Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Galectins: structure, function and therapeutic potential

  • Ri-Yao Yang (a1), Gabriel A. Rabinovich (a2) and Fu-Tong Liu (a1)

Galectins are a family of animal lectins that bind β-galactosides. Outside the cell, galectins bind to cell-surface and extracellular matrix glycans and thereby affect a variety of cellular processes. However, galectins are also detectable in the cytosol and nucleus, and may influence cellular functions such as intracellular signalling pathways through protein–protein interactions with other cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins. Current research indicates that galectins play important roles in diverse physiological and pathological processes, including immune and inflammatory responses, tumour development and progression, neural degeneration, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and wound repair. Some of these have been discovered or confirmed by using genetically engineered mice deficient in a particular galectin. Thus, galectins may be a therapeutic target or employed as therapeutic agents for inflammatory diseases, cancers and several other diseases.

Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Fu-Tong Liu, Department of Dermatology, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, 3301 C Street, Suite 1400, Sacramento, CA 95816, USA. Tel: +1 916 734 6377; Fax: +1 916 442 5702; E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1D.N. Cooper (2002) Galectinomics: finding themes in complexity. Biochim Biophys Acta 1572, 209-231

2M. Cho and R.D. Cummings (1997) Galectin-1: oligomeric structure and interactions with polylactosamine. Trends Glycosci Glycotech 9, 47

3J. Hirabayashi (2002) Oligosaccharide specificity of galectins: a search by frontal affinity chromatography. Biochim Biophys Acta 1572, 232-254

4C. Fred Brewer (2002) Binding and cross-linking properties of galectins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1572, 255-262

6M.T. Elola (2007) Galectins: matricellular glycan-binding proteins linking cell adhesion, migration, and survival. Cell Mol Life Sci 64, 1679-1700

7J. Ochieng , V. Furtak and P. Lukyanov (2004) Extracellular functions of galectin-3. Glycoconj J 19, 527-535

8F.T. Liu , R.J. Patterson and J.L. Wang (2002) Intracellular functions of galectins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1572, 263-273

9D.I. Liao (1994) Structure of S-lectin, a developmentally regulated vertebrate beta-galactoside-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91, 1428-1432

10D.K. Hsu and F.T. Liu (2004) Regulation of cellular homeostasis by galectins. Glycoconj J 19, 507-515

11J. He and L.G. Baum (2004) Presentation of galectin-1 by extracellular matrix triggers T cell death. J Biol Chem 279, 4705-4712

12G.A. Rabinovich (2002) Galectins and their ligands: amplifiers, silencers or tuners of the inflammatory response? Trends Immunol 23, 313-320

13N. Rubinstein (2004) The role of galectins in the initiation, amplification and resolution of the inflammatory response. Tissue Antigens 64, 1-12

14C. Seelenmeyer (2005) Cell surface counter receptors are essential components of the unconventional export machinery of galectin-1. J Cell Biol 171, 373-381

15A. Vyakarnam (1997) Evidence for a role for galectin-1 in pre-mRNA splicing. Mol Cell Biol 17, 4730-4737

16L. Gauthier (2002) Galectin-1 is a stromal cell ligand of the pre-B cell receptor (BCR) implicated in synapse formation between pre-B and stromal cells and in pre-BCR triggering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 13014-13019

17B. Rossi (2006) Clustering of pre-B cell integrins induces galectin-1-dependent pre-B cell receptor relocalization and activation. J Immunol 177, 796-803

18X. Yu , R. Siegel and R.G. Roeder (2006) Interaction of the B cell-specific transcriptional coactivator OCA-B and galectin-1 and a possible role in regulating BCR-mediated B cell proliferation. J Biol Chem 281, 15505-15516

19N.L. Perillo (1995) Apoptosis of T cells mediated by galectin-1. Nature 378, 736-739

20G.A. Rabinovich (2007) An emerging role for galectins in tuning the immune response: lessons from experimental models of inflammatory disease, autoimmunity and cancer. Scand J Immunol 66, 143-158

21J.D. Hernandez and L.G. Baum (2002) Ah, sweet mystery of death! Galectins and control of cell fate. Glycobiology 12, 127R-136R

22H.P. Hahn (2004) Galectin-1 induces nuclear translocation of endonuclease G in caspase- and cytochrome c-independent T cell death. Cell Death Differ 11, 1277-1286

