Skip to main content

Zagros orogeny: a subduction-dominated process

  • P. AGARD (a1), J. OMRANI (a2), L. JOLIVET (a3), H. WHITECHURCH (a4), B. VRIELYNCK (a1), W. SPAKMAN (a5), P. MONIÉ (a6), B. MEYER (a1) and R. WORTEL (a5)...

This paper presents a synthetic view of the geodynamic evolution of the Zagros orogen within the frame of the Arabia–Eurasia collision. The Zagros orogen and the Iranian plateau preserve a record of the long-standing convergence history between Eurasia and Arabia across the Neo-Tethys, from subduction/obduction processes to present-day collision (from ~ 150 to 0 Ma). We herein combine the results obtained on several geodynamic issues, namely the location of the oceanic suture zone, the age of oceanic closure and collision, the magmatic and geochemical evolution of the Eurasian upper plate during convergence (as testified by the successive Sanandaj–Sirjan, Kermanshah and Urumieh–Dokhtar magmatic arcs), the P–T–t history of the few Zagros blueschists, the convergence characteristics across the Neo-Tethys (kinematic velocities, tomographic constraints, subduction zones and obduction processes), together with a survey of recent results gathered by others. We provide lithospheric-scale reconstructions of the Zagros orogen from ~ 150 to 0 Ma across two SW–NE transects. The evolution of the Zagros orogen is also compared to those of the nearby Turkish and Himalayan orogens. In our geotectonic scenario for the Zagros convergence, we outline three main periods/regimes: (1) the Mid to Late Cretaceous (115–85 Ma) corresponds to a distinctive period of perturbation of subduction processes and interplate mechanical coupling marked by blueschist exhumation and upper-plate fragmentation, (2) the Paleocene–Eocene (60–40 Ma) witnesses slab break-off, major shifts in arc magmatism and distributed extension within the upper plate, and (3) from the Oligocene onwards (~ 30–0 Ma), collision develops with a progressive SW migration of deformation and topographic build-up (Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone: 20–15 Ma, High Zagros: ~12–8 Ma; Simply Folded Belt: 5–0 Ma) and with partial slab tear at depths (~10 Ma to present). Our reconstructions underline the key role played by subduction throughout the whole convergence history. We finally stress that such a long-lasting subduction system with changing boundary conditions also makes the Zagros orogen an ideal natural laboratory for subduction processes.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Zagros orogeny: a subduction-dominated process
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Zagros orogeny: a subduction-dominated process
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Zagros orogeny: a subduction-dominated process
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence:
Hide All
Agard, P., Augier, R. & Monié, P. 2010. Shear band formation and strain localization on a regional scale: Evidence from anisotropic rocks below a major detachment (Betic Cordilleras, Spain). Journal of Structural Geology 33, 114–31.
Agard, P., Jolivet, L., Vrielynck, B., Burov, E. & Monie, P. 2007. Plate acceleration: The obduction trigger? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 258, 428–41.
Agard, P. & Lemoine, M. 2005. Faces of the Alps. Paris: CGMW/CCGM, 48 pp.
Agard, P., Monie, P., Gerber, W., Omrani, J., Molinaro, M., Meyer, B., Labrousse, L., Vrielynck, B., Jolivet, L. & Yamato, P. 2006. Transient, synobduction exhumation of Zagros blueschists inferred from P–T, deformation, time and kinematic constraints: Implications for Neotethyan wedge dynamics. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, B11401, doi:10.1029/2005JB004103, 28 pp.
Agard, P., Omrani, J., Jolivet, L. & Mouthereau, F. 2005. Convergence history across Zagros (Iran): constraints from collisional and earlier deformation. International Journal of Earth Sciences (Geologische Rundschau) 94, 401–19.
Aghanabati, A. & Rezai, A. 2009. Correlation of lithostratigraphic units of Iran in major structural and sedimentary basins. National Geoscience Database of Iran.
