Skip to main content

The media accountability of independent regulatory agencies

  • Martino Maggetti (a1)

Independent regulatory agencies (IRAs) are increasingly attracting academic and societal attention, as they represent the institutional cornerstone of the regulatory state and play a key role in policy-making. Besides the expected benefits in terms of credibility and efficiency, these regulators are said to bring about a ‘democratic deficit’, following their statutory separation from democratic institutions. Consequently, a ‘multi-pronged system of control’ is required. This article focuses on a specific component of this system, that is, the media. The goal is to determine whether media coverage of IRAs meets the necessary prerequisites to be considered a potential ‘accountability forum’ for regulators. The results of a comparison of two contrasted cases – the British and Swiss competition commissions – mostly support the expectations, because they show that media coverage of IRAs corresponds to that of the most relevant policy issues and follows the regulatory cycle. Furthermore, a systematic bias in media coverage can be excluded.

Corresponding author
* E-mail:
Hide All
Altheide, D.L.Snow, R.P. (1988), ‘Toward a theory of mediation’, Communication Yearbook 11: 194223.
Armingeon, K. (2002), ‘The effects of negotiation democracy: a comparative analysis’, European Journal of Political Research 41: 81105.
Arnold, R.D. (2004), Congress, the Press, and Political Accountability. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Balboni, B. (2008), ‘Perceived corporate credibility as the emergent property of corporate reputation's transmission process’. MPRA Paper, pp. 1–9.
Barro, R.Gordon, D. (1983), ‘Rules, discretion and reputation in a model of monetary policy’, Journal of Monetary Economics 12: 101121.
Bendor, J., Glazer, A.Hammond, T. (2001), ‘Theories of delegation’, Annual Review of Political Science 4: 235269.
Besley, T.Burgess, R. (2001), ‘Political agency, government responsiveness and the role of the media’, European Economic Review 45: 629640.
Besley, T.Prat, A. (2006), ‘Handcuffs for the grabbing hand? Media capture and government accountability’, The American Economic Review 96: 720736.
Besley, T., Burgess, R.Prat, A. (2002), ‘Mass media and political accountability’, in The World Bank (ed.), The Right to Tell: the Role of Mass Media in Economic Development, Washington: WBI, pp. 4560.
Blinder, A.S. (1999), ‘Central bank credibility: why do we care? How do we build it?’, The American Economic Review 90: 14211431.
Blühdorn, I. (2006), ‘Democracy, efficiency, futurity: contested objectives of societal modernization’, in I. Bluehdorn and U. Jun (eds), Economic Efficiency – Democratic Renewal. Contested Modernization in Britain and Germany, Lanham, MD, USA: Lexington Press, pp. 6998.
Bovens, M. (2007), ‘Analysing and assessing accountability: a conceptual framework’, European Law Journal 13: 447468.
Brabazon, T. (2000), ‘Behavioural finance: a new sunrise or a false dawn?’, in CoIL Summer School 2000, University of Limerick: Department of Accountancy, University College Dublin pp. 18.
Braun, D. (2003), ‘Dezentraler Und Unitarischer Foderalismus. Die Schweiz Und Deutschland Im Vergleich’, Swiss Political Science Review 9: 5790.
Braun, D.Gilardi, F. (2006), Delegation in Contemporary Democracies, Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge.
Brunetti, A., Kisunko, G.Weder, B. (1998), ‘Credibility of rules and economic growth: evidence from a worldwide survey of the private sector’, The World Bank Economic Review 12: 353384.
Bryant, J.Zillmann, D. (2002), Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research, Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum.
Busuioc, M. (2009), ‘Accountability, control and independence: the case of European agencies’, European Law Journal 15: 599615.
Carpenter, D.P. (2001a), ‘State building through reputation building: coalitions of esteem and program innovation in the national postal system, 1883–1913’, Studies in American Political Development 14: 121155.
Carpenter, D.P. (2001b), The Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy: Reputations, Networks, and Policy Innovation in Executive Agencies, 1862–1928, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Carpenter, D.P. (2002), ‘Groups, the media, agency waiting costs, and FDA drug approval’, American Journal of Political Science 46: 490505.
Castiglione, D. (2006), ‘Accountability’, in M. Bevir (ed.), Encyclopedia of Governance, London: Sage, pp. 17.
Christensen, T.Laegreid, P. (2003), ‘Administrative reform policy: the challenges of turning symbols into practice’, Public Organization Review 3: 327.
Christensen, T.Laegreid, P. (2006a), ‘Agencification and regulatory reforms’, in T. Christensen and P. Laegreid (eds), Autonomy and Regulation: Coping with Agencies in the Modern State, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 852.
Christensen, T.Laegreid, P. (2006b), ‘Autonomy and Regulation: Coping with Agencies in the Modern State’, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Christensen, T.Laegreid, P. (2007), ‘Regulatory agencies – the challenges of balancing agency autonomy and political control’, Governance 20: 499520.
Christensen, J.G.Yesilkagit, K. (2006), ‘Political responsiveness and credibility in regulatory administration’, in T. Christensen and P. Laegreid (eds), Autonomy and Regulation: Coping with Agencies in the Modern State, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 203234.
Clark, M. (2005), ‘Scandalous! The electoral effects of valence issues in Western Europe, 1976–1998’, Annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, pp. 141.
Coen, D.Heritier, A. (2005), Refining Regulatory Regimes: Utilities in Europe, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Coglianese, C.Howard, M. (1998), ‘Getting the message out: regulatory policy and the press’, Politics 3: 3955.
Cook, T.E. (1998), Governing with the News: the News Media as a Political Institution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Curran, J. (2005), ‘What democracy requires of the media’, in G. Overholser and K.H. Jamieson (eds), The Press, USA: Oxford University Press, pp. 120140.
Dahl, R.A. (1989), Democracy and its Critics, New Haven: Yale University Press.
de Jonge, J., van Trijp, H., Jan Renes, R.Frewer, L. (2007), ‘Understanding consumer confidence in the safety of food: its two-dimensional structure and determinants’, An International Journal 27: 729740.
de Vreese, C.H., Banducci, S.A., Semetko, H.A.Boomgaarden, H.G. (2006), ‘The news coverage of the 2004 European parliamentary election campaign in 25 countries’, European Union Politics 7: 477504.
Deephouse, D.L. (2000), ‘Media reputation as a strategic resource: an integration of mass communication and resource-based theories’, Journal of Management 26: 10911112.
Doyle, G. (2002), Media Ownership: the Economics and Politics of Convergence and Concentration in the UK and European Media, Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Drazen, A.Masson, P. (1994), ‘Credibility of policies versus credibility of policymakers’, Quarterly Journal of Economics 109: 735754.
Dunleavy, P.Margetts, H. (2001), ‘From majoritarian to pluralist democracy?: electoral reform in Britain since 1997’, Journal of Theoretical Politics 13: 295319.
Eilders, C. (2000), ‘Media as political actors? Issue focusing and selective emphasis in the German quality press’, German Politics 9: 181206.
Eilders, C. (2002), ‘Conflict and consonance in media opinion: political positions of five German quality newspapers’, European Journal of Communication 17: 2563.
Elgie, R.McMenamin, I. (2005), ‘Credible commitment, political uncertainty or policy complexity? Explaining variations in the independence of non-majoritarian institutions in France’, British Journal of Political Science 35: 531548.
Emery, Y.Giauque, D. (2004), Paradoxes de la gestion publique. Paris: L'Harmattan.
Epstein, D.O'Halloran, S. (1999), Delegating Powers: a Transaction Cost Politics Approach to Policy Making Under Separate Powers, Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Follesdal, A.Hix, S. (2006), ‘Why there is a democratic deficit in the EU: a response to Majone and Moravcsik’, Journal of Common Market Studies 44: 533562.
Fox, J. (2000), Civil Society and Political Accountability: Propositions for Discussion, USA: University of Notre Dame.
Franchino, F. (2002), ‘Efficiency or credibility? Testing the two logics of delegation to the European Commission’, Journal of European Public Policy 9: 677694.
