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Clinical and therapeutic potential of protein kinase PKR in cancer and metabolism

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 July 2017

MB Garcia-Ortega
Affiliation:
Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, Spain Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada-University of Granada, Granada, Spain
GJ Lopez
Affiliation:
Servicio de Cirugía, Complejo Hospitalario Torrecárdenas, Almería, Spain
G Jimenez
Affiliation:
Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada-University of Granada, Granada, Spain Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, University of Granada, Granada, Spain Biopathology and Medicine Regenerative Institute (IBIMER), University of Granada, Granada, Spain
JA Garcia-Garcia
Affiliation:
Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, Spain Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada-University of Granada, Granada, Spain
V Conde
Affiliation:
Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, Spain Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada-University of Granada, Granada, Spain
H Boulaiz
Affiliation:
Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada-University of Granada, Granada, Spain Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, University of Granada, Granada, Spain Biopathology and Medicine Regenerative Institute (IBIMER), University of Granada, Granada, Spain
E Carrillo
Affiliation:
Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada-University of Granada, Granada, Spain Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, University of Granada, Granada, Spain Biopathology and Medicine Regenerative Institute (IBIMER), University of Granada, Granada, Spain
M Perán
Affiliation:
Biopathology and Medicine Regenerative Institute (IBIMER), University of Granada, Granada, Spain Department of Health Sciences, University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain
JA Marchal
Affiliation:
Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada-University of Granada, Granada, Spain Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, University of Granada, Granada, Spain Biopathology and Medicine Regenerative Institute (IBIMER), University of Granada, Granada, Spain
MA Garcia*
Affiliation:
Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, Spain Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada-University of Granada, Granada, Spain Biopathology and Medicine Regenerative Institute (IBIMER), University of Granada, Granada, Spain
*
*Corresponding author:MA Garcia, C/Doctor Azpitarte 4, 4ª Planta, Edificio Licinio de la Fuente 18012 Granada, Spain. Phone: +34 958 895 433; E-mail: mangelgarcia@ugr.es

Abstract

The protein kinase R (PKR, also called EIF2AK2) is an interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA protein kinase with multiple effects on cells that plays an active part in the cellular response to numerous types of stress. PKR has been extensively studied and documented for its relevance as an antiviral agent and a cell growth regulator. Recently, the role of PKR related to metabolism, inflammatory processes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases has gained interest. In this review, we summarise and discuss the involvement of PKR in several cancer signalling pathways and the dual role that this kinase plays in cancer disease. We emphasise the importance of PKR as a molecular target for both conventional chemotherapeutics and emerging treatments based on novel drugs, and its potential as a biomarker and therapeutic target for several pathologies. Finally, we discuss the impact that the recent knowledge regarding PKR involvement in metabolism has in our understanding of the complex processes of cancer and metabolism pathologies, highlighting the translational research establishing the clinical and therapeutic potential of this pleiotropic kinase.

Type
Review
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017 

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