Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-nr4z6 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-25T08:09:47.826Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

THE WATER RELATIONS AND IRRIGATION REQUIREMENTS OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus var. comosus): A REVIEW

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 May 2012

M. K. V. CARR*
Affiliation:
Emeritus Professor, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
*
Corresponding author. Email: mikecarr@cwms.org.uk; Contact address: Pear Tree Cottage, Frog Lane, Ilmington, Shipston on Stour, Warwickshire CV36 4LQ, UK.

Summary

The results of research on the water relations and irrigation need of pineapple are collated and summarised in an attempt to link fundamental studies on crop physiology to irrigation practices. Background information on the centres of origin (northern South America) and of production (Brazil, Thailand and the Philippines) of pineapple is followed by reviews of crop development, including roots, plant water relations, crop water requirements and water productivity and irrigation systems. The majority of the recent research published in the international literature on these topics has been conducted in the United States (Hawaii) and Brazil. Pineapple differs from most other commercial crops in that it has a photosynthetic adaptation (crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)) that facilitates the uptake of carbon dioxide at night, and improves its water-use efficiency under dry conditions. The crop is propagated vegetatively. The succulent leaves collect (and store) water in the leaf axils, where it is absorbed by surrounding tissue or by aerial roots. There is little published information on the effects of water deficits on vegetative growth, flowering or fruiting. Water stress can reduce the number of fruitlets and the fruit weight. After harvest, one or two ratoon crops can follow. Roots originate from just behind the stem-growing point, some remaining above ground (aerial roots), others entering the soil, reaching depths of 0.85–1.5 m. Root growth ceases at flowering. The ratoon crop depends on the original (plant crop) root system, including the axillary roots. Stomata are present on the abaxial leaf surfaces at relatively low densities (70–85 mm−2). They are open throughout the night, and close during the day before reopening in mid-afternoon. The degree to which CAM attributes are expressed depends in part on the location (e.g. tropics or subtropics), and possibly the cultivar, with the total amount of carbon fixed during the night varying from <3% to >80%. There are surprisingly few published reports of field measurements of crop water use and water productivity of pineapple. Two reports show evapotranspiration only occurring during the daytime. There is more uncertainty about the actual water use of pineapple, the value of crop coefficient (Kc) and relative rates of water loss (transpiration) and carbon gain (net photosynthesis), during the daytime and at night, under different water regimes. This is surprising given the amount of fundamental research reported on photosynthesis of CAM plants in general. Although pineapple is mainly a rainfed crop, it is widely irrigated. Drip irrigation is successfully used where the water supply is restricted, the cost of labour is high and cultivation techniques are advanced. Micro-jets can also be used, as can any of the overhead sprinkler systems, provided wind distortion is not a problem. There is a lack of reliable published data quantifying where irrigation of pineapple is likely to be worthwhile, how it is best practised and the benefits that can be obtained. This is remarkable considering the importance of pineapple as an internationally traded commodity.

