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Introduction: The Challenges facing liberal democracy and Political Parties at the Beginning of the 21st Century

  • Jean Blondel


Political parties are one of the most important inventions of the modern world. We may not regard them as we regard electricity, television, or aeroplanes, yet they are just as much as part of our life. If parties did not exist, what would elections be like? How would parliaments conduct their business? How would we choose politicians? In short, how would we organize politics? It might be felt that we can live without parties, indeed some countries do not have them so far, but all 'advanced' modern countries have them.



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1.The Federalist Papers (1787), Everyman Edition, Dent, London, 1911, in particular Letter X.
2.Ostrogorski, M. (1902) Democracy and the Organisation of Political Parties, 2 vols., (New York; Macmillan).
3.Michels, R. (1962) Political Parties (New York; Free Press).
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European Review
  • ISSN: 1062-7987
  • EISSN: 1474-0575
  • URL: /core/journals/european-review
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