Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Here to Stay? Populism as a New Party Type

  • Andrej Zaslove (a1)
Abstract

This article addresses the sudden and somewhat unexpected rise of populist parties in West, Central, and Eastern Europe. The first section highlights the core characteristics of populism through the construction of an ideal type. Subsequently, the focus is on the opportunity structures that give rise to populism, emphasizing the end of the post-war settlement, post-industrialism, the gradual erosion of party politics, and frustrations emanating from the consolidation of liberal democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. The final section examines three distinct forms of populism, focusing on radical-right populism (parties such as the French National Front, the Austrian Freedom Party), center-right populism (Forza Italia), and left populism (the German Party of Democratic Socialism).

Copyright
Corresponding author
E-mail: azaslove@wlu.ca
References
Hide All
1.Mudde, C. (2004) The populist zeitgeist. Government and Opposition, 29.
2.Betz, H. G. (1994) Radical Right-Wing Populism in Western Europe (Houndmills: Macmillian).
3.March, L. and Mudde, C. (2005) What’s left of the radical left? The European radical left after 1989: decline and mutation. Comparative European Politics, 3, 3536.
4.Mair, P. (2002) Populist democracy vs. party democracy. In: Mény, Y. and Surel, Y. (eds) Democracies and the Populist Challenge (Houndmills: Palgrave), pp. 9297.
5.Učeň, P. (2007) Parties, populism, and anti-establishment politics in East Central Europe. SAIS Review, 27.
6.Ionescu, G. and Gellner, E. (1969) Populism: Its Meaning and National Characteristics (London: Weidenfield and Nicolson).
7.Canovan, M. (1981) Populism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich).
8.Taguieff, P. A. (1995) Political science confronts populism: from a conceptual mirage to a real problem. Telos, 103.
9.Mény, Y. and Surel, Y. (2000) Par le peuple, pour le peuple: le populisme et les démocraties (Paris: Fayard).
10. Y. Mény and Y. Surel (2002) Democracies and the Populist Challenge, edited by Y. Mény and Y. Surel (Houndmills: Palgrave).
11.Albertazzi, D. and McDonnell, D. (2007) Introduction: The sceptre and the specter. Twenty-First Century Populism: The Specter of West European Democracy (Houndmills: Palgrave).
12.Laclau, E. (1979) Politics and ideology in Marxist Theory: Capitalism, Fascism, Populism (London: Verso).
13. M. Canovan (1981) Populism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich). Judging from Canovan’s more recent work, it is safe to conclude that she has revised her earlier position. In her more recent work on populism Canovan identifies a core set of populist characteristics.
14.Canovan, M. (2002) Talking politics to the people: populism as the ideology of democracy. In: Mény, Y. and Surel, Y. (eds) Democracies and the Populist Challenge (Houndmills: Palgrave).
15.Decker, F. (2003) The populist challenge to liberal democracy. International Politics and Society, 3, 48.
16.Pasquino, G. (2007) Populism and democracy. In: Albertazzi, D. and McDonnell, D. (eds) Twenty-First Century Populism: The Specter of West European Democracy (Houndmills: Palgrave).
17.Mastropaolo, A. (2007) Politics against democracy: party withdrawal and populist breakthrough. In: Albertazzi, D. and McDonnell, D. (eds) Twenty-First Century Populism: The Specter of West European Democracy (Houndmills: Palgrave).
18.Fieschi, C. (2004) Introduction. Journal of Political Ideologies, 9, 238.
19.Taggart, P. (2000) Populism (Buckingham: Open University Press), pp. 95–98.
20.Rydgren, J. (2006) From Tax Populism to Ethnic Nationalism: Radical Right-Wing Populism in Sweden (New York: Bergham Books), p. 7.
21. A. Zaslove (forthcoming) Community, exclusion, and a populist political economy: the radical right as an anti-globalization movement. Comparative European Politics.
22.Taggart, P. (2002) Populism and the pathology of representative politics. Democracies and the Populist Challenge (Houndmills: Palgrave), p. 67.
23.Betz, H. G. (2002) Conditions favouring the success and the failure of radical right-wing populist parties in contemporary democracies. In: Mény, Y. and Surel, Y. (eds) Democracies and the Populist Challenge (Houndmills: Palgrave), pp. 198199.
24.Roth, G. (1978) Introduction. In: G. Roth and C. Wittich (eds) Max Weber: Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology (Berkley: University of California Press), pp. XXXVIII–XL.
25.Taggart, P. (1996) The New Populism and the New Politics: New Protest Parties in Sweden and in Comparative Perspective (Houndmills: St. Martin’s Press), pp. 51–55.
26.Kitschelt, H. (1999) European social democracy between political economy and electoral competition. In: Kitschelt, H., Lange, P., Marks, G. and Stephens, J. D. (eds) Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism (New York: Cambridge University Press), pp. 330331.
27.Mair, P. (2006) Ruling the void? Hollowing of western democracy. New Left Review, 42, 6377.
28.Mair, P. and van Biezen, I. (2001) Party membership in twenty European democracies. Party Politics, 7.