23P. Matarrese (2005) Galectin-1 sensitizes resting human T lymphocytes to Fas (CD95)-mediated cell death via mitochondrial hyperpolarization, budding, and fission. J Biol Chem 280, 6969-6985

24S.R. Stowell (2007) Human galectin-1, -2, and -4 induce surface exposure of phosphatidylserine in activated human neutrophils but not in activated T cells. Blood 109, 219-227

25M.A. Toscano (2007) Differential glycosylation of TH1, TH2 and TH-17 effector cells selectively regulates susceptibility to cell death. Nat Immunol 8, 825-834

26M.I. Garin (2007) Galectin-1: a key effector of regulation mediated by CD4 + CD25+ T cells. Blood 109, 2058-2065

27P. Barrionuevo (2007) A novel function for galectin-1 at the crossroad of innate and adaptive immunity: galectin-1 regulates monocyte/macrophage physiology through a nonapoptotic ERK-dependent pathway. J Immunol 178, 436-445

28S.G. Correa (2003) Opposite effects of galectin-1 on alternative metabolic pathways of L-arginine in resident, inflammatory, and activated macrophages. Glycobiology 13, 119-128

29J.A. Fulcher (2006) Galectin-1-matured human monocyte-derived dendritic cells have enhanced migration through extracellular matrix. J Immunol 177, 216-226

30M.J. Perone (2006) Transgenic galectin-1 induces maturation of dendritic cells that elicit contrasting responses in naive and activated T cells. J Immunol 176, 7207-7220

31N. Pacienza (2008) The immunoregulatory glycan-binding protein galectin-1 triggers human platelet activation. FASEB J, 22, 1113-1123

32S.M. Blois (2007) A pivotal role for galectin-1 in fetomaternal tolerance. Nat Med 13, 1450-1457

33G. Levi , R. Tarrab-Hazdai and V.I. Teichberg (1983) Prevention and therapy with electrolectin of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in rabbits. Eur J Immunol 13, 500-507

34H. Offner (1990) Recombinant human beta-galactoside binding lectin suppresses clinical and histological signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol 28, 177-184

35G.A. Rabinovich (1999) Recombinant galectin-1 and its genetic delivery suppress collagen-induced arthritis via T cell apoptosis. J Exp Med 190, 385-398

36L. Santucci (2000) Galectin-1 exerts immunomodulatory and protective effects on concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in mice. Hepatology 31, 399-406

37L. Santucci (2003) Galectin-1 suppresses experimental colitis in mice. Gastroenterology 124, 1381-1394

38L.G. Baum (2003) Amelioration of graft versus host disease by galectin-1. Clin Immunol 109, 295-307

39M.A. Toscano (2006) Galectin-1 suppresses autoimmune retinal disease by promoting concomitant Th2- and T regulatory-mediated anti-inflammatory responses. J Immunol 176, 6323-6332

40M.J. Perone (2006) Dendritic cells expressing transgenic galectin-1 delay onset of autoimmune diabetes in mice. J Immunol 177, 5278-5289

41G.A. Bianco (2006) Impact of protein-glycan interactions in the regulation of autoimmunity and chronic inflammation. Autoimmun Rev 5, 349-356

42I. Camby (2006) Galectin-1: a small protein with major functions. Glycobiology 16, 137R-157R

43F.T. Liu and G.A. Rabinovich (2005) Galectins as modulators of tumour progression. Nat Rev Cancer 5, 29-41

44A. Paz (2001) Galectin-1 binds oncogenic H-Ras to mediate Ras membrane anchorage and cell transformation. Oncogene 20, 7486-7493

45G. Elad-Sfadia (2002) Galectin-1 augments Ras activation and diverts Ras signals to Raf-1 at the expense of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. J Biol Chem 277, 37169-37175

46I. Camby (2002) Galectin-1 modulates human glioblastoma cell migration into the brain through modifications to the actin cytoskeleton and levels of expression of small GTPases. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61, 585-596

47V. Mathieu (2007) Galectin-1 knockdown increases sensitivity to temozolomide in a B16F10 mouse metastatic melanoma model. J Invest Dermatol 127, 2399-2410

48N. Rubinstein (2004) Targeted inhibition of galectin-1 gene expression in tumor cells results in heightened T cell-mediated rejection; A potential mechanism of tumor-immune privilege. Cancer Cell 5, 241-251

49M.K. Gandhi (2007) Galectin-1 mediated suppression of Epstein-Barr virus specific T-cell immunity in classic Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 110, 1326-1329

50P. Juszczynski (2007) The AP1-dependent secretion of galectin-1 by Reed Sternberg cells fosters immune privilege in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 13134-13139

51V.L. Thijssen (2006) Galectin-1 is essential in tumor angiogenesis and is a target for antiangiogenesis therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 15975-15980

52E.J. Jung (2007) Galectin-1 expression in cancer-associated stromal cells correlates tumor invasiveness and tumor progression in breast cancer. Int J Cancer 120, 2331-2338

54A.C. Puche and B. Key (1995) Identification of cells expressing galectin-1, a galactose-binding receptor, in the rat olfactory system. J Comp Neurol 357, 513-523

55A.C. Puche (1996) Role of galectin-1 in the developing mouse olfactory system. Dev Biol 179, 274-287

56M. Sakaguchi (2006) A carbohydrate-binding protein, Galectin-1, promotes proliferation of adult neural stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 7112-7117

57N. Plachta (2007) Identification of a lectin causing the degeneration of neuronal processes using engineered embryonic stem cells. Nat Neurosci 10, 712-719

59Y. Inagaki (2000) Oxidized galectin-1 promotes axonal regeneration in peripheral nerves but does not possess lectin properties. Eur J Biochem 267, 2955-2964

60D.N. Cooper and S.H. Barondes (1990) Evidence for export of a muscle lectin from cytosol to extracellular matrix and for a novel secretory mechanism. J Cell Biol 110, 1681-1691

61D.N. Cooper , S.M. Massa and S.H. Barondes (1991) Endogenous muscle lectin inhibits myoblast adhesion to laminin. J Cell Biol 115, 1437-1448

62J. Chan (2006) Galectin-1 induces skeletal muscle differentiation in human fetal mesenchymal stem cells and increases muscle regeneration. Stem Cells 24, 1879-1891

63V. Georgiadis (2007) Lack of galectin-1 results in defects in myoblast fusion and muscle regeneration. Dev Dyn 236, 1014-1024

64Y.D. Lobsanov (1993) Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the human dimeric S-Lac lectin (L-14-II). J Mol Biol 233, 553-555

66A. Sturm (2004) Human galectin-2: novel inducer of T cell apoptosis with distinct profile of caspase activation. J Immunol 173, 3825-3837

68K. Ozaki (2004) Functional variation in LGALS2 confers risk of myocardial infarction and regulates lymphotoxin-alpha secretion in vitro. Nature 429, 72-75

69J.P. Gorski (2002) New alternatively spliced form of galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside-binding animal lectin family, contains a predicted transmembrane-spanning domain and a leucine zipper motif. J Biol Chem 277, 18840-18848

70J. Seetharaman (1998) X-ray crystal structure of the human galectin-3 carbohydrate recognition domain at 2.1-A resolution. J Biol Chem 273, 13047-13052

71B. Birdsall (2001) NMR solution studies of hamster galectin-3 and electron microscopic visualization of surface-adsorbed complexes: evidence for interactions between the N- and C-terminal domains. Biochemistry 40, 4859-4866

73J. Almkvist and A. Karlsson (2004) Galectins as inflammatory mediators. Glycoconj J 19, 575-581

74J. Ochieng (1998) Modulation of the biological functions of galectin-3 by matrix metalloproteinases. Biochim Biophys Acta 1379, 97-106

75S.F. Dagher , J.L. Wang and R.J. Patterson (1995) Identification of galectin-3 as a factor in pre-mRNA splicing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92, 1213-1217

77D.K. Hsu , R.Y. Yang and F.T. Liu (2006) Galectins in apoptosis. Methods Enzymol 417, 256-273

78T. Yoshii (2002) Galectin-3 phosphorylation is required for its anti-apoptotic function and cell cycle arrest. J Biol Chem 277, 6852-6857

79Y. Takenaka (2004) Nuclear export of phosphorylated galectin-3 regulates its antiapoptotic activity in response to chemotherapeutic drugs. Mol Cell Biol 24, 4395-4406

80R.C. Hughes (2001) Galectins as modulators of cell adhesion. Biochimie 83, 667-676

81M. Demetriou (2001) Negative regulation of T-cell activation and autoimmunity by Mgat5 N-glycosylation. Nature 409, 733-739

