Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

A tale of two extinctions: converging end-Permian and end-Triassic scenarios


The end-Permian (c. 252 Ma) and end-Triassic (c. 201 Ma) mass-extinction events are commonly linked to the emplacement of the large igneous provinces of the Siberia Traps and Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, respectively. Accordingly, scenarios for both extinctions are increasingly convergent and cross-fertilization of ideas has become important. Here, we present a synthesis of extinction scenarios based on a critical assessment of the available palaeontological, sedimentological, geochemical and geophysical evidence. How similar were the extinction events, what gaps exist in our understanding and how can a comparison of the events enhance our understanding of each event individually? Our focus is on the most important proximate kill mechanisms including: climate change and atmospheric pollution; increased soil erosion, weathering and runoff; forest dieback and the spread of pathogens; and ocean temperature changes, anoxia and acidification. There is substantial evidence to suggest that very similar kill mechanisms acted upon late Permian as well as Late Triassic ecosystems, strengthening the hypothesis that the ultimate causes of the mass-extinction events were similar.

Corresponding author
Author for correspondence:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

T. J. Algeo , Z. Q. Chen , M. L. Fraiser & R. J. Twitchett 2011. Terrestrial-marine teleconnections in the collapse and rebuilding of Early Triassic marine ecosystems. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 308, 111.

T. J. Algeo , K. Kuwahara , H. Sano , S. Bates , T. Lyons , E. Elswick , L. Hinnov , B. Ellwood , J. Moser & J. B. Maynard 2011. Spatial variation in sediment fluxes, redox conditions, and productivity in the Permian-Triassic Panthalassic Ocean. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 308, 6583.

T. J. Algeo & R. J. Twitchett 2010. Anomalous Early Triassic sediment fluxes due to elevated weathering rates and their biological consequences. Geology 38, 1023–6.

D. Archer 2005. Fate of fossil fuel CO2 in geologic time. Journal of Geophysical Research 110, C09S05.

A. Bachan , B. van de Schootbrugge , J. Fiebig , C. A. McRoberts , G. Ciarapica & J. L. Payne 2012. Carbon cycle dynamics following the end-Triassic mass extinction: Constraints from paired δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg records. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 13, Q09008.

A. Bachan , B. van de Schootbrugge & J. L. Payne 2014. The end-Triassic negative δ13C excursion: a lithologic test. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 412, 177–86.

R. K. Bambach 2006. Phanerozoic biodiversity mass extinctions. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 34, 127–55.

A. Bartiromo , G. Guignard , M. R. Barone Lumaga , F. Barattolo , G. Chiodini , R. Avino , G. Guerriero & G. Barale 2012. Influence of volcanic gases on the epidermis of Pinus halepensis Mill. in Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy: A possible tool for detecting volcanism in present and past floras. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 233–234, 117.

A. R. Basu , M. I. Petaev , R. J. Poreda , S. B. Jacobsen & L. Becker 2003. Chondritic meteorite fragments associated with the Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica. Science 302, 1388–92.

A. Baud , S. Richoz & J. Marcoux 2005. Calcimicrobial cap rocks from the basal Triassic units: western Taurus occurrences (SW Turkey). Comptes Rendu Palevol 4, 501–14.

L. Becker , R. J. Poreda , A. R. Basu , K. O. Pope , T. M. Harrison , C. Nicholson & R. Iasky 2004. Bedout: a possible end-Permian impact crater offshore of northwestern Australia. Science 304, 1469–76.

L. Becker , R. J. Poreda , A. G. Hunt , T. E. Bunch & M. Rampino 2001. Impact event at the Permian-Triassic boundary: Evidence from extraterrestrial noble gases in fullerenes. Science 291, 1530–3.

D. J. Beerling , M. Harfoot , B. Lomax & J. A. Pyle 2007. The stability of the stratospheric ozone layer during the end-Permian eruption of the Siberian Traps. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 365, 1843–66.

C. M. Belcher , L. Mander , G. Rein , F. X. Jervis , M. Haworth , S. P. Hesselbo , I. J. Glasspool & J. C. McElwain 2010. Increased fire risk associated with global warming across the Triassic–Jurassic boundary. Nature Geoscience 3, 426–9.

M. J. Benton 1986. More than one event in the Late Triassic mass-extinction. Nature 321, 857–61.

M. J. Benton & A. J. Newell 2014. Impacts of global warming on Permo-Triassic terrestrial ecosystems. Gondwana Research 25, 1308–37.

M. J. Benton , V. P. Tverdokhlebov & M. V. Surkov 2004. Ecosystem remodelling among vertebrates at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Russia. Nature 432, 97100.

M. J. Benton & R. J. Twitchett 2003. How to kill (almost) all life: the end-Permian extinction event. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18, 358–65.

D. M. Bice , C. R. Newton , S. E. McCauley , P. W. Reiners & C. A. McRoberts 1992. Shocked quartz at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in Italy. Science 255, 443–6.

B. A. Black , J. F. Lamarque , C. A. Shields , L. T. Elkins-Tanton & J. T. Kiehl 2013. Acid rain and ozone depletion from pulsed Siberian Traps magmatism. Geology 42, 6770.

T. J. Blackburn , P. E. Olsen , S. A. Bowring , N. M. McLean , D. V. Kent , J. Puffer , G. McHone , E. T. Rasbury & M. Et-Touhami 2013. Zircon U-Pb geochronology links the end-Triassic extinction with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Science 340, 941–4.