29.Műller-Rommel, F. (1998) The new challengers: greens and right-wing populist parties in Western Europe. European Review, 6, 198.
30. The literal translation is ring-a-ring-o’roses or circle around. The girotondi is a left-wing civil society protest movement formed in 2002 by artists, directors, intellectuals, and unionists predominantly to protest against the Berlusconi government; however, at times they have also opposed the center-left coalition (the center-left coalition – previously referred to as the Olive Tree and now as the Union – was in opposition between 2001–2006 and at the time of writing is currently in government).
31. In 2002 the PDS formed an alliance with West German left wing splinter groups (the Election Alternative for Work and Social Justice, WASG). This new political alliance is referred to as Die Linke.
32.Ost, D. (2005) The Defeat of Solidarity: Anger and Politics in Postcommunist Europe (Ithaca: Cornell University Press).
33.Mudde, C. (2007) Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press), pp. 187–188.
34.Taggart, P. and Szczerbiak, A. (2004) Contemporary Euroscepticism in the party systems of the European Union candidate states of Central and Eastern Europe. European Journal of Political Research, 43, 13.
35.Rydgren, J. (2005) Is extreme right-wing populism contagious? Explaining the emergence of a new party family? European Journal of Political Research, 44.
36.Rydgren, J. (2005) The Populist Challenge: Political Protest and Ethno-nationalist Mobilization in France (New York: Bergham Books).
37.Betz, H. G. (2005) Mobilizing resentment in the Alps: the Swiss SVP, the Italian Lega Nord, and the Austria FPŐ. In: Caramani, D. and Mény, Y. (eds) Challenges to Consensual Politics: Democracy, Identity, and Populist Protest in the Alpine Region (Brussels: P.I.E.-Peter Lang).
38.Zaslove, A. (2004) The dark side of European politics: unmasking the radical right. Journal of European Integration, 26.
39.Biorcio, R. (1997) La Padania Promessa: La Storia, le idée, e la logica d’azione della Lega Nord (Milan: Il Saggiatore), p. 34.
40.Gingrich, A. (2002) A man for all seasons: an anthropological perspective on public representation and cultural politics of the Austrian Freedom Party. The Haider Phenomenon in Austria (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers).
41.Betz, H. G. and Johnston, C. (2004) Against the current-stemming the tide: the nostalgic ideology of the contemporary radical populist right. Journal of Political Ideologies, 9.
42. S. Tarrow (1990) Maintaining hegemony in Italy: the softer they rise, the slower they fall! Uncommon Democracies: The One-Party Dominant Regimes (Ithaca: Cornell University Press).
43.Tarchi, M. (2007) Italy a country of many populisms. In: Albertazzi, D. and McDonnell, D. (eds) Twenty-First Century Populism: The Specter of West European Democracy (Houndmills: Palgrave).
44.Ignazi, P. (2005) The extreme right: legitimation and evolution on the Italian right-wing: social and ideological repositioning of Alleanza Nazionale and the Lega Nord. South European Society and Politics, 2, 335.
45.McCarthy, P. (1996) Forza Italia: the new politics and the old values of a changing Italy. The New Italian Republic: From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to Berlusconi (New York: Routledge), p. 136.
46.Diamanti, I. (2003) Bianco, rosso, verde . . . e azzurro: Mappe e colori dell’Italia Politica (Bologna: Il Mulino), pp. 114–117.
47.Decker, F. (2007) Germany: right-wing populist failures and left-wing success. In: Albertazzi, D. and McDonnell, D. (eds) Twenty-First Century Populism: The Specter of West European Democracy (Houndmills: Palgrave).
48.Tarchi, M. (2003) L’Italia Populista: Dal qualunquismo ai girotondi (Bologna: Il Mulino).
49.Hartleb, F. (2004) Rechts- und Linkspopulismus: Eine Fallstudie anhand von Schill-Partei und PDS (Wiesbaden: VS Verlag fűr Sozialwissenschaften).
50.Oswald, F. (2002) The Party that came out of the Cold War: The Party of Democratic Socialism in United Germany (Westport: Praeger).
51. In 1994 the PDS received 4.4% of the vote in Germany (19.8% in the East and 0.9% in the West) see F. Hartleb (2004) Rechts- und Linkspopulismus: Eine Fallstudie anhand von Schill-Partei und PDS (Wiesbaden: VS Verlag fűr Sozialwissenschaften), pp. 232–233). In 1998, it received 5.1% of the vote in Germany, and 21.6% in East Germany. The PDS reached the height of its electoral success in the 2001 Berlin regional elections with 22.6% of the vote, see S. Gapper (2003) The rise and fall of Germany’s party of democratic socialism. German Politics, 12, 69. However, by 2002 its support began to decline; it received 4% of the vote in Germany and 16.8 in the East, see S. Gapper (2003) The rise and fall of Germany’s party of democratic socialism. German Politics, 12, 70.
52.Gapper, S. (2003) The rise and fall of Germany’s party of democratic socialism. German Politics, 12, 74.
53.Die Welt (2005) Rechtsextreme NPD will neue Linkspartei unterwandern, 27 June.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

European Review
  • ISSN: 1062-7987
  • EISSN: 1474-0575
  • URL: /core/journals/european-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed