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24.Roth, G. (1978) Introduction. In: G. Roth and C. Wittich (eds) Max Weber: Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology (Berkley: University of California Press), pp. XXXVIII–XL.
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30. The literal translation is ring-a-ring-o’roses or circle around. The girotondi is a left-wing civil society protest movement formed in 2002 by artists, directors, intellectuals, and unionists predominantly to protest against the Berlusconi government; however, at times they have also opposed the center-left coalition (the center-left coalition – previously referred to as the Olive Tree and now as the Union – was in opposition between 2001–2006 and at the time of writing is currently in government).
31. In 2002 the PDS formed an alliance with West German left wing splinter groups (the Election Alternative for Work and Social Justice, WASG). This new political alliance is referred to as Die Linke.
32.Ost, D. (2005) The Defeat of Solidarity: Anger and Politics in Postcommunist Europe (Ithaca: Cornell University Press).
33.Mudde, C. (2007) Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press), pp. 187–188.
34.Taggart, P. and Szczerbiak, A. (2004) Contemporary Euroscepticism in the party systems of the European Union candidate states of Central and Eastern Europe. European Journal of Political Research, 43, 13.
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36.Rydgren, J. (2005) The Populist Challenge: Political Protest and Ethno-nationalist Mobilization in France (New York: Bergham Books).
37.Betz, H. G. (2005) Mobilizing resentment in the Alps: the Swiss SVP, the Italian Lega Nord, and the Austria FPŐ. In: Caramani, D. and Mény, Y. (eds) Challenges to Consensual Politics: Democracy, Identity, and Populist Protest in the Alpine Region (Brussels: P.I.E.-Peter Lang).
38.Zaslove, A. (2004) The dark side of European politics: unmasking the radical right. Journal of European Integration, 26.
39.Biorcio, R. (1997) La Padania Promessa: La Storia, le idée, e la logica d’azione della Lega Nord (Milan: Il Saggiatore), p. 34.
40.Gingrich, A. (2002) A man for all seasons: an anthropological perspective on public representation and cultural politics of the Austrian Freedom Party. The Haider Phenomenon in Austria (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers).
41.Betz, H. G. and Johnston, C. (2004) Against the current-stemming the tide: the nostalgic ideology of the contemporary radical populist right. Journal of Political Ideologies, 9.
42. S. Tarrow (1990) Maintaining hegemony in Italy: the softer they rise, the slower they fall! Uncommon Democracies: The One-Party Dominant Regimes (Ithaca: Cornell University Press).
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44.Ignazi, P. (2005) The extreme right: legitimation and evolution on the Italian right-wing: social and ideological repositioning of Alleanza Nazionale and the Lega Nord. South European Society and Politics, 2, 335.
45.McCarthy, P. (1996) Forza Italia: the new politics and the old values of a changing Italy. The New Italian Republic: From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to Berlusconi (New York: Routledge), p. 136.
46.Diamanti, I. (2003) Bianco, rosso, verde . . . e azzurro: Mappe e colori dell’Italia Politica (Bologna: Il Mulino), pp. 114–117.
47.Decker, F. (2007) Germany: right-wing populist failures and left-wing success. In: Albertazzi, D. and McDonnell, D. (eds) Twenty-First Century Populism: The Specter of West European Democracy (Houndmills: Palgrave).
48.Tarchi, M. (2003) L’Italia Populista: Dal qualunquismo ai girotondi (Bologna: Il Mulino).
49.Hartleb, F. (2004) Rechts- und Linkspopulismus: Eine Fallstudie anhand von Schill-Partei und PDS (Wiesbaden: VS Verlag fűr Sozialwissenschaften).
50.Oswald, F. (2002) The Party that came out of the Cold War: The Party of Democratic Socialism in United Germany (Westport: Praeger).
51. In 1994 the PDS received 4.4% of the vote in Germany (19.8% in the East and 0.9% in the West) see F. Hartleb (2004) Rechts- und Linkspopulismus: Eine Fallstudie anhand von Schill-Partei und PDS (Wiesbaden: VS Verlag fűr Sozialwissenschaften), pp. 232–233). In 1998, it received 5.1% of the vote in Germany, and 21.6% in East Germany. The PDS reached the height of its electoral success in the 2001 Berlin regional elections with 22.6% of the vote, see S. Gapper (2003) The rise and fall of Germany’s party of democratic socialism. German Politics, 12, 69. However, by 2002 its support began to decline; it received 4% of the vote in Germany and 16.8 in the East, see S. Gapper (2003) The rise and fall of Germany’s party of democratic socialism. German Politics, 12, 70.
52.Gapper, S. (2003) The rise and fall of Germany’s party of democratic socialism. German Politics, 12, 74.
53.Die Welt (2005) Rechtsextreme NPD will neue Linkspartei unterwandern, 27 June.