Ahmadhadi, F., Lacombe, O. & Daniel, J. M. 2007. Early reactivation of basement faults in Central Zagros (SW Iran): evidence from pre-folding fracture populations in the Asmari Formation and Lower Tertiary paleogeography. In Thrust Belts and Foreland Basins; From fold kinematics to hydrocarbon systems (eds Lacombe, O., Lavé, J., Vergès, J., Roure, F.), pp. 205–28. Springer Verlag.
Ahmadi Khalaji, A., Esmaeily, D., Valizadeh, M. V. & Rahimpour-Bonab, H. 2007. Petrology and geochemistry of the granitoid complex of Boroujerd, Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Western Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 29, 859–77.
Al-Lazki, A. I., Sandvol, E., Seber, D., Barazangi, M., Turkelli, N. & Mohamad, R. 2004. Pn tomographic imaging of mantle lid velocity and anisotropy at the junction of the Arabian, Eurasian and African plates. Geophysical Journal International 158, 1024–40.
Alavi, M. 1980. Tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Zagrosides of Iran. Geology 8, 144–9.
Alavi, M. 1994. Tectonics of the Zagros orogenic belt of Iran: new data and interpretations. Tectonophysics 229, 211–38.
Alavi, M. 2007. Structures of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt in Iran. American Journal of Science 307, 1064–95.
Alavi, M. & Mahdavi, M. A. 1994. Stratigraphy and structures of the Nahavand region in western Iran and their implications for the Zagros tectonics. Geological Magazine 131, 43–7.
Alinaghi, A., Koulakov, I. & Thybo, H. 2007. Seismic tomographic imaging of P- and S-waves velocity perturbations in the upper mantle beneath Iran. Geophysical Journal International 169, 1089–102.
Allen, M. B. & Armstrong, H. A. 2008. Arabia-Eurasia collision and the forcing of mid-Cenozoic global cooling. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 265, 52–8.
Allen, M., Blanc, E. J.-P., Walker, R., Jackson, J., Talebian, M. & Ghassemi, M. R. 2006. Contrasting styles of convergence in the Arabia-Eurasia collision: Why escape tectonics does not occur in Iran. Geological Society of America Special Paper 409, 579–89.
Allen, M. B., Ghassemi, M. R., Shahrabi, M. & Qorashi, M. 2003. Accommodation of late Cenozoic oblique shortening in the Alborz range, northern Iran. Journal of Structural Geology 25, 659–72.
Allen, M., Jackson, J. & Walker, R. 2004. Late Cenozoic reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the comparison of short-term and long-term deformation rates. Tectonics 23, TC2008, doi:10.1029/2003TC001530, 16 pp.
Allen, M. B., Kheirkhah, M., Emami, M. H. & Jones, S. J. 2011. Right-lateral shear across Iran and kinematic change in the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. Geophysical Journal International 184, 555–74.
Amidi, S. M., Emami, M. H. & Michel, R. 1984. Alkaline character of Eocene volcanism in the middle part of Central Iran and its geodynamic situation. Geologische Rundschau 73, 917–32.
Arcay, D., Lallemand, S. & Doin, M. P. 2008. Back-arc strain in subduction zones: Statistical observations versus numerical modeling. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (G3) 9, Q05015, doi:10.1029/2007GC001875, 30 pp.
Arvin, M., Pan, Y., Dargahi, S., Malekizadeh, A. & Babaei, A. 2007. Petrochemistry of the Siah-Kuh granitoid stock southwest of Kerman, Iran: Implications for initiation of Neotethys subduction. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 30, 474–89.
Arvin, M. & Robinson, P. T. 1994. The petrogenesis and tectonic setting of lavas from the Baft ophiolitic melange, southwest of Kerman, Iran. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 31, 824–34.
Authemayou, C., Bellier, O., Chardon, D., Benedetti, L., Malekzade, Z., Claude, C., Angeletti, B., Shabanian, E. & Abbassi, M. R. 2009. Quaternary slip-rates of the Kazerun and the Main Recent Faults: active strike-slip partitioning in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt. Geophysical Journal International 178, 524–40.
Authemayou, C., Chardon, D., Bellier, O., Malekzadeh, Z., Shabanian, E. & Abbassi, M. R. 2006. Late Cenozoic partitioning of oblique plate convergence in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt (Iran). Tectonics 25, TC3002, doi:10.1029/2005TCOO1860, 21 pp.
Axen, G. J., Fakhari, M. D., Guest, B., Gavillot, Y., Stockli, D. F. & Horton, B. K. 2010. Distributed oblique-dextral transpression in the High Zagros Mountains, Iran. In Tectonic Crossroads: Evolving Orogens of Eurasia-Africa-Arabia, Ankara, Turkey, Abstracts, p. 73.
Axen, G., Lam, P. S., Grove, M., Stockli, D. F. & Hassanzadeh, J. 2001. Exhumation of the west-central Alborz Mountains, Iran, Caspian subsidence, and collision-related tectonics. Geology 29, 559–62.
Babaei, H., Babaei, A., Ghazi, A. M. & Arvin, M. 2006. Geochemical, 40Ar/39Ar age, and isotopic data for crustal rocks of the Neyriz ophiolite, Iran. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 43, 5770.
Babaie, H. A., Ghazi, A. M., Babaei, A., La Tour, T. E. & Hassanipak, A. A. 2001. Geochemistry of arc volcanic rocks of the Zagros Crush Zone, Neyriz, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 19, 6176.
Babazadeh, S. A. & De Wever, P. 2006. Early Cretaceous radiolarian assemblages from radiolarites in the Sistan Suture (eastern Iran). Geodiversitas 26 (2), 185206.
Bagheri, S. & Stampfli, G. M. 2008. The Anarak, Jandaq and Posht-e-Badam metamorphic complexes in central Iran: New geological data, relationships and tectonic implications. Tectonophysics 451, 123–55.
Baharifar, A., Moinevaziri, H., Bellon, H. & Piqué, A. 2004. The crystalline complexes of Hamadan (Sanandaj–Sirjan zone, western Iran): metasedimentary Mesozoic sequences affected by Late Cretaceous tectono-metamorphic and plutonic events. Comptes Rendus Geosciences 336, 1443–52.
Bahroudi, A. & Koyi, H. 2003. Effect of spatial distribution of Hormuz salt on deformation style in the Zagros fold and thrust belt: an analogue modelling approach. Journal of the Geological Society, London 160, 719–33.
Ballato, P., Mulch, A., Landgraf, A., Strecker, M. R., Dalconi, M. C., Friedrich, A. & Tabatabaei, S. H. 2010. Middle to late Miocene Middle Eastern climate from stable oxygen and carbon isotope data, southern Alborz mountains, N Iran. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 300, 125–38.
Baroz, F., Macaudière, J., Montigny, R., Noghreyan, M., Ohnenstetter, M. & Rocci, G. 1984. Ophiolites and related formations in the central part of the Sabzevar range (Iran) and possible geotectonic reconstructions. Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaeontologie Abhteilungen 168, 358–88.
Barrier, E. & Vrielynck, B. 2008. Palaeotectonic maps of the Middle East. Tectono-sedimentary-palinspastic maps from Late Norian to Pliocene. 14 maps. Paris: CGMW/CCGM.
Benoit, M., Aguillon-Robles, A., Calmus, T., Maury, R. C., Bellon, H., Cotten, J., Bourgois, J. & Michaud, F. 2002. Geochemical diversity of Late Miocene volcanism in Southern Baja California, Mexico: Implication of mantle and crustal sources during the opening of an asthenospheric window. Journal of Geology 110, 627–48.
Berberian, M. 1995. Master “blind” thrust faults hidden under the Zagros folds: active basement tectonics and surface morphotectonics. Tectonophysics 241, 193–5.
Berberian, F. & Berberian, M. 1981. Tectono-plutonic episodes in Iran. In Zagros-Hindu Kush-Himalaya Geodynamic Evolution, vol. 3 (eds Gupta, H. K. & Delany, F. M.), pp. 532. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union.
Berberian, M. & King, G. C. P. 1981. Towards a paleogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 18, 1764–6.
Berberian, F., Muir, I. D., Pankhurst, R. J. & Berberian, M. 1982. Late Cretaceous and early Miocene Andean-type plutonic activity in northern Makran and Central Iran. Journal of Geological Society, London 139, 605–14.
Blanc, E. J. P., Allen, M. B., Inger, S. & Hassani, H. 2003. Structural styles in the Zagros simple folded zone, Iran. Journal of the Geological Society, London 160, 401–12.
Braud, J. 1978. Geological map of Kermanshah, 1/250.000 scale. Tehran: Geological Survey of Iran.
Braud, J. & Ricou, L. E. 1975. Eléments de continuité entre le Zagros et la Turquie du Sud-Est. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France 17, 1015–23.
Bröcker, M., Fotoohi Rad, G. R. & Theunissen, S. 2010. New time constraints for HP metamorphism and exhumation of melange rocks from the Sistan suture zone, Eastern Iran. In Tectonic Crossroads: Evolving Orogens of Eurasia-Africa-Arabia, Ankara, Turkey, Abstracts, p. 37.
Brunet, M.-F., Korotaef, M. V., Ershov, A. V. & Nikishin, A. M. 2003. The South Caspian Basin: a review of its evolution from subsidence modelling. Sedimentary Geology 156, 119–48.
Camp, V. E. & Griffis, R. J. 1982. Character, genesis and tectonic setting of igneous rocks in the Sistan suture zone, eastern Iran. Lithos 15, 221–39.
Charles, N., Gumiaux, C., Augier, R., Chen, Y., Lin, W., Faure, M. & Zhu, R. 2009. Mesozoic continental extension in eastern China: Metamorphic Core Complexes and granitic plutons as time and strain markers. In American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2009, GP21A-0759.
Chiu, H.-Y., Zarrinkoub, M. H., Chung, S.-L., Lin, I.-J., Yang, H.-M., Lo, C.-H., Mohammadi, S. S. & Khatib, M. M. 2010. Zircon U-Pb age and geochemical constraints on the magmatic and tectonic evolution in Iran. In Tectonic Crossroads: Evolving Orogens of Eurasia-Africa-Arabia, Ankara, Turkey, Abstracts, p. 31.
Cogné, J. P. & Humler, E. 2004. Temporal variations of oceanic spreading and crustal production rates during the last 180 My. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 227, 427–39.
Coleman, R. G. 1971. Plate tectonic emplacement of upper mantle peridotites along continental edges. Journal of Geophysical Research 76, 1212–22.
Coleman, R. G. 1981. Tectonic setting for ophiolite obduction in Oman. Journal of Geophysical Research 86, 2497–508.
Conrad, C. P., Bilek, S. & Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. 2004. Great earthquakes and slab-pull: interaction between seismic coupling and plate-slab coupling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 218, 109–22.
Currie, C. A., Wang, K., Hyndman, R. D. & He, J. 2004. The thermal effects of steady-state slab-driven mantle flow above a subducting plate: the Cascadia subduction zone and backarc. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 223, 3548.
Davoudian, A. R., Genser, J., Dachs, E. & Shabanian, N. 2007. Petrology of eclogites from north of Shahrekord, Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran. Mineralogy and Petrology 92, 393413.
Davoudian, A. R., Khalili, M., Noorbehsht, I., Dachs, E., Genser, J. & Shabanian, N. 2006. Geochemistry of metabasites in the north of the Shahrekord, Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen 182/3, 8192.
Davoudzadeh, M. 1972. Geology and petrography of the area north of Nain, Central Iran. Tehran: Geological Survey of Iran Report no. 39, 89 pp.
Defant, M. J. & Drummond, M. S. 1990. Derivation of some modern arc magmas by melting of young subducted lithosphere. Nature 347, 662–5.
Dehghani, G. A. & Makris, J. 1984. The gravity field and crustal structure of Iran. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen 168, 215–29.
Delaloye, M. & Desmons, J. 1980. Ophiolites and melange terranes in Iran: A geochronological study and its paleotectonic implications. Tectonophysics 68, 83111.
Dercourt, J., Gaetani, M., Vrielynck, B., Barrier, E., Biju-Duval, B., Brunet, M. F., Cadet, J. P., Crasquin, S. & Sandulescu, M. 2000. Atlas Peri-Tethys, Palaeogeographical maps: 24 maps and explanatory notes. Paris: CCGM/CGMW.
Dercourt, J., Ricou, L. E. & Vrielynck, B. 1993. Atlas Tethys Palaeoenvironmental maps, 14 maps, 1 pl. Paris: Gauthier-Villars.
Dercourt, J., Zonenshain, L. P., Ricou, L.-E., Kazmin, V. G., Le Pichon, X., Knipper, A. L., Grandjacquet, C., Sbortshikov, I. M., Geyssant, J., Lepvrier, C., Pechersky, D. H., Boulin, J., Sibuet, J.-C., Savostin, L. A., Sorokhtin, O., Westphal, M., Bazhenov, M. L., Lauer, J. P. & Biju-Duval, B. 1986. Geological evolution of the Tethys belt from the Atlantic to the Pamirs since the LIAS. Tectonophysics 123, 241315.
Dewey, J. F., Helman, M. L., Turco, E., Hutton, D. H. W. & Knott, S. D. 1989. Kinematics of the western Mediterranean. In Alpine Chain (eds Coward, M. P., Dietrich, D. & Park, R. G.), pp. 265–83. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 45.
Dilek, Y., Altunkaynak, A. & Oner, Z., 2010. Syn-extensional granitoids in the Menderes core complex and the late Cenozoic extensional tectonics of the Aegean province. In Extending a Continent: Architecture, Rheology and Heat Budget (eds Ring, U. & Wernicke, B. P.), pp. 197223. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 321.
Dilek, Y. & Sandvol, E. 2009. Seismic structure, crustal architecture and tectonic evolution of the Anatolian–African plate boundary and the Cenozoic orogenic belts in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. In Ancient Orogens and Modern Analogues (eds Murphy, J. B., Keppie, J. D. & Hynes, A. J.), pp. 127–60. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no 327.
Dimitrijevic, M. D. 1973. Geology of Kerman region. Tehran: Geological Survey of Iran.
Ellouz-Zimmermann, N., Lallemant, S. J., Castilla, R., Mouchot, N., Leturmy, P., Battani, A., Buret, C., Cherel, L., Desaubliaux, G., Deville, E., Ferrand, J., Lügke, A., Mahieux, G., Mascle, G., Mühr, P., Pierson-Wickmann, A.-C., Robion, P., Schmitz, J., Danish, M., Hasany, S., Shahzad, A. & Tabreez, A. 2007. Offshore frontal part of the Makran accretionary prim (Pakistan). The Chamak survey. In Thrust Belts and Foreland Basins; From fold kinematics to hydrocarbon systems (eds Lacombe, O., Lavé, J., Vergès, J. & Roure, F.), pp. 351–66. Springer Verlag.
Emami, M. H. 2000. Magmatism in Iran. Tehran: Geological Survey of Iran.
England, P. & Houseman, G. 1989. Extension during continental convergence, with application to the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research 94, 17561–79.
Faccenna, C. & Becker, T. W. 2010. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection. Nature 465, 602–5.
Faccenna, C., Becker, T. W., Lallemand, S., Lagabrielle, Y., Funiciello, F. & Piromallo, C. 2010. Subduction-triggered magmatic pulses: A new class of plumes? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 299, 5468.
Faccenna, C., Bellier, O., Martinod, J., Piromallo, C. & Regard, V. 2006. Slab detachment beneath eastern Anatolia: A possible cause for the formation of the North Anatolian fault. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 242, 8597.
Fakhari, M. D., Axen, G. J., Horton, B. K., Hassanzadeh, J. & Amini, A. 2008. Revised age of proximal deposits in the Zagros foreland basin and implications for Cenozoic evolution of the High Zagros. Tectonophysics 451, 170–85.
Falcon, N. L. 1967. The geology of the north-east margin of the Arabian basement shield. Advancement of Science, London 24, 112.
Falcon, N. L. 1974. Southern Iran: Zagros Mountains. In Mesozoic-Cenozoic Orogenic Belts: Data for orogenic studies (ed. Spencer, A. M.), pp. 199211. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 4.
Farhoudi, G. 1978. A comparison of Zagros geology to island arcs. Journal of Geology 86, 323–34.
Fazlnia, A., Moradian, A., Rezaei, K., Moazzen, M. & Alipour, S. 2007. Synchronous activity of anorthositic and S-type granitic magmas in Chah-Dozdan batholith, Neyriz, Iran: evidence of zircon SHRIMP and monazite CHIME dating. Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran 18, 221–37.
Flerit, F., Armijo, R., King, G. & Meyer, B. 2004. The mechanical interaction between the propagating North Anatolian Fault and the back-arc extension in the Aegean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 224, 347–62.
Fotoohi Rad, G. R., Droop, G. T. R., Amini, S. & Moazzen, M. 2005. Eclogites and blueschists of the Sistan Suture Zone, eastern Iran: A comparison of P-T histories from a subduction melange. Lithos 84, 124.
Fotoohi Rad, G. R., Droop, G. T. R. & Burgess, R. 2009. Early Cretaceous exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks of the Sistan Suture Zone, eastern Iran. Geological Journal 44, 104–16.
Funiciello, F., Faccenna, C., Giardini, D. & Regenauer-Lieb, K. 2003. Dynamics of retreating slabs: 2. Insights from three-dimensional laboratory experiments. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (B4), 2207.
Gansser, A. 1960. Ausseralpine Ophiolothprobleme. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 52, 659–80.
Gavillot, Y., Axen, G. J., Stockli, D. F., Horton, B. K. & Fakhari, M. D. 2010. Timing of thrust activity in the High Zagros fold-thrust belt, Iran, from (U-Th)/He thermochronometry. Tectonics 29, TC4025, doi:10.1029/2009TC002484, 25 pp.
Ghalamghash, J., Bouchez, J. L., Vosoughi-Abedini, M. & Nédélec, A. 2009. The Urumieh Plutonic Complex (NW Iran): Record of the geodynamic evolution of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone during Cretaceous times – Part II: Magnetic fabrics and plate tectonic reconstruction. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 36, 303–17.
Gharib, F. & De Wever, P. 2010. Radiolaires mésozoïques de la formation de Kermanshah (Iran). Comptes Rendus Palevol 9, 209–19.
Ghazi, A. M. & Hassanipak, A. A. 1999. Geochemistry of subalkaline and alkaline extrusives from the Kermanshah ophiolite, Zagros Suture Zone, Western Iran: implications for Tethyan plate tectonics. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 17, 319–32.
Gidon, M., Berthier, F., Billiault, J. P., Halbronn, B. & Maurizot, P. 1974. Sur les caractères et l'ampleur du coulissement de la “Main Fault” dans la région de Borudjerd-Dorud (Zagros oriental, Iran). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences 278, 701–4.
Glennie, K. W., Boeuf, M. G. A., Clarke, M. W. H., Moody-Stuart, M., Pilaar, W. F. H. & Reinhardt, B. M. 1973. Late Cretaceous nappes in Oman Mountains and their geologic evolution. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 57, 527.
Goffé, B., Michard, A., Kienast, J. R. & Le Mer, O. 1988. A case of obduction-related high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphism in upper crustal nappes, Arabian continental margin, Oman. Tectonophysics 151, 363–86.
Guest, B., Axen, G. J., Lam, P. S. & Hassanzadeh, J. 2006. Late Cenozoic shortening in the west-central Alborz Mountains, northern Iran, by combined conjugate strike-slip and thin-skinned deformation. Geosphere 2, 3552.
Guest, B., Guest, A. & Axen, G. 2007. Late Tertiary tectonic evolution of northern Iran: A case for simple crustal folding. Global and Planetary Change 58, 435–53.
Hacker, B., Mosenfelder, J. L. & Gnos, E. 1996. Rapid emplacement of the Oman ophiolite: thermal and geochronologic constraints. Tectonics 15, 1230–47.
Hafkenscheid, E., Wortel, M. J. R. & Spakman, W. 2006. Subduction history of the Tethyan derived seismic tomography and tectonic reconstruction. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, B08401, doi:10.1029/2005JB003791, 26 pp.
Haghipour, A. 1974. Etude géologique de la région de Biabanak-Bafq (Iran Central); pétrologie et tectonique du socle Précambrien et de sa couverture. These, Université Scientifique et Médicale de Grenoble, 403 pp.
Haq, B. U., Hardenbol, J. & Vail, P. R. 1987. Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. Science 235, 1156–67.
Hassanzadeh, J., Stockli, D. F., Horton, B. K., Axen, G. J., Stockli, L. D., Grove, M., Schmitt, A. K. & Walker, J. D. 2008. U-Pb zircon geochronology of late Neoproterozoic–Early Cambrian granitoids in Iran: implications for paleogeography, magmatism, and exhumation history of Iranian basement. Tectonophysics 451, 7196.
Hatzfeld, D. & Molnar, P. 2010. Comparisons of the kinematics and deep structures of the Zagros and Himalaya and of the Iranian and Tibetan plateaus and geodynamic implications. Reviews of Geophysics 48, RG2005, doi:10.1029/2009RG000304, 48 pp.
Haynes, S. J. & McQuillan, H. 1974. Evolution of the Zagros Suture Zone, Southern Iran. Geological Society of America Bulletin 85, 739–44.
Hessami, K., Koyi, H., Talbot, C. J., Tabasi, H. & Shabanian, E. 2001. Progressive unconformities within an evolving foreland fold-thrust belt, Zagros Mountains. Journal of the Geological Society, London 158, 969–81.
Hollingsworth, J., Jackson, J., Walker, R. & Nazari, H. 2008. Extrusion tectonics and subduction in the eastern South Caspian region since 10 Ma. Geology 36, 763–6.
Homke, S., Vergès, J., Garcés, M., Emami, H. & Karpuz, R. 2004. Magnetostratigraphy of Miocene-Pliocene Zagros foreland deposits in the front of the Push-e Kush Arc (Lurestan Province, Iran). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 225, 397410.
Homke, S., Vergés, J., Serra-Kiel, J., Bernaola, G., Sharp, I., Garcés, M., Montero-Verdù, I., Karpuz, R. & Goodarzi, M. H. 2009. Late Cretaceous-Paleocene formation of the proto-Zagros foreland basin, Lurestan Province, SW Iran. Geological Society of America Bulletin 121, 963–78.
Homke, S., Verges, J., Van Der Beek, P., Fernandez, M., Saura, E., Barbero, L., Badics, B. & Labrin, E. 2010. Insights in the exhumation history of the NW Zagros from bedrock and detrital apatite fission-track analysis: evidence for a long-lived orogeny. Basin Research 22, 659–80.
Jackson, J., Hains, J. & Holt, W. 1995. The accommodation of Arabia-Eurasia plate convergence in Iran. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 15205–19.
Jackson, J., Priestley, K., Allen, M. & Berberian, M. 2002. Active tectonics of the South Caspian Basin. Geophysical Journal International 148, 214–45.
Jahangiri, A. 2007. Post-collisional Miocene adakitic volcanism in NW Iran: geochemical and geodynamic implications. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 30, 433–47.
Jahani, S., Callot, J.-P., Letouzey, J. & Frizon De Lamotte, D. 2009. The eastern termination of the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt, Iran: Structures, evolution, and relationships between salt plugs, folding, and faulting. Tectonics 28, TC6004, doi:10.1029/2008TC002418, 22 pp.
James, G. S. & Wynd, J. G. 1965. Stratigraphic nomenclature of Iranian Oil Consortium Agreement area. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 49, 2182–245.
Jolivet, L. & Faccenna, C. 2000. Mediterranean extension and the Africa-Eurasia collision. Tectonics 19, 1095–106.
Kargaranbafghi, F., Neubauer, F. & Genser, J. 2010. Cenozoic kinematic evolution of southwestern Central Iran: Strain partitioning and accommodation of Arabia-Eurasia convergence. Tectonophysics 502, 221–43.
Kaviani, A., Hatzfeld, D., Paul, A., Tatar, M. & Priestley, K. 2009. Shear-wave splitting, lithospheric anisotropy, and mantle deformation beneath the Arabia–Eurasia collision zone in Iran. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 286, 371–8.
Kaviani, A., Paul, A., Bourova, E., Hatzfeld, D., Pedersen, H. & Mokhtari, M. 2007. A strong seismic velocity contrast in the shallow mantle across the Zagros collision zone (Iran). Geophysical Journal International 171, 399410.
Keskin, M. 2003. Magma generation by slab steepening and breakoff beneath a subduction-accretion complex: An alternative model for collision-related volcanism in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Geophysical Research Letters 30, 8046, doi:10.1029/2003GL018019, 4 pp.
Keskin, M., Genç, S. C. & Tüysüz, O. 2008. Petrology and geochemistry of post-collisional Middle Eocene volcanic units in North-Central Turkey: Evidence for magma generation by slab breakoff following the closure of the Northern Neotethys Ocean. Lithos 104, 267305.
Keskin, M., Pearce, J. A. & Mitchell, J. G. 1998. Volcano-stratigraphy and geochemistry of collision-related volcanism on the Erzurum-Kars Plateau, North Eastern Turkey. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 85, 355404.
Khadivi, S., Mouthereau, F., Larrasoaña, J. C., Vergés, J., Lacombe, O., Khademi, E., Beamud, E., Melinte-Dobrinescu, M. & Suc, J.-P. 2010. Magnetochronology of synorogenic Miocene foreland sediments in the Fars arc of the Zagros Folded Belt (SW Iran). Basin Research 22, 918–32.
Khan, S. D., Flower, M. F. J., Sultan, M. I. & Sandvol, E. 2006. Introduction to TETHYS – an interdisciplinary GIS database for studying continental collisions. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 26, 613–25.
Kheirkhah, M., Allen, M. B. & Emami, M. 2009. Quaternary syn-collision magmatism from the Iran/Turkey borderlands. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 182, 112.
Koop, W. J., Stoneley, R., Ridd, M. F., Murphy, R. W., Osmaston, M. F. & Kholief, M. M. 1982. Subsidence history of the Middle East Zagros basin, Permian to Recent [and discussion]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 305, 149–68.
Koyi, H. A., Ghasemi, A., Hessami, K. & Dietl, C. 2008. The mechanical relationship between strike-slip faults and salt diapirs in the Zagros fold-thrust