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Patterns of caffeine consumption in psychiatric patients. An Italian study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 April 2020

A. Ciapparelli
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa, Italy
R. Paggini
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa, Italy
C. Carmassi
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa, Italy
C. Taponecco
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa, Italy
G. Consoli
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa, Italy
G. Ciampa
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa, Italy
C.E. Ramacciotti
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa, Italy
D. Marazziti*
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa, Italy
L. Dell’Osso
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa, Italy
*
*Auteur correspondant. Tel.: +39 050 835421; fax: +39 050 21581. E-mail address: dmarazzi@psico.med.unipi.it (D. Marazziti).
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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present study was to explore and compare the caffeine intake, intoxication, withdrawal and dependence prevalence in Italian psychiatric patients and healthy subjects.

Materials and methods

Three hundred and sixty-nine out- and inpatients, suffering from different psychiatric disorders, and 104 healthy subjects were included in the study. They were assessed by the SCID and by a structured interview for caffeine intoxication and withdrawal and for substance dependence applied to caffeine use.

Results

Patients and healthy subjects did not differ in terms of current caffeine intake (mg/day, mean ± SD: 281 ± 325 vs. 288 ± 148, respectively), while the maximum lifetime intake of caffeine was significantly higher in the first group (mg/day, mean SD: 630 ± 549 vs. 504 ± 344, respectively; F = 4.897, p = .03) where it was significantly related to the CGI severity item scores (rho = .107; p = .04). In both patients and healthy subjects, a lower age was related to a higher current caffeine intake, while both current and maximum lifetime caffeine intake in the healthy subjects were significantly higher in men than in women. The patients suffering from eating disorders reported higher current caffeine intake than those with anxiety or mood disorders. The prevalence of dependence and intoxication was significantly higher in the patients than in the healthy subjects, without inter-group differences. Healthy subjects showed a trend towards a higher prevalence of withdrawal.

Conclusions

Our study highlights the need that a more accurate attention should be paid to the caffeine use which seems to be strongly, although generically, related to different psychiatric disorders.

Type
Original article
Copyright
Copyright © Elsevier Masson SAS 2010

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