GCR (2006), ‘The 2006 handbook of competition enforcement agencies’, Global Competition Review Special Report, December, pp. 160.
Gentzkow, M.Shapiro, J.M. (2006), ‘Media bias and reputation’, Journal of Political Economy 114: 280316.
Gerber, E.R. (1999), The Populist Paradox: Interest Group Influence and the Promise of Direct Legislation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Gerring, J. (2004), ‘What is a case study and what is it good for?’, American Political Science Review 98: 341354.
Gerring, J. (2007a), ‘Is there a (viable) crucial-case method?’, Comparative Political Studies 40: 231253.
Gerring, J. (2007b), Case Study Research: Principles and Practices, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gilardi, F. (2002), ‘Policy credibility and delegation to independent regulatory agencies: a comparative empirical analysis’, Journal of European Public Policy 9: 873893.
Gilardi, F. (2005), ‘The institutional foundations of regulatory capitalism: the diffusion of independent regulatory agencies in Western Europe’, The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 598: 84101.
Gilardi, F. (2008), Delegation in the Regulatory State: Independent Regulatory Agencies in Western Europe, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
Goertz, G. (2006), Social Science Concepts: a User's Guide, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hall, P.A.Soskice, D.W. (2001), Varieties of Capitalism: the Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage, Oxford, England, New York: Oxford University Press.
Hallin, D.C.Mancini, P. (2004), Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hayes, A.F.Krippendorff, K. (2007), ‘Answering the call for a standard reliability measure for coding data’, Communication Methods and Measures 1: 7789.
Héritier, A.Eckert, S. (2008), ‘New modes of governance in the shadow of hierarchy: self-regulation by industry in Europe’, Journal of Public Policy 28: 113138.
Hodge, G.A.Coghill, K. (2007), ‘Accountability in the privatized state’, Governance 20: 675702.
Hood, C., Rothstein, H.Baldwin, R. (2001), The Government of Risk: Understanding Risk Regulation Regimes, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hopenhayn, H.Lohmann, S. (1996), ‘Fire-alarm signals and the political oversight of regulatory agencies’, Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 12: 196213.
Katzenstein, P.J. (2003), ‘Small states and small states revisited’, New Political Economy 8: 930.
Kepplinger, H.M. (2002), ‘Mediatization of politics: theory and data’, Journal of Communication 52: 972986.
Kepplinger, H.M.Weißbecker, H. (1991), ‘Negativität als Nachrichtenideologie’, Publizistik 36: 330342.
Kepplinger, H.M., Donsbach, W., Brosius, H.B.Staab, J.F. (2004), ‘Media tone and public opinion: a longitudinal study of media coverage and public opinion on Chancellor Kohl’, International Journal of Public Opinion Research 1: 326342.
Kim, J.N., Bach, S.B.Clelland, I.J. (2007), ‘Symbolic or behavioral management? Corporate reputation in high-emission industries’, Corporate Reputation Review 10: 7798.
Knill, C. (1998), ‘European policies: the impact of national administrative traditions’, Journal of Public Policy 18: 128.
Krause, G.A.Douglas, J.W. (2005), ‘Institutional design versus reputational effects on bureaucratic performance: evidence from US government macroeconomic and fiscal projections’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 15: 281306.
Krippendorff, K. (2004), Content Analysis: an Introduction to its Methodology, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kydland, F.Prescott, E. (1977), ‘Rules rather than discretion: the inconsistency on optimal plans’, Journal of Political Economy 85: 473491.
Laegreid, P., Roness, P.G.Rubecksen, K. (2008), ‘Controlling regulatory agencies’, Scandinavian Political Studies 31: 126.
Lang, G.E.Lang, K. (1984), Politics and Television Re-viewed, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Lee, M. (1999), ‘Reporters and bureaucrats: public relations counter-strategies by public administrators in an era of media disinterest in government’, Public Relations Review 25: 451463.
Levi-Faur, D. (2005), ‘The global diffusion of regulatory capitalism’, Annals, AAPSS 598: 1232.
Levi-Faur, D. (2006a), ‘Regulatory capitalism: the dynamics of change beyond telecoms and electricity’, Governance 19: 497525.
Levi-Faur, D. (2006b), ‘Varieties of regulatory capitalism: sectors and nations in the making of a new global order’, Governance 19: 363366.
Lodge, M. (2002), ‘The wrong type of regulation? Regulatory failure and the railways in Britain and Germany’, Journal of Public Policy 22: 271297.
Lodge, M. (2004), ‘Accountability and transparency in regulation: critiques, doctrines and instruments’, in J. Jordana and D. Levi-Faur (eds), The Politics of Regulation, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 124144.
Louw, P.E. (2005), The Media and Political Process. Sage Publications Ltd, pp. 311.
Maeda, Y.Miyahara, M. (2003), ‘Determinants of trust in industry, government, and citizen's groups in Japan’, Corporate Reputation Review 10: 303310.
Maggetti, M. (2007), ‘De facto independence after delegation: a fuzzy-set analysis’, Regulation & Governance 1: 271294.
Maggetti, M. (2009a), ‘Delegated authority: legitimizing independent regulatory agencies’, in I. Blühdorn (ed.), In Search of Legitimacy. Policy Making in Europe and the Challenge of Societal Complexity, Opladen/Farmington Hills, MI: Barbara Budrich.
Maggetti, M. (2009b), ‘The role of independent regulatory agencies in policy-making: a comparative analysis’, Journal of European Public Policy 16: 445465.
Maggetti, M. (2010), ‘Legitimacy and accountability of independent regulatory agencies: a critical review’, Living Reviews in Democracy 2: 19.
Maggetti, M.Gilardi, F. (2010), ‘Establishing regulatory networks and the diffusion of best practices’, Network Industries Quarterly 12: 1013.
Maggetti, M., Afonso, A.Fontana, M.C. (2011), ‘The more it changes, the more it stays the same?’, in C. Trampusch and A. Mach (eds), Switzerland in Europe, Oxon: Routledge, pp. 205.
Majone, G. (1994a), Independence vs. Accountability?: Non-Majoritarian Institutions and Democratic Government in Europe. Florence: European University Institute.
Majone, G. (1994b), ‘The rise of the regulatory state in Europe’, West European Politics 17: 77101.
Majone, G. (1996a), “Temporal Consistency and Policy Credibility: Why Democracies Need Non-majoritarian Institutions.” EUI Working Paper SPS 96, Florence: European University Institute, pp. 131.
Majone, G. (1996b), Regulating Europe, London, New York: Routledge.
Majone, G. (1997a), The Agency Model: The Growth of Regulation and Regulatory Institutions in the European Union. Florence: European University Institute.
Majone, G. (1997b), ‘From the positive to the regulatory state: causes and consequences of changes in the mode of governance’, Journal of Public Policy 17: 139167.
Majone, G. (1999), ‘The regulatory state and its legitimacy problems’, West European Politics 22: 124.
Majone, G. (2000), ‘The credibility crisis of community regulation’, Journal of Common Market Studies 38: 273302.
Majone, G. (2001a), ‘Regulatory legitimacy in the United States and the European Union’, in K. Nicolaidis and R. Howse (eds), The Federal Vision. Legitimacy and Levels of Governance in the United States and the European Union, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 252275.
Majone, G. (2001c), ‘Two logics of delegation: agency and fiduciary relations in EU governance’, European Union Politics 2: 103122.
Majone, G. (2002), ‘Europe's “democratic deficit”: the question of standards’, European Law Journal 4: 528.
Majone, G. (2005), ‘Delegation of powers and the fiduciary principle’, CONNEX Workshop, Paris.
Manin, B. (1996), Principes du gouvernement représentatif, Paris: Flammarion.
Mazzoleni, G. (1987), ‘Media logic and party logic in campaign coverage: the Italian general election of 1983’, European Journal of Communication 2: 81103.
Mazzoleni, G.Schulz, W. (1999), ‘ “ Mediatization” of politics: a challenge for democracy?’, Political Communication 16: 247261.
McCubbins, M.D., Noll, R.G.Weingast, B.R. (1987), ‘Administrative procedures as instruments of political control’, Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 3: 243277.
Meyer, C. (2004), ‘The hard side of soft policy co-ordination in EMU: the impact of peer pressure on publicized opinion in the cases of Germany and Ireland’, Journal of European Public Policy 11: 814831.
Moran, M. (2002), ‘Review article: understanding the regulatory state’, British Journal of Political Science 32: 391413.
Moran, M. (2003), The British Regulatory State: High Modernism and Hyper-innovation, Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
Mulgan, R. (2000), ‘ “Accountability”: an ever-expanding concept?’, Public Administration 78: 555573.
Mulgan, R. (2003), Holding power to account: accountability in modern democracies. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Norris, P. (2001), ‘The twilight of Westminster? Electoral reform and its consequences’, Political Studies 49: 877900.
O'Donnell, G.A. (1998), ‘Horizontal accountability in new democracies’, Journal of Democracy 9: 112126.
OECD (2005), ‘Switzerland – the role of competition policy in regulatory reform’, OECD Reviews of Regulatory Reform.
Papadopoulos, Y. (2008), ‘Europeanization? Two logics of change of policy-making patterns in Switzerland’, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis 10: 255278.
Peters, B.G. (2004), ‘2. Administrative traditions and the Anglo-American democracies’, in J. Halligan (ed.), Civil Service Systems in Anglo-American Countries, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Peters, R.G., Covello, V.T.McCallum, D.B. (1997), ‘The determinants of trust and credibility in environmental risk communication: an empirical study’, Risk Analysis 17: 4354.
Pfetsch, B., Adam, S., Berkel, B.Medrano, J.D. (2004), The Voice of the Media in European Public Sphere: Comparative Analysis of Newspaper Editorials, Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum für Sozialforschung.
Pollack, M.A. (1996), ‘The new institutionalism and EC governance: the promise and limits of institutional analysis’, Governance 9: 429458.
Pollitt, C., Tablot, C., Caufield, J.Smullen, A. (2004), Agencies: How Governments Do Things Through Semi-Autonomous Organizations, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Pollock, T.G.Rindova, V.P. (2003), ‘Media legitimation effects in the market for initial public offerings’, Academy of Management Journal 46: 631642.
Radaelli, C.M.De Francesco, F. (2007), Regulatory Quality in Europe: Concepts, Measures and Policy Processes, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Roberts, A. (2001), ‘Structural pluralism and the right to information’, University of Toronto Law Journal 51: 243271.
Roberts, N.C. (2002), ‘Keeping public officials accountable through dialogue: resolving the accountability paradox’, Public Administration Review 62: 658669.
Sarcinelli, U. (1987), Symbolische Politik: zur Bedeutung symbolischen Handelns in der Wahlkampfkommunikation der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
Schedler, A. (1999), ‘Conceptualizing accountability’, in A. Schedler, L. Diamond, and M.F. Plattner (eds), The Self-restraining State: Power and Accountability in New Democracies. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, pp. 1328.
Scott, C. (2000), ‘Accountability in the regulatory state’, Journal of Law and Society 27: 3860.
Seawright, J.Gerring, J. (2008), ‘Case selection techniques in case study research: a menu of qualitative and quantitative options’, Political Research Quarterly 61: 294308.
Shepsle, K.A. (1991), ‘Discretion, institutions, and the problem of government commitment’, in P. Bourdieu and J. Coleman (eds), Social Theory for a Changing Society, Boulder; New York: Westview Press; Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 245265.
Snyder, J.M.Strömberg, D. (2008), ‘Press coverage and political accountability’, Journal of Political Economy 118: 355408.
Sosay, G. (2006), ‘Consequences of legitimizing independent regulatory agencies in contemporary democracies. Theoretical scenarios’, in D. Braun and F. Gilardi (eds), Delegation in Contemporary Democracies, Abingdon, Oxon; New York: Routledge, pp. 171190.
Stimson, J.A., MacKuen, M.B.Erikson, R.S. (1994), ‘Opinion and policy: a global view’, PS: Political Science and Politics 27: 2934.
Strömbäck, J.Esser, F. (2009), ‘Shaping politics: mediatization and media interventionism’, in Mediatization. Concept, Changes, Consequences, New York: Peter Lang, S205S223.
Strömberg, D. (2004), ‘Mass media competition, political competition, and public policy’, The Review of Economic Studies 71: 265284.
Swanson, D.L. (1981), ‘A constructivist approach’, in D.D. Nimmo and K.R. Sanders (eds), Handbook of Political Communication, Beverly Hills; London: Sage Publication, pp. 169191.
Swanson, D.L.Mancini, P. (1996), Politics, Media, and Modern Democracy: an International Study of Innovations in Electoral Campaigning and their Consequences. Westport, Conn: Praeger Publishers.
Thatcher, M. (2002a), ‘Analysing independent regulatory agencies in Western Europe: functional pressures mediated by context’, Swiss Political Science Review 8: 103110.
Thatcher, M. (2002b), ‘Analysing regulatory reform in Europe’, Journal of European Public Policy 9: 859872.
Thatcher, M. (2002c), ‘Delegation to independent regulatory agencies: pressures, functions and contextual mediation’, West European Politics 25: 125147.
Thatcher, M. (2002d), ‘Regulation after delegation: independent regulatory agencies in Europe’, Journal of European Public Policy 9: 954972.
Thatcher, M.Stone Sweet, A. (2002), ‘Theory and practice of delegation to non-majoritarian institutions’, West European Politics 25: 122.
Varone, F. (2007), ‘The federal administration’, in U. Klöti, P. Knoepfel, H. Kriesi, W. Linder, Y. Papadopoulos, and P. Sciarini (eds), Handbook of Swiss Politics, Zürich: Neue Zürcher Zeitung Publishing, pp. 282308.
Verschuere, B., Verhoest, K., Meyers, F.Peters, B.G. (2006), ‘10. Accountability and accountability arrangements in public agencies’, in T. Christensen and P. Laegreid (eds), Autonomy and Regulation: Coping with Agencies in the Modern State, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Vibert, F. (2007), The Rise of the Unelected: Democracy and the New Separation of Powers, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Vogel, S.K. (1996), Freer Markets, More Rules: Regulatory Reform in Advanced Industrial Countries, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Voltmer, K. (1998), Medienqualität und Demokratie: eine empirische Analyse publizistischer Informations-und Orientierungsleistungen in der Wahlkampfkommunikation, Baden-Baden: Nomos.
Voltmer, K. (2010), ‘The media, government accountability, and citizen engagement’, in P. Norris (ed.), Public Sentinel: News Media and Governance Reform, Washington: World Bank, pp. 395.
Voltmer, K.Eilders, C. (2003), ‘The media agenda: the marginalization and domestication of Europe’, in K. Dyson and K.H. Goetz (eds), Germany, Europe and the Politics of Constraint, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 173197.
Walgrave, S., Soroka, S.Nuytemans, M. (2008), ‘The mass media's political agenda-setting power’, Comparative Political Studies 41: 814836.
Waterman, R.W.Rouse, A. (1999), ‘The determinants of the perceptions of political control of the bureaucracy and the venues of influence’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 9: 527569.
Waterman, R.W., Rouse, A.Wright, R. (1998), ‘The venues of influence: a new theory of political control of the bureaucracy’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 8: 1338.
Widmer, T.Neuenschwander, P. (2004), ‘Embedding evaluation in the Swiss federal administration: purpose, institutional design and utilization’, Evaluation 10: 388409.
Wilks, S. (2007), ‘Agencies, networks, discourses and the trajectory of European competition enforcement’, European Competition Journal 3: 437464.
Wilks, S.Bartle, I. (2002), ‘The unanticipated consequences of creating independent competition agencies’, West European Politics 25: 148172.
Yesilkagit, K. (2004), ‘The design of public agencies: overcoming agency costs and commitment problems’, Public Administration and Development 24: 119127.
Zaller, J. (1992), The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

European Political Science Review
  • ISSN: 1755-7739
  • EISSN: 1755-7747
  • URL: /core/journals/european-political-science-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 10
Total number of PDF views: 109 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 388 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.