M. Böhme , H.-J. Gregor & K. Heissig 2002. The Ries and Steinheim meteorite impacts and their effect on the environmental conditions in time and space. In Geological and Biological Effects of Impact Events (eds F. Buffetaut & C. Koeberl), pp. 217–35. Heidelberg: Springer.

D. P. G. Bond & P. B. Wignall 2010. Pyrite framboid study of marine Permian-Triassic boundary sections: a complex anoxic event and its relationship to contemporaneous mass extinction. Geological Society of America Bulletin 122, 1265–79.

N. R. Bonis , W. M. Kürschner & L. Krystyn 2009. A detailed palynological study of the Triassic-Jurassic transition in key sections of the Eiberg Basin (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 156, 376400.

N. R. Bonis , M. Ruhl & W. M. Kürschner 2010. Milankovitch-scale palynological turnover across the Triassic-Jurassic transition at St Audrie´s Bay, SW UK. Journal of the Geological Society of London 167, 877–88.

S. A. Bowring , D. H. Erwin , Y. G. Jin , M. W. Martin , K. Davidek & W. Wang 1998. U/Pb zircon geochronology and tempo of the end-Permian mass extinction. Science 280, 1039–45.

O. P. Bricker & K. C. Rice 1993. Acid rain. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 21, 151–74.

S. Callegaro , D. R. Baker , A. De Min , A. Marzoli , K. Geraki , H. Betrand , C. Viti & F. Nestola 2014. Microanalyses link sulfur from large igneous provinces and Mesozoic mass-extinctions. Geology 42, 895–8.

C. Q. Cao , G. D. Love , L. E. Hays , W. Wang & S. Z. Shen 2009. Biogeochemical evidence for euxinic oceans and ecological disturbance presaging the end-Permian mass-extinction event. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 281, 188201.

H. Cao 1989. Air pollution and its effects on plants in China. Journal of Applied Ecology 26, 763–73.

S. Chakraborty , A. V. Tiedemann & P. S. Teng 2000. Climate change: potential impact on plant diseases. Environmental Pollution 108, 317–26.

A.-L. Chenet , F. Fluteau & V. Courtillot 2005. Modelling massive sulphate aerosol pollution, following the large 1783 Laki basaltic eruption. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, 721–31.

G. Ciarapica 2007. Regional and global changes around the Triassic-Jurassic boundary reflected in the late Norian-Hettangian history of the Apennine basins. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 244, 3451.

S. Cirilli , A. Marzoli , L. Tanner , H. Bertrand , N. Buratti , F. Jourdan , G. Bellieni , D. Kontak & P. R. Renne 2009. Latest Triassic onset of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) volcanism in the Fundy Basin (Nova Scotia): New stratigraphic constraints. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 286, 514–25.

M. O. Clarkson , S. A. Kasemann , R. A. Wood , T. M. Lenton , S. J. Daines , S. Richoz , F. Ohnemueller , A. Meixner , S. W. Poulton & E. T. Tipper 2015. Ocean acidification and the Permo-Triassic mass-extinction. Science 348, 229–32.

P. R. Cobbold & N. Rodrigues 2007. Seepage forces, important factors in the formation of horizontal hydraulic fractures and bedding-parallel fibrous veins (‘beef’ and ‘cone-in-cone’). Geofluids 7, 313–22.

P. R. Cobbold , A. Zanella , N. Rodrigues & H. Løseth 2013. Bedding-parallel fibrous veins (beef and cone-in-cone): Worldwide occurrence and possible significance in terms of fluid overpressure, hydrocarbon generation and mineralization. Marine and Petroleum Geology 43, 120.

V. Courtillot 1994. Mass extinctions in the last 300 million years: one impact and seven flood basalts. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 43, 255–66.

A. E. Crne , H. Weissert , S. Gorican & S. M. Bernasconi 2010. A biocalcification crisis at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary recorded in the Budva Basin (Dinarides, Montenegro). Geological Society of America Bulletin 123, 4050.

J. Dal Corso , A. Marzoli , F. Tateo , H. C. Jenkyns , H. Bertrand , N. Youbi , A. Mahmoudi , E. Font , N. Buratti & S. Cirilli 2014. The dawn of CAMP volcanism and its bearing on the end-Triassic carbon cycle disruption. Journal of the Geological Society of London 171, 153–64.

R. J. Diaz & R. Rosenberg 2008. Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems. Science 321, 926–9.

C. Elliott-Kingston , M. Haworth & J. C. McElwain 2014. Damage structures in leaf epidermis and cuticle as an indicator of elevated atmospheric sulphur dioxide in early Mesozoic floras. Review of Palaebotany and Palynology 208, 2542.

Y. Eshet , M. R. Rampino & H. Visscher 1995. Fungal event and palynological record of ecological crisis and recovery across the Permian-Triassic boundary. Geology 23, 967–70.

L. S. Evans 1984. Acidic precipitation effects on terrestrial vegetation. Annual Review of Phytopathology 22, 397420.

C. B. Foster & S. A. Afonin 2005. Abnormal pollen grains: an outcome of deteriorating atmospheric conditions around the Permian-Triassic boundary. Journal of the Geological Society of London 162, 653–9.

M. L. Fraiser , D. J. Bottjer 2007. Elevated atmospheric CO2 and the delayed biotic recovery from the end-Permian mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252, 164–75.

M. T. Galli , F. Jadoul , S. M. Bernasconi , S. Ciriili & H. Weissert 2007. Stratigraphy and palaeoenvironmental analysis of the Triassic-Jurassic transition in the western Southern Alps (Northern Italy). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 244, 5270.

M. T. Galli , F. Jadoul , S. M. Bernasconi & H. Weissert 2005. Anomalies in global carbon cycling and extinction at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary: evidence from a marine C-isotope record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 216, 203–14.

C. Ganino & N. T. Arndt 2009. Climate changes caused by degassing of sediments during the emplacement of large igneous provinces. Geology 37, 323–6.

L. Gibson , A. J. Lynam , C. J. Bradshaw , F. He , D. P. Bickford , D. S. Woodruff , S. Bumrungsri & W. F. Laurance 2013. Near-complete extinction of native small mammal fauna 25 years after forest fragmentation. Science 341, 1508–10.

S. E. Grasby , H. Sanei & B. Beauchamp 2011. Catastrophic dispersion of coal fly ash into oceans during the latest Permian extinction. Nature Geoscience 4, 104–7.

J. Grattan 2005. Pollution and paradigms: lessons from Icelandic volcanism for continental flood basalt studies. Lithos 79, 343–53.

S. E. Greene , D. J. Bottjer , F. A. Corsetti , W. M. Berelson & J.-P. Zonneveld 2012 a. A subseafloor carbonate factory across the Triassic-Jurassic transition. Geology 40, 1043–6.

S. E. Greene , R. C. Martindale , K. A. Ritterbush , D. J. Bottjer , F. A. Corsetti & W. M. Berelson 2012 b. Recognising ocean acidification in deep time: an evaluation of the evidence for acidification across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Earth Science Reviews 113, 7293.

K. Grice , C. Cao , G. D. Love , M. E. Böttcher , R. J. Twitchett , E. Grosjean , R. E. Summons , S. C. Turgeon , W. Dunning & Y. Jin 2005 a. Photic Zone Euxinia during the Permian-Triassic superanoxic event. Science 307, 706–9.

K. Grice , B. Nabbefeld & E. Maslen 2007. Source and significance of selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in sediments (Hovea-3 well, Perth Basin, Western Australia) spanning the Permian-Triassic boundary. Organic Geochemistry 38, 1795–803.

K. Grice , R. J. Twitchett , R. Alexander , C. B. Foster & C. V. Looy 2005 b. A potential biomarker for the Permian-Triassic ecological crisis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, 315–21.

E. Gurov , E. Gurova , Y. Chernenko & A. Yamnichenko 2009. The Obolon impact structure, Ukraine, and its ejecta deposits. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44, 389404.

A. Hallam 1995. Oxygen-restricted facies of the basal Jurassic of north west Europe. Historical Biology 10, 247–57.

A. Hallam , P. B. Wignall , J. Yin & J. B. Riding 2000. An investigation into possible facies changes across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in southern Tibet. Sedimentary Geology 137, 101–6.

M. B. Harfoot , J. A. Pyle & D. J. Beerling 2008. End-Permian ozone shield unaffected by oceanic hydrogen sulphide and methane releases. Nature Geoscience 1, 247–52.

M. Hautmann 2004. Effect of end-Triassic CO2 maximum on carbonate sedimentation and marine mass-extinction. Facies 50, 257–61.

M. Hautmann , M. J. Benton & A. Tomasovych 2008. Catastrophic ocean acidification at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 249, 119–27.

L. E. Hays , T. Beatty , C. M. Henderson , G. D. Love & R. E. Summons 2007. Evidence for photic zone euxinia through the end-Permian mass extinction in the Panthalassic Ocean (Peace River Basin, Western Canada). Palaeoworld 16, 3950.

E. Hermann , P. A. Hochuli , H. Bucher , T. Brühwiler , M. Hautmann , D. Ware & G. Roohi 2011. Terrestrial ecosystems on North Gondwana following the end-Permian mass extinction. Gondwana Research 20, 630–7.

S. P. Hesselbo , C. A. McRoberts & J. Palfy 2007. Triassic-Jurassic boundary events: Problems, progress, possibilities. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 244, 110.

S. P. Hesselbo , S. A. Robinson , F. Surlyk & S. Piasecki 2002. Terrestrial and marine extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary synchronized with major carbon cycle perturbation: a link to initiation of massive volcanism. Geology 30, 251–4.

C. Heunisch , F. W. Luppold , L. Reinhardt & H.-G. Röhling 2010. Palynofazies, Bio-, und Lithostratigraphie im Grenzbereich Trias/Jura in der Bohrung Mariental I (Lappwaldmulde, Ostniedersachsen). Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 161, 5198.

P. A. Hochuli , J. O. Vigran , E. Hermann & H. Bucher 2010. Multiple climatic changes around the Permian-Triassic boundary event revealed by an expanded palynological record from mid-Norway. Geological Society of America Bulletin 122, 884–96.

O. Hoegh-Guldberg , P. J. Mumby , A. J. Hooten , R. S. Steneck , P. Greenfield , E. Gomez , C. D. Harvell , P. F. Sale , A. J. Edwards , K. Caldeira , N. Knowlton , C. M. Eakin , R. Iglesias-Prieto , N. Muthiga , R. H. Bradbury , A. Dubi & M. E. Hatziolos 2007. Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science 318, 1737–42.

B. Holstein 2004. Palynologische Untersuchungen der Kössener Schichten (Rhät, Alpine Obertrias). Jahresbericht der Geologischen Bundesanstalt 144, 261365.

R. S. Hori , T. Fujiki , E. Inoue & J.-I. Kimura 2007. Platinum group element anomalies and bioevents in the Triassic–Jurassic deep-sea sediments of Panthalassa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 244, 391406.

V. A. Hudspith , S. M. Rimmer & C. M. Belcher 2014. Latest Permian chars may derive from wildfires, not coal combustion. Geology 42, 879–82.

T. T. Huynh & C. J. Poulsen 2005. Rising atmospheric CO2 as a possible trigger for the end-Triassic mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 217, 223–42.

IPCC, 2014. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds Core Writing Team, R. K. Pachauri & L. A. Meyer). Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC, 151 pp.

Y. Isozaki 1997. Permian-Triassic boundary super anoxia and stratified superocean: records from lost deep sea. Science 276, 235–38.

C. M. B. Jaraula , K. Grice , R. J. Twitchett , M. E. Böttcher , P. LeMetayer , A. G. Dastidar & L. F. Opazo 2013. Elevated pCO2 leading to Late Triassic extinction, persistent photic zone euxinia, and rising sea levels. Geology 41, 955–8.

M. M. Joachimski , X. Lai , S. Shen , H. Jiang , G. Luo , B. Chen , J. Chen & Y. Sun 2012. Climate warming in the latest Permian and the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Geology 40, 195–8.

A. Kampschulte & H. Strauss 2004. The sulfur isotopic evolution of Phanerozoic seawater based on the analysis of structurally substituted sulfate in carbonates. Chemical Geology 204, 255–86.

A. H. Kasprak , J. Sepulveda , R. Price-Waldman , K. H. Williford , S. D. Schoepfer , J. W. Haggart , P. D. Ward , R. E. Summons & J. H. Whiteside 2015. Episodic photic zone euxinia in the northeastern Panthalassic Ocean during the end-Triassic extinction. Geology 43, 307–10.

M. E. Katz , J. D. Wright , K. G. Miller , B. S. Cramer , K. Fennel & P. G. Falkowski 2005. Biological overprint of the geological carbon cycle. Marine Geology 217, 323–38.

S. Kershaw , T. Zhang & G. Lan 1999. A ?microbialite carbonate crust at the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China, and its palaeoenvironmental significance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 146, 118.

W. Kiessling , M. Aberhan , B. Brenneis & P. J. Wagner 2007. Extinction trajectories of benthic organisms across the Triassic–Jurassic boundary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 244, 201–22.

K. B. Knight , S. Nomade , P. R. Renne , A. Marzoli , H. Bertrand & N. Youbi 2004. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar evidence from Morocco for brief, episodic volcanism. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 228, 143–60.

A. H. Knoll , R. K. Bambach , D. E. Canfield & J. P. Grotzinger 1996. Comparative Earth history and Late Permian mass extinction. Science 273, 452–7.

A. H. Knoll , R. K. Bambach , J. L. Payne , S. Pruss & W. W. Fischer 2007. Paleophysiology and end-Permian mass-extinction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 256, 295313.

C. Korte , S. P. Hesselbo , H. C. Jenkyns , R. E. M. Rickaby & C. Spötl 2009. Palaeoenvironmental significance of carbon and oxygen-isotope stratigraphy of marine Triassic-Jurassic boundary sections in SW Britain. Journal of the Geological Society of London 166, 431–45.

L. R. Kump , A. Pavlov & M. A. Arthur 2005. Massive release of hydrogen sulfide to the surface ocean and atmosphere during intervals of oceanic anoxia. Geology 33, 397400.

J. Kuroda , R. S. Hori , K. Suzuki , D. R. Gröcke & N. Ohkouchi 2010. Marine osmium isotope record across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary from a Pacific pelagic site. Geology 38, 1095–8.

D. J. Lehrmann , J. M. Bentz , T. Wood , A. Goers , R. Dhillon , S. Akin , X. Li , J. L. Payne , B. M. Kelley , K. M. Meyer , E. K. Schaal , M. B. Suarez , M. Yu , Y. Qin , R. Li , M. Minzoni & C. M. Henderson 2015. Environmental controls on the genesis of marine microbialites and dissolution surface associated with the end-Permian mass-extinction: New sections and observations from the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. Palaios 30, 529–52.

S. Lindström , G. K. Pedersen , B. van de Schootbrugge , K. H. Hansen , N. Kuhlmann , J. Thein , L. Johansson , H. I. Petersen , C. Awlmark , K. Dybkjaer , R. Weibel , M. Erlstrom , L. H. Nielsen , W. Oschmann & C. Tegner 2015. Intense and widespread seismicity during the end-Triassic mass-extinction due to emplacement of a large igneous province. Geology 43, 387–90.

S. Lindström , B. van de Schootbrugge , K. Dybkjaer , G. K. Pedersen , J. Fiebig , L. H. Nielsen & S. Richoz 2012. No causal link between terrestrial ecosystem change and methane release during the end-Triassic mass-extinction. Geology 40, 531–4.

C. V. Looy , R. J. Twitchett , D. L. Dilcher , J. H. A. van Konijnenburg-Van Cittert & H. Visscher 2001. Life in the end-Permian dead zone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 98, 7879–83.

L. Mander , R. J. Twitchett & M. J. Benton 2008. Palaeoecology of the Late Triassic extinction event in the SW UK. Journal of the Geological Society of London 165, 319–32.

A. Martel , M. Blooi , C. Adriaensen , P. Van Rooij , W. Beukema , M. C. Fisher , R. A. Farrer , B. R. Schmidt , U. Tobler , K. Goka , K. R. Lips , C. Muletz , K. R. Zamudio , J. Bosch , S. Lotters , E. Wombwell , T. W. J. Garner , A. A. Cunningham , A. Spitzen-van der Sluijs , S. Salvidio , R. Ducatelle , K. Nishikawa , T. T. Nguyen , J. E. Kolby , I. Van Bocxlaer , F. Bossuyt & F. Pasmans 2014. Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders. Science 346, 630–1.

R. C. Martindale , W. M. Berelson , F. A. Corsetti , D. J. Bottjer & A. J. West 2012. Constraining carbonate chemistry at a potential ocean acidification event (the Triassic–Jurassic boundary) using the presence of corals and coral reefs in the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 350–352, 114–23.

T. Maruoka , C. Koeberl , P. J. Hancox & W. U. Reimold 2003. Sulfur geochemistry across a terrestrial Permian-Triassic boundary section in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 206, 101–17.

L. Marynowski & B. R. T. Simoneit 2009. Widespread Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic wildfire records from Poland: Evidence from charcoal and pyrolytic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Palaios 24, 785–98.

A. Marzoli , H. Bertrand , K. Knight , S. Cirilli , N. Buratti , C. Verati , S. Nomade , P. R. Renne , N. Youbi , R. Martini , K. Allenbach , R. Neuwerth , C. Rapaille , L. Zaninetti & G. Bellieni 2004. Synchrony of the Central Magmatic Province and the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and biotic crisis. Geology 32, 973–6.

A. Marzoli , F. Jourdan , J. H. Puffer , T. Cuppone , L. H. Tanner , R. E. Weems , H. Bertrand , S. Cirilli , G. Bellieni & A. De Min 2011. Timing and duration of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province in the Newark and Culpeper Basins, eastern USA. Lithos 122, 175–88.

A. Marzoli , P. R. Renne , E. M. Piccirillo , A. Ernesto , G. Bellieni & A. De Min 1999. Extensive 200-million-year-old continental flood basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Science 284, 616–8.

J. C. McElwain , D. J. Beerling & F. I. Woodward 1999. Fossil plants and global warming at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Science 285, 1386–90.

I. Metcalfe , C. B. Foster , S. A. Afonin , R. S. Nicoll , R. Mundil , W. Xiaofeng & S. G. Lucas 2009. Stratigraphy, biostratigraphy and C-isotopes of the Permian–Triassic non-marine sequence at Dalongkou and Lucaogou, Xinjiang Province, China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 36, 503–20.

K. M. Meyer & L.R. Kump 2008. Oceanic euxinia in Earth history: causes and consequences. Annual Review Earth and Planetary Sciences 36, 251–88.

K. M. Meyer , L. R. Kump & A. Ridgwell 2008. Biogeochemical controls on photic-zone euxinia during the end-Permian mass extinction. Geology 36, 747–50.

K. M. Meyer , M. Yu , A. B. Jost , B. M. Kelley & J. L. Payne 2011. δ13C evidence that high primary productivity delayed recovery from end-Permian mass extinction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 302, 378–84.

R. R. Murphy , W. M. Kemp & W. P. Ball 2011. Long-term trends in Chesapeake Bay seasonal hypoxia, stratification, and nutrient loading. Estuaries and Coasts 34, 1293–309.

B. Nabbefeld , K. Grice , R. E. Summons , L. E. Hays & C. Cao 2010. Significance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Permian/Triassic boundary sections. Applied Geochemistry 25, 1374–82.

A. J. Newell , A. G. Sennikov , M. J. Benton , I. I. Molostovskaya , V. K. Golubev , A. V. Minikh & M. G. Minikh 2010. Disruption of playa-lacustrine depositional systems at the Permo-Triassic boundary: evidence from Vyazniki and Gorokhovets on the Russian Platform. Journal of the Geological Society of London 167, 695716.

R. J. Newton , E. L. Pevitt , P. B. Wignall & S. H. Bottrell 2004. Large shifts in the isotopic composition of seawater sulphate across the Permo–Triassic boundary in northern Italy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 218, 331–45.

P. E. Olsen , D. V. Kent , H-D. Sues , C. Koeberl , H. Huber , A. Montanari , E. C. Rainforth , S. J. Fowell , M. J. Szajina & B. Hartline 2002. Ascent of dinosaurs linked to an iridium anomaly at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Science 296, 1305–7.

J. Palfy 2003. Volcanism of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province as a potential driving force in the end-Triassic mass-extinction. In The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: Insights from Fragments of Pangea (eds W. Hames, J.G. Mchone, P. Renne & C. Ruppel), pp. 255–67. Washington, DC: American Geophysics Union.

J. L. Payne & M. E. Clapham 2012. End-Permian mass extinction in the oceans: an ancient analog for the twenty-first century? Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 40, 89111.

J. L. Payne , D. J. Lehrmann , D. Follett , M. Seibel , L. R. Kump , A. Riccardi , D. Altiner , H. Sano & J. Wei 2007. Erosional truncation of uppermost Permian shallow-marine carbonates and implications for Permian-Triassic boundary events. Geological Society of America Bulletin 119, 771–84.

J. L. Payne , D. J. Lehrmann , J. Y. Wei , M. J. Orchard , D. P. Schrag & A. H. Knoll 2004. Large perturbations of the carbon cycle during recovery from the end-Permian extinction. Science 305, 506–9.

G. Pienkowski , G. Niedzwiedzki & P. Branski 2014. Climatic reversals related to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province caused the end-Triassic biotic crisis - Evidence from continental strata in Poland. In Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass-Extinctions: Causes and Effects (eds G. Keller & A. Kerr). Boulder: Geological Society of America.

M. K. Reichow , M. S. Pringle , A. I. Al’Mukhamedov , M. B. Allen , V. L. Andreichev , M. M. Buslov , C. E. Davies , G. S. Fedoseev , J. G. Fitton , S. Inger , A. Y. Medvedev , C. Mitchell , V. N. Puchkov , I. Y. Safonova , R. A. Scott & A. D. Saunders 2009. The timing and extent of the eruption of the Siberian Traps large igneous province: Implications for the end-Permian environmental crisis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 277, 920.

G. J. Retallack 2013. Permian and Triassic greenhouse crises. Gondwana Research 24, 90103.

A. L. Riccardi , M. A. Arthur & L. R. Kump 2006. Sulfur isotopic evidence for chemocline upward excursions during the end-Permian mass extinction. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, 5740–52.

S. Richoz , van B. de Schootbrugge , J. Pross , W. Püttmann , T. M. Quan , S. Lindström , C. Heunisch , J. Fiebig , R. Maquil , C. Hauzenberger , S. Schouten & P. B. Wignall 2012. Hydrogen sulphide poisoning of shallow seas due to end-Triassic global warming. Nature Geoscience 5, 662–7.

J. R. Rohr , T. R. Raffel , J. M. Romansic , H. McCallum & P. J. Hudson 2008. Evaluating the links between climate, disease spread, and amphibian declines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 105, 17436–41.

P. D. Roopnarine 2006. Extinction cascades and catastrophe in ancient food webs. Paleobiology 32, 119.

M. Ruhl , N. R. Bonis , G.-J. Reichart , J. S. Sinninghe Damste & W. Kürschner 2011. Atmospheric carbon injection linked to end-Triassic mass-extinction. Science 333, 430–4.

M. Ruhl , M. H. L. Deenen , H. A. Abels , N. R. Bonis , W. Krijgsman & W. Kürschner 2010. Astronomical constraints on the duration of the Early Jurassic Hettangian stage and recovery rates following the end-Triassic mass-extinction (St Audrie's Bay/East Quantoxhead, UK). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 295, 262–76.

M. F. Schaller , J. D. Wright & D. V. Kent 2011. Atmospheric pCO2 perturbations associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Science 331, 1404–9.

U. Schaltegger , J. Guex , A. Bartolini , B. Schoene & M. Ovtcharova 2008. Precise U-Pb age constraints for end-Triassic mass extinction, its correlation to volcanism and Hettangian post-extinction recovery. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 267, 266–75.

M. Schmieder , E. Buchner , W. H. Schwarz , M. Trieloff & P. Lambert 2010. A Rhaetian 40Ar/39Ar age for the Rochechouart impact structure (France) and implications for the latest Triassic sedimentary record. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45, 1225–42.

M. Schmieder , F. Jourdan , E. Tohver & E. A. Cloutis 2014. 40Ar/39Ar age of the Lake Saint Martin impact structure (Canada): Unchaining the Late Triassic terrestrial impact craters. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 406, 3748.

M. Schobben , M. M. Joachimski , D. Korn , L. Leda & C. Korte 2014. Palaeotethys seawater temperature rise and an intensified hydrological cycle following the end-Permian mass extinction. Gondwana Research 26, 675–83.

B. Schoene , J. Guex , A. Bartolini , U. Schaltegger & T. J. Blackburn 2010. Correlating the end-Triassic mass extinction and flood basalt volcanism at the 100 ka level. Geology 38, 387–90.

S. Self , M. Widdowson , T. Thordarson & A. E. Jay 2006. Volatile fluxes during flood basalt eruptions and potential effects on the global environment: A Deccan perspective. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 248, 518–32.

M. A. Sephton , D. Jiao , M. H. Engel , C. V. Looy & H. Visscher 2015. Terrestrial acidification during the end-Permian biosphere crisis. Geology 43, 159–63.

M. A. Sephton , C. V. Looy , H. Brinkhuis , P. B. Wignall , J. W. de Leeuw & H. Visscher 2005. Catastrophic soil erosion during the end-Permian biotic crisis. Geology 33, 941–4.

M. A. Sephton , C. V. Looy , R. J. Veefkind , H. Visscher , H. Brinkhuis & J. W. de Leeuw 1999. Cyclic diaryl ethers in a Late Permian sediment. Organic Geochemistry 30, 267–73.

J. J. Sepkoski Jr 1987. Environmental trends in extinction during the Paleozoic. Science 235, 64–6.

J. J. Sepkoski Jr 1996. Patterns of Phanerozoic extinction: a perspective from global data bases. In Global Events and Event Stratigraphy in the Phanerozoic (ed. O. H. Walliser), pp. 3551. Berlin: Springer.

S.-Z. Shen & S. A. Bowring 2014. The end-Permian mass extinction: a still unexplained catastrophe. National Science Review 1, 492–5.

S.-Z. Shen , C.-Q. Cao , H. Zhang , S. A. Bowring , C. M. Henderson , J. L. Payne , V. I. Davydov , B. Chen , D.-X. Yuan , Y.-C. Zhang , W. Wang & Q.-F. Zheng 2013. High-resolution δ13Ccarb chemostratigraphy from latest Guadalupian through earliest Triassic in South China and Iran. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 375, 156–65.

S.-Z. Shen , J. L. Crowley , Y. Wang , S. A. Bowring , D. H. Erwin , P. M. Sadler , C. Q. Cao , D. H. Rothman , C. M. Henderson , J. Ramezani , H. Zhang , Y. Shen , X. D. Wang , W. Wang , L. Mu , W. Z. Li , Y. G. Tang , X. L. Liu , L. J. Liu , Y. Zeng , Y. F. Jiang & Y. G. Jin 2011 a. Calibrating the end-Permian mass extinction. Science 334, 1367–72.

W. Shen , Y. Lin , L. Xu , J. Li , Y. Wu & Y. Sun 2007. Pyrite framboids in the Permian–Triassic boundary section at Meishan, China: Evidence for dysoxic deposition. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 253, 323–31.

W. Shen , Y. Sun , Y. Lin , D. Liu & P. Chai 2011 b. Evidence for wildfire in the Meishan section and implications for Permian–Triassic events. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 19922006.

H. V. Siddle , A. Kreiss , M. D. B. Eldridge , E. Noonan , C. J. Clarke , S. Pyecroft , G. M. Woods & K. Belov 2007. Transmission of a fatal clonal tumor by biting occurs due to depleted MHC diversity in a threatened carnivorous marsupial. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, 16221–6.

M. J. Simms 2003. Uniquely extensive seismite from the latest Triassic of the United Kingdom: evidence for bolide impact? Geology 31, 557–60.

R. M. H. Smith & J. Botha-Brink 2014. Anatomy of a mass extinction: sedimentological and taphonomic evidence for drought-induced die-offs at the Permo-Triassic boundary in the main Karoo Basin, South Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 396, 99118.

S. V. Sobolev , A. V. Sobolev , D. V. Kuzmin , N. A. Krivolutskaya , A. G. Petrunin , N. T. Arndt , V. A. Radko & Y. R. Vasiliev 2011. Linking mantle plumes, large igneous provinces and environmental catastrophes. Nature 477, 312–6.

H. J. Song , P. B. Wignall , D. Chu , J. Tong , Y. Sun , H. Song , W. He & L. Tian 2014. Anoxia/high temperature double whammy during the Permian-Triassic marine crisis and its aftermath. Scientific Reports 4, 4132.

J. G. Spray , S. P. Kelley & D. B. Rowley 1998. Evidence for a late Triassic multiple impact event on Earth. Nature 392, 171–3.

G. D. Stanley Jr 1988. The history of early Mesozoic reef communities: a three step process. Palaios 3, 170–83.

G. D. Stanley Jr 2003. The evolution of modern corals and their early history. Earth-Science Reviews 60, 195225.

G. D. Stanley Jr & L. Beauvais 1994. Corals from an Early Jurassic coral reef in British Columbia: refuge on an oceanic island reef. Lethaia 27, 3547.

M. B. Steiner , Y. Eshet , M. R. Rampino & D. M. Schwindt 2003. Fungal abundance spike and the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo Supergroup (South Africa). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 194, 405–14.

M. Steinthorsdottir , A. J. Jeram & J. C. McElwain 2011. Extremely elevated CO2 concentrations at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 308, 418–32.

R. B. Stevens 1960. Cultural practices in disease control. In Plant Pathology and Advanced Treatise (eds J. G. Horsfall & A. E. Dimonds), pp. 357429. New York: Academic Press.

Y. Sun , M. M. Joachimski , P. B. Wignall , C. Yan , Y. Chen , H. Jiang , L. Wang & X. Lai 2012. Lethally hot temperatures during the Early Triassic greenhouse. Science 338, 366–70.

H. Svensen , S. Planke , A. G. Polozov , N. Schmidbauer , F. Corfu , Y. Y. Podladchikov & B. Jamtveit 2009. Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 277, 490500.

L. H. Tanner , F. T. Kyte & A. E. Walker 2008. Multiple Ir anomalies in uppermost Triassic to Jurassic-age strata of the Blomidon Formation, Fundy basin, eastern Canada. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 274, 103–11.

L. H. Tanner , S. G. Lucas & M. G. Chapman 2004. Assessing the record and causes of Late Triassic extinctions. Earth-Science Reviews 65, 103–39.

L. H. Tanner , D. L. Smith & A. Allan 2007. Stomatal response of swordfern to volcanogenic CO2 and SO2 from Kilauea volcano. Geophysical Research Letters 34, 15 L15807.

G. H. Tomlinson 2003. Acid deposition, nutrient leaching and forest growth. Biogeochemistry 65, 5181.

R. J. Twitchett 1999. Palaeoenvironments and faunal recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 154, 2737.

R. J. Twitchett , L. Krystyn , A. Baud , J. R. Wheeley & S. Richoz 2004. Rapid marine recovery after the end-Permian mass-extinction event in the absence of marine anoxia. Geology 32, 805–8.

D. Uhl & M. Montenari 2011. Charcoal as evidence of palaeo-wildfires in the Late Triassic of SW Germany. Geological Journal 46, 3441.

B. Ulrich 1990. Waldsterben: forest decline in West Germany. Environmental Science and Technology 24, 436.

B. van de Schootbrugge , A. Bachan , G. Suan , S. Richoz & J. L. Payne 2013. Microbes, mud, and methane: Cause and consequence of recurrent Early Jurassic anoxia following the end-Triassic mass-extinction. Palaeontology 56, 685709.

B. van de Schootbrugge , J. L. Payne , A. Tomasovych , J. Pross , J. Fiebig , M. Benbrahim , K. B. Föllmi & T. M. Quan 2008. Carbon cycle perturbation and stabilization in the wake of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary mass-extinction event. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 9, Q04028.

B. van de Schootbrugge , T. Quan , S. Lindström , W. Püttmann , C. Heunisch , J. Pross , J. Fiebig , R. Petschick , H.-G. Röhling , S. Richoz , Y. Rosenthal & P. G. Falkowski 2009. Floral changes across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary linked to flood basalt volcanism. Nature Geoscience 2, 489594.

B. van de Schootbrugge , F. Tremolada , T. R. Bailey , Y. Rosenthal , S. Feist-Burkhardt , H. Brinkhuis , J. Pross , D. V. Kent & P. G. Falkowski 2007. End-Triassic calcification crisis and blooms of organic-walled disaster species. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 244, 126–41.

H. Visscher , H. Brinkhuis , D. L. Dilcher , W. C. Elsik , Y. Eshet , C. V. Looy , M. R. Rampino & A. Traverse 1996. The terminal Paleozoic fungal event: evidence of terrestrial ecosystem destabilisation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93, 2155–8.

H. Visscher , C. V. Looy , M. E. Collinson , H. Brinkhuis , J. H. A. van Konijnenburg-Cittert , W. M. Kürschner & M. A. Sephton 2004. Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101, 12952–6.

H. Visscher , M. A. Sephton & C. V. Looy 2011. Fungal virulence at the time of the end-Permian biosphere crisis? Geology 39, 883–6.

D. B. Wake & V. T. Vredenburg 2008. Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 105, 11466–73.

P. D. Ward , D. R. Montgomery & R. Smith 2000. Altered river morphology in South Africa related to the Permian-Triassic extinction. Science 289, 1740–3.

P. M. Wargo 1996. Consequences of environmental stress on oak: predisposition to pathogens. Annals of Science Forum 53, 359–68.

J. S. Watson , M. A. Sephton , C. V. Looy & I. Gilmour 2005. Oxygen-containing aromatic compounds in a Late Permian sediment. Organic Geochemistry 36, 371–84.

J. H. Whiteside , P. E. Olsen , T. Eglinton , M. E. Brookfield & R. N. Sambrotto 2010. Compound-specific carbon isotopes from Earth's largest flood basalt eruptions directly linked to the end-Triassic mass-extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, 6721–5.

P. B. Wignall 2001 a. Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions. Earth-Science Reviews 53, 133.

P. B. Wignall 2001 b. Sedimentology of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary beds in Pinhay Bay (Devon, SW England). Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 112, 349–60.

P. B. Wignall 2015. The Worst of Times: 80 million years of Extinction: How Life on Earth Survived Eighty Million Years of Extinctions. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

P. B. Wignall & D. P. G. Bond 2008. The end-Triassic and Early Jurassic mass extinction records in the British Isles. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 119, 7384.

P. B. Wignall , D. P. G. Bond , K. Kuwahara , Y. Kakuwa , R. J. Newton & S. W. Poulton 2010. An 80 million year oceanic redox history from the Permian to Jurassic pelagic sediments of the Mino-Tamba terrane, SW Japan, and the origin of four mass extinctions. Global and Planetary Change 71, 109–23.

P. B. Wignall & A. Hallam 1992. Anoxia as a cause of the Permian/Triassic mass extinction: facies evidence from northern Italy and the western United States. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 93, 2146.

P. B. Wignall , R. Newton & M. E. Brookfield 2005. Pyrite framboid evidence for oxygen-poor deposition during the Permian-Triassic crisis in Kashmir. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 216, 183–8.

P. B. Wignall & R. J. Twitchett 2002. Extent, duration, and nature of the Permian-Triassic superanoxic event. In Catastrophic Events and Mass Extinctions; Impacts and Beyond (ed. K. G. MacLeod), pp. 395413. Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America.

P. B. Wignall , J.-P. Zonneveld , R. J. Newton , K. Amor , M. A. Sephton & S. Hartley 2007. The end Triassic mass-extinction record of Williston Lake, British Columbia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 253, 385406.

K. H. Williford , J. Foriel , P. D. Ward & E. J. Steig 2009. Major perturbation in sulfur cycling at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Geology 37, 835–8.

K. H. Williford , K. Grice , A. Holman & J. C. McElwain 2014. An organic record of terrestrial ecosystem collapse and recovery at the Triassic–Jurassic boundary in East Greenland. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 127, 251–63.

W. E. Winner & H. A. Mooney 1980 a. Ecology of SO2 resistance: II. Photosynthetic changes of shrubs in relation to SO2 absorption and stomatal behavior. Oecologia 44, 296302.

W. E. Winner & H.A. Mooney 1980 b. Ecology of SO2 resistance: III. Metabolic changes of C3 and C4 Atriplex species due to SO2 fumigation. Oecologia 46, 4954.

A. D. Woods , D. J. Bottjer , M. Mutti & J. Morrison 1999. Lower Triassic large sea-floor carbonate cements: their origin and a mechanism for the prolonged biotic recovery from the end-Permian mass extinction. Geology 27, 645–8.

J.-F. Wotzlaw , J. Guex , A. Bartolini , Y. Gallet , L. Krystyn , C. A. McRoberts , D. Taylor , B. Schoene & U. Schaltegger 2014. Towards accurate numerical calibration of the Late Triassic: High-precision U-Pb geochronology constraints on the duration of the Rhaetian. Geology 42, 571–4.

R. Yáñez-López 2012. The effect of climate change on plant diseases. African Journal of Biotechnology 11, 2417–28.

N. Zajzon , F. Kristaly , J. Palfy & T. Nemeth 2012. Detailed clay mineralogy of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary section at Kendlbachgraben (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria). Clay Minerals 47, 177–89.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Geological Magazine
  • ISSN: 0016-7568
  • EISSN: 1469-5081
  • URL: /core/journals/geological-magazine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score