82E.A. Partridge (2004) Regulation of cytokine receptors by Golgi N-glycan processing and endocytosis. Science 306, 120-124

83S. Nakahara and A. Raz (2007) Regulation of cancer-related gene expression by galectin-3 and the molecular mechanism of its nuclear import pathway. Cancer Metastasis Rev 26, 605-610

84H.Y. Chen (2006) Role of galectin-3 in mast cell functions: galectin-3-deficient mast cells exhibit impaired mediator release and defective JNK expression. J Immunol 177, 4991-4997

85F.T. Liu (2005) Regulatory roles of galectins in the immune response. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 136, 385-400

88S. Sato (2002) Role of galectin-3 as an adhesion molecule for neutrophil extravasation during streptococcal pneumonia. J Immunol 168, 1813-1822

89E. Silva-Monteiro (2007) Altered expression of galectin-3 induces cortical thymocyte depletion and premature exit of immature thymocytes during Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Am J Pathol 170, 546-556

90V.V. Swarte (1998) Lymphocyte triggering via L-selectin leads to enhanced galectin-3-mediated binding to dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol 28, 2864-2871

91P. Mina-Osorio , I. Soto-Cruz and E. Ortega (2007) A role for galectin-3 in CD13-mediated homotypic aggregation of monocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 353, 605-610

92H. Sano (2003) Critical role of galectin-3 in phagocytosis by macrophages. J Clin Invest 112, 389-397

93R.I. Zuberi (2004) Critical role for galectin-3 in airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of asthma. Am J Pathol 165, 2045-2053

94E. Lopez (2006) Inhibition of chronic airway inflammation and remodeling by galectin-3 gene therapy in a murine model. J Immunol 176, 1943-1950

95A. Danguy , I. Camby and R. Kiss (2002) Galectins and cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta 1572, 285-293

96U. Ashery (2006) Spatiotemporal organization of Ras signaling: rasosomes and the galectin switch. Cell Mol Neurobiol 26, 471-495

97S. Nakahara , N. Oka and A. Raz (2005) On the role of galectin-3 in cancer apoptosis. Apoptosis 10, 267-275

98B. Cecchinelli (2006) Repression of the antiapoptotic molecule galectin-3 by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2-activated p53 is required for p53-induced apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol 26, 4746-4757

99I. Paron (2003) Nuclear localization of Galectin-3 in transformed thyroid cells: a role in transcriptional regulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 302, 545-553

100T. Shimura (2004) Galectin-3, a novel binding partner of beta-catenin. Cancer Res 64, 6363-6367

101T. Shimura (2005) Implication of galectin-3 in Wnt signaling. Cancer Res 65, 3535-3537

102N. Le Marer and R.C. Hughes (1996) Effects of the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 on the invasiveness of human breast carcinoma cells. J Cell Physiol 168, 51-58

104P. Matarrese (2000) Galectin-3 overexpression protects from apoptosis by improving cell adhesion properties. Int J Cancer 85, 545-554

106P. Nangia-Makker (2000) Galectin-3 induces endothelial cell morphogenesis and angiogenesis. Am J Pathol 156, 899-909

107N.C. Henderson (2006) Galectin-3 regulates myofibroblast activation and hepatic fibrosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 5060-5065

110M. Nachtigal , A. Ghaffar and E.P. Mayer (2008) Galectin-3 gene inactivation reduces atherosclerotic lesions and adventitial inflammation in apoE-deficient mice. Am J Pathol 172, 247-255

111C. Iacobini (2003) Role of galectin-3 in diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 14, S264-270

112G. Pugliese (2001) Accelerated diabetic glomerulopathy in galectin-3/AGE receptor 3 knockout mice. FASEB J 15, 2471-2479

113A.W. Stitt (2005) Impaired retinal angiogenesis in diabetes: role of advanced glycation end products and galectin-3. Diabetes 54, 785-794

114Z. Cao (2002) Galectins-3 and -7, but not galectin-1, play a role in re-epithelialization of wounds. J Biol Chem 277, 42299-42305

116E.M. Danielsen and B. van Deurs (1997) Galectin-4 and small intestinal brush border enzymes form clusters. Mol Biol Cell 8, 2241-2251

117D. Delacour (2005) Galectin-4 and sulfatides in apical membrane trafficking in enterocyte-like cells. J Cell Biol 169, 491-501

118A. Hokama (2004) Induced reactivity of intestinal CD4(+) T cells with an epithelial cell lectin, galectin-4, contributes to exacerbation of intestinal inflammation. Immunity 20, 681-693

119M.E. Huflejt and H. Leffler (2004) Galectin-4 in normal tissues and cancer. Glycoconj J 20, 247-255

120D.D. Leonidas (1998) Structural basis for the recognition of carbohydrates by human galectin- 7. Biochemistry 37, 13930-13940

121K. Polyak (1997) A model for p53-induced apoptosis. Nature 389, 300-305

122F. Bernerd , A. Sarasin and T. Magnaldo (1999) Galectin-7 overexpression is associated with the apoptotic process in UVB-induced sunburn keratinocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 11329-11334

123I. Kuwabara (2002) Galectin-7 (PIG1) exhibits pro-apoptotic function through JNK activation and mitochondrial cytochrome c release. J Biol Chem 277, 3487-3497

124S. Rorive (2002) Changes in galectin-7 and cytokeratin-19 expression during the progression of malignancy in thyroid tumors: diagnostic and biological implications. Mod Pathol 15, 1294-1301

125S. Ueda , I. Kuwabara and F.T. Liu (2004) Suppression of tumor growth by galectin-7 gene transfer. Cancer Res 64, 5672-5676

126S. Moisan (2003) Upregulation of galectin-7 in murine lymphoma cells is associated with progression toward an aggressive phenotype. Leukemia 17, 751-759

127M. Demers , T. Magnaldo and Y. St-Pierre (2005) A novel function for galectin-7: promoting tumorigenesis by up-regulating MMP-9 gene expression. Cancer Res 65, 5205-5210

128M. Demers (2007) Galectin-7 in lymphoma: elevated expression in human lymphoid malignancies and decreased lymphoma dissemination by antisense strategies in experimental model. Cancer Res 67, 2824-2829

130Z. Cao (2003) Galectin-7 as a potential mediator of corneal epithelial cell migration. Arch Ophthalmol 121, 82-86

131N. Bidon (2001) Two messenger RNAs and five isoforms for Po66-CBP, a galectin-8 homolog in a human lung carcinoma cell line. Gene 274, 253-262

132N. Bidon-Wagner and J.P. Le Pennec (2004) Human galectin-8 isoforms and cancer. Glycoconj J 19, 557-563

134Y. Levy (2003) Sustained induction of ERK, protein kinase B, and p70 S6 kinase regulates cell spreading and formation of F-actin microspikes upon ligation of integrins by galectin-8, a mammalian lectin. J Biol Chem 278, 14533-14542

135Y. Zick (2004) Role of galectin-8 as a modulator of cell adhesion and cell growth. Glycoconj J 19, 517-526

136N. Nishi (2003) Galectin-8 modulates neutrophil function via interaction with integrin alphaM. Glycobiology 13, 755-763

137N. Nagy (2002) Galectin-8 expression decreases in cancer compared with normal and dysplastic human colon tissue and acts significantly on human colon cancer cell migration as a suppressor. Gut 50, 392-401

138S. Boura-Halfon (2003) Extracellular matrix proteins modulate endocytosis of the insulin receptor. J Biol Chem 278, 16397-16404

139L. Eshkar Sebban (2007) The involvement of CD44 and its novel ligand galectin-8 in apoptotic regulation of autoimmune inflammation. J Immunol 179, 1225-1235

140M. Nagae (2006) Crystal structure of the galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain from Mus musculus reveals the basic mechanism of carbohydrate recognition. J Biol Chem 281, 35884-35893

141N. Miyanishi (2007) Carbohydrate-recognition domains of galectin-9 are involved in intermolecular interaction with galectin-9 itself and other members of the galectin family. Glycobiology 17, 423-432

142F. Spitzenberger , J. Graessler and H.E. Schroeder (2001) Molecular and functional characterization of galectin 9 mRNA isoforms in porcine and human cells and tissues. Biochimie 83, 851-862

143S. Chabot (2002) Regulation of galectin-9 expression and release in Jurkat T cell line cells. Glycobiology 12, 111-118

144M. Sato (2002) Functional analysis of the carbohydrate recognition domains and a linker peptide of galectin-9 as to eosinophil chemoattractant activity. Glycobiology 12, 191-197

145C. Pioche-Durieu (2005) In nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 interacts with galectin 9 in membrane raft elements resistant to simvastatin. J Virol 79, 13326-13337

147M.S. Lipkowitz (2001) Functional reconstitution, membrane targeting, genomic structure, and chromosomal localization of a human urate transporter. J Clin Invest 107, 1103-1115

149R. Matsumoto (1998) Human ecalectin, a variant of human galectin-9, is a novel eosinophil chemoattractant produced by T lymphocytes. J Biol Chem 273, 16976-16984

150N. Matsushita (2000) Requirement of divalent galactoside-binding activity of ecalectin/galectin-9 for eosinophil chemoattraction. J Biol Chem 275, 8355-8360

151J. Wada (1997) Developmental regulation, expression, and apoptotic potential of galectin-9, a β-galactoside binding lectin. J Clin Invest 99, 2452-2461

152P.S. van de Weyer (2006) A highly conserved tyrosine of Tim-3 is phosphorylated upon stimulation by its ligand galectin-9. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 351, 571-576

153C. Zhu (2005) The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates T helper type 1 immunity. Nat Immunol 6, 1245-1252

154S.Y. Dai (2005) Galectin-9 induces maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J Immunol 175, 2974-2981

155A.C. Anderson (2007) Promotion of tissue inflammation by the immune receptor Tim-3 expressed on innate immune cells. Science 318, 1141-1143

156M. Seki (2007) Beneficial effect of galectin 9 on rheumatoid arthritis by induction of apoptosis of synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum 56, 3968-3976

157M. Seki (2008) Galectin-9 suppresses the generation of Th17, promotes the induction of regulatory T cells, and regulates experimental autoimmune arthritis. Clin Immunol 127, 78-88

158Y. Tsuchiyama (2000) Efficacy of galectins in the amelioration of nephrotoxic serum nephritis in Wistar Kyoto rats. Kidney Int 58, 1941-1952

159M. Baba (2005) Galectin-9 inhibits glomerular hypertrophy in db/db diabetic mice via cell-cycle-dependent mechanisms. J Am Soc Nephrol 16, 3222-3234

160K. Ohtsubo (2005) Dietary and genetic control of glucose transporter 2 glycosylation promotes insulin secretion in suppressing diabetes. Cell 123, 1307-1321

161G.J. Swaminathan (1999) Selective recognition of mannose by the human eosinophil Charcot-Leyden crystal protein (galectin-10): a crystallographic study at 1.8 A resolution. Biochemistry 38, 13837-13843

162D.D. Leonidas (1995) Crystal structure of human Charcot-Leyden crystal protein, an eosinophil lysophospholipase, identifies it as a new member of the carbohydrate-binding family of galectins. Structure 3, 1379-1393

163J. Kubach (2007) Human CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells: proteome analysis identifies galectin-10 as a novel marker essential for their anergy and suppressive function. Blood 110, 1550-1558

164R.Y. Yang (2001) Cell cycle regulation by galectin-12, a new member of the galectin superfamily. J Biol Chem 276, 20252-20260

165K. Hotta (2001) Galectin-12, an adipose-expressed galectin-like molecule possessing apoptosis-inducing activity. J Biol Chem 276, 34089-34097

166K.E. Kouadjo (2007) Housekeeping and tissue-specific genes in mouse tissues. BMC Genomics 8, 127

167R.Y. Yang (2004) Galectin-12 is required for adipogenic signaling and adipocyte differentiation. J Biol Chem 279, 29761-29766

168J.L. Dunphy (2000) Isolation and characterization of a novel inducible mammalian galectin. J Biol Chem 275, 32106-32113

169C.A. Gray (2004) Discovery and characterization of an epithelial-specific galectin in the endometrium that forms crystals in the trophectoderm. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 7982-7987

170J.L. Farmer (2008) Galectin 15 (LGALS15) functions in trophectoderm migration and attachment. FASEB J 22, 548-560

172B.N. Stillman (2006) Galectin-3 and galectin-1 bind distinct cell surface glycoprotein receptors to induce T cell death. J Immunol 176, 778-789

173K.S. Lau (2007) Complex N-glycan number and degree of branching cooperate to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. Cell 129, 123-134

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 1462-3994
  • URL: /core/journals/expert-reviews-in-molecular-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score