Type
Review Paper
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D. and Smith, M. (1998). Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
Almeida, O. A. de, Souza, L. F. da, Reinhardt, D. H. and Caldas, R. C. (2002). Influência da irrigação no ciclo do abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola em área de tabuleiro costeiro da Bahia. Revista Brasileira Fruticultura 24 (2):431435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, E. J., Carter, W., Ekern, P. C., Gowing, D. P., Klemmer, H. W., Radewald, J. D., Sakimura, K., Schmidt, C. T., Smith, D. H., Spiegelberg, C. H. and Tribble, R. T. (1961). Establishing and Maintaining A Healthy Root System. Research Report 86. Honolulu, HI: Pineapple Research Institute of Hawaii.Google Scholar
Azevedo, P. V. de, Souza, C. B. de, Silva, B. B. da and Silva, V. P. R. da (2007). Water requirements of pineapple crop grown in a tropical environment. Agricultural Water Management 88:201208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartholomew, D. P. (2009). ‘MD-2’ pineapple transforms the world's pineapple fresh fruit export industry. Pineapple News 16:25.Google Scholar
Bartholomew, D. P. and Kadzimin, S. B. (1977). Pineapple. Chapter 5. In Ecophysiology of Tropical Crops, 113156 (Eds Alvim, P. de T. and Kozlowski, T. T.). London: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartholomew, D. P. and Malézieux, E. P. (1994). Pineapple. Chapter 11. In Handbook of Environmental Physiology of Fruit Crops, Volume II Sub Tropical and Tropical Crops, 243291 (Eds Schaffer, B. and Andersen, P. C.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
Bartholomew, D. P., Malézieux, E., Sanewski, G. M. and Sinclair, E. (2003a). Inflorescence and fruit development and yield. Chapter 8. In The Pineapple, Botany, Production and Uses, 167202 (Eds Bartholomew, D. P., Pauli, R. E. and Rohrbach, K. G.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartholomew, D. P., Pauli, R. E. and Rohrbach, K. G. (Eds) (2003b). The Pineapple: Botany, Production and Uses. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borland, A. M., Griffiths, H., Hartwell, J. and Smith, J. A. C. (2009). Exploiting the potential of plants with crassulacean acid metabolism for bioenergy production on marginal lands. Journal of Experimental Botany 60 (10):2879–2806.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carr, M. K. V. (2001). The water relations and irrigation requirements of coffee: a review. Experimental Agriculture 37:136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carr, M. K. V. (2009). The water relations and irrigation requirements of banana (Musa spp.): a review. Experimental Agriculture 45:333371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carr, M. K. V. (2011a). The water relations and irrigation requirements of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.): a review. Experimental Agriculture 47:2751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carr, M. K. V. (2011b). The water relations and irrigation requirements of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.): a review. Experimental Agriculture 47:629652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carr, M. K. V. (2012a). The water relations and irrigation requirements of Citrus spp.: a review. Experimental Agriculture doi:10.1017/S0014479712000385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carr, M. K. V. (2012b). Sisal, Chapter 8. In Advances in Irrigation Agronomy: Plantation Crops, 187194. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carr, M. K. V. and Lockwood, G. (2011). The water relations and irrigation requirements of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.): a review. Experimental Agriculture 47:653676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chan, Y. K., Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, G. and Sanewski, G. M. (2003). Breeding and variety improvement. Chapter 3. In The Pineapple: Botany, Production and Uses, 3355 (Eds Bartholomew, D. P., Pauli, R. E. and Rohrbach, K. G.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chapman, K. R., Glennie, J. D. and Paxton, B. (1983). Effect of five watering frequencies on growth and yield of various plant parts of container grown Queensland cayenne pineapples. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Science 40:7581.Google Scholar
Clement, C. R., Cristo-Araújo, M. D., d'Eeckenbrugge, G. C., Pereira, A. A. and Picanço-Rodrigues, D. (2010). Origin and domestication of native Amazonian crops. Diversity 2:72106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, G. and Leal, F. (2003). Morphology, anatomy and taxonomy. Chapter 2. In The Pineapple, Botany, Production and Uses, 1332 (Eds Bartholomew, D. P., Pauli, R. E. and Rohrbach, K. G.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cote, F. X., Folliot, M. and Andre, M. (1993). Photosynthetic crassulacean acid metabolism in pineapple: dual rhythm of CO2 fixation, water use, and effect of water stress. Acta Horticulturae 334:113130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Souza, C. B., da Silva, B. B., de Azevedo, P. V. and da Silva, V. de P. R. (2008). Fluxos de energia e desenvolvimento da cultura do abacaxizeiro. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia e Ambiental 12 (4):400407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doorenbos, J. and Kassam, A. H. (1979). Yield response to water. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Irrigation and Drainage Paper 33, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
Dubois, C., Fournier, P. and Soler, A. (2010). Growth indicators for Queen Victoria pineapple versus sum of temperatures, basis for a heat-unit model of vegetative growth. Pineapple News 17:1518.Google Scholar
