1.For a detailed description of each party’s ideological inclinations, consult www.ps.pt and www.psd.pt
2.The authors classify the eight-month long government of Carlos Mota Pinto (22 November 1978 – 2 August 1979) as Social Democrat and the five-month long government of Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo (2 August 1979 – 3 January 1980) as Socialist.
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43.This year (1974) is the year of the Carnation Revolution. Our data also include the years when Portugal had to fulfil the Maastricht criteria related to the Stability and Growth Pact (since 1997) and the periods of financial and economic crisis when Portuguese fiscal autonomy has been highly influenced by the International Monetary Fund (1978–1979 and 1983–1985), the European Central Bank and, the European Commission (since 2011). Therefore, we have to recognize that, since 1974, a considerable number of years can be characterized by these external influences, which put special pressures on the parties’ strategies.
44.We also used the cyclical adjusted deficit (as a percentage of GDP) by using, as a source, Eurostat (2013) Cyclical adjust balance (Portugal, several years). Available at http://eurostat.eu/ (accessed 4 October 2013). The results that we obtained are similar to those here discussed. Full details are available upon request.
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49.We considered the following parties and movements/coalitions to be Portuguese left-wing parties: PS (Partido Socialista, the main Portuguese Socialist Party), PCP (Partido Comunista Português, the main Portuguese Communist Party), MDP (Movimento Democrático Português), UDP (União Democrática Portuguesa), APU (Aliança do Povo Unido), FRS (Frente Republicana e Socialista), CDU/PCP-PEV (a coalition of PCP with the environmentalist party Os Verdes), and BE (Bloco de Esquerda, a coalition of heterogeneous leftist movements). Source: http://eleicoes.cne.pt/raster/index.cfm?dia=16&mes=12&ano=1979&eleicao=am
50.For a more complete description, please contact the authors.
51.Using the case of the public budget (also replicated for public debt), the respective DOLS is given by budget
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