direcdy compares the performance of foreign owned firms to domestically owned firms. In the analysis six hypotheses derived from this debate on the role of FDI are tested with logistic regression on two large random sample surveys of Hungarian firms The findings support the position that foreign direct investment is beneficial for the recipient country. In addition, they support the idea that foreign owned firms are more beneficial than domestically owned firms.

Le rôle des investissements étrangers directs (IED) sur le développement économique fait l'objet d'un débat majeur pour quiconque s'intéresse à la transition du socialisme au capitalisme. Si la plupart des sociologues soulignent que les IED sont nuisibles ou en tout cas moins rentables que les investissements nationaux, les analystes de la transition et les décideurs en matière de politique économique sont d'un tout autre avis et considèrent les IED comme un moteur essentiel du developpement.La méthode utilisée ici differe des approches tranditionnelles qui utilisent des données macro-économiques nationales à des fins comparatives: l'auteur va comparer les performances d'entreprises dans lesquelles les capitaux étrangers sont majoritaires avec celles d'entreprises aux mains de capitaux nationaux. Six hypotheses concernant le rôle des IED sont testées à l'aide de régression logistique sur deux gros échantillons d'entreprises hongroises. Les résultats montrent que l'invesdssement étranger direct est favorable au développement du pays concerné. De plus, ils indiquent que les firmes étrangères dégagent plus de profit que les entreprises nationales.

Die direkten ausländischen Investitionen (DAI) haben eine Debatte hervorgerufen, die all diejenigen anspricht, die sich für den Übergang vom Sozialismus zum Kapitalismus interessieren. Im Rahmen der Soziologie geht man davon aus, dass DAI gefährlicher oder zumindest weniger rentable als inländische Investitionen sind. Diejenigen, die jedoch den Übergang vom Sozialismus analysieren oder die Wirtschaftspolitik machen, betrachten DAI als entscheidenden Entwicklungsfaktor. Dieser Aufsatz untersucht den Einfluss von DAI anhand einer neuen Methodik. Anstatt die herkömmliche analytische Strategic zu verwenden, die volkswirtschaftliche Daten in einen landesweiten Vergleich einbezieht, werden hier die Entwicklungen der Firmen mit mehrheitlich ausländischem Kapital denen mit inländischem Kapital gegenübergestellt. Dieses Verfahren verhindert auch eine Verzerrung, die ein landesweiter Vergleich in postkommunistischen Staaten mit sich bringen würde, sowie eine wirtschafdiche Schwäche, die auf inländische Statistiken zurückzuführen wäre. Sechs Hypothesen bezüglich der Rolle der DAI werden anhand der logistischen Regression zweier Gruppen ungarischer Unternehmen getestet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die DAI sich im Empfüngerland positiv auswirken. Darüber hinaus wird deutlich, dass die auslündischen Firmen mehr Profit erwirtschaften als die inlündischen Unternehmen.

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