Dusek, J., Ray, C., Alavi, G., Vogel, T. and Sanda, M. (2010). Effect of plastic mulch on water flow and herbicide transport in soil cultivated with pineapple crop: a modelling study. Agricultural Water Management 97:16371645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duval, M. F., Buso, G. S. C., Ferreira, F. R., Noyer, J. L., Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, G., Hamon, P. and Ferreira, M. E. (2003). Relationships in Ananas and other related genera using chloroplast DNA restriction site variation. Genome 46:9901004.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ekern, P. C. (1964). The Evapotranspiration of Pineapple in Hawaii. Research Report 109. Honolulu, HI: Pineapple Research Institute of Hawaii.Google Scholar
Ekern, P. C. (1965). Evapotranspiration of pineapple in Hawaii. Plant Physiology 40:736739.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evans, D. O., Sanford, W. G. and Bartholomew, D. P. (2002). Growing pineapple. In Pineapple Cultivation in Hawaii, 48, (Eds Barholomew, D. P., Rohrbach, K. G. and Evans, D. O.). Manoa: HI: Fruits and Nuts 7, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Hawaii.Google Scholar
Hepton, A. (2003). Cultural system. Chapter 6. In The Pineapple, Botany, Production and Uses, 69107. (Eds Bartholomew, D. P., Pauli, R. E. and Rohrbach, K. G.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.Google Scholar
Krauss, B. H. (1949). Anatomy of the vegetative organs of the pineapple, Ananus comosus (L.) Merr. II. The leaf. Botanical Gazette (Chicago) 110:333404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malézieux, E., Côte, F. and Bartholomew, D. P. (2003). Crop environment, plant growth and physiology. Chapter 5. In The Pineapple, Botany, Production and Uses, 69107 (Eds Bartholomew, D. P., Pauli, R. E. and Rohrbach, K. G.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malézieux, E., Zhang, J., Sinclair, E. and Bartholomew, D. P. (1994). Predicting pineapple harvest date in different environments, using a computer simulation model. Agronomy Journal 86:609617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matos, A. P. de and Reinhardt, D. H. (2009). Pineapple in Brazil: characteristics, research and perspectives. Acta Horticulturae 822:2535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nobel, P. S. (1988). Environmental Biology of Agaves and Cacti. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Nobel, P. S. (1991). Achievable productivities of certain CAM plants: basis for high values compared with C3 and C4 plants. New Phytologist 119:183205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nose, A., Miyazato, K. and Murayama, S. (1981). Studies on dry matter production in pineapple plants. II. Effects of soil moisture on the gas exchange of pineapple plants. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 50 (4):525535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nose, A., Shiroma, M., Miyazato, K. and Murayama, S. (1977). Studies on dry matter production in pineapple plants. I. Effects of light intensity in light period on CO2 exchange and CO2 balance of pineapple plants. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 46 (4):580587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
PIP (2011). MD2 Pineapple Variety Production Guide. Brussels, Belgium: Pesticides Initiative Programme, COLEACP-UGPIP.Google Scholar
Purseglove, J. W. (1972). Tropical Crops: Monocotyledons. London: Longman.Google Scholar
Ritchie, R. J. and Bunthawin, S. (2010). Photosynthesis in pineapple (Ananas comosus comosus [L.] Merr) measured using PAM (pulse amplitude modulation) fluorometry. Tropical Plant Biology 3 (4):193203 (published online 30 September 2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
San-José, J., Montes, R. and Nikonova, N. (2007a). Seasonal patterns of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes in pineapple. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 147:1634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
San-José, J., Montes, R. and Nikonova, N. (2007b). Diurnal patterns of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. Red Spanish) field using eddy covariance. Photosynthetica 45:370384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silva, L. C. (2011). Fruit and vegetables production under irrigation in Brazil. Available online: http://www2.mre.gov.br/aspa/semiarido/.../Palestra%20Washington%20Silva.ppt (accessed 9 August 2011).Google Scholar
Souza, L. F. da S. and Reinhardt, D. H. (2007). Pineapple. Chapter 10. In Tropical Fruits of Brazil, 179201 (Ed Johnston, A. E.). Horgen, Switzerland: International Potash Institute (IPI, Bulletin 18).Google Scholar
Stanhill, G. (1986). Water-use efficiency. Advances in Agronomy 39:5385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thorne, M. D. (1953). Report on irrigation and trash mulch experiments. Pineapple Research Institute News 1:6470.Google Scholar
Ting, I. P. (1985). Crassulacean acid metabolism. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 36:595622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
University of Hawaii (2011). http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/fb/pineappl/pineappl.htm#Irrigation (accessed 9 August 2011).Google Scholar
Zhu, J., Bartholomew, D. P. and Goldstein, G. (2005). Photosynthetic gas exchange and water relations during drought in ‘Smooth Cayenne’ pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) grown under ambient and elevated CO2 and three day/night temperatures. Acta Horticulturae 666:161173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhu, J., Goldstein, G. and Bartholomew, D. P. (1999). Gas exchange and carbon isotope composition of Ananas comosus in response to elevated CO2 and temperature. Plant Cell and Environment 22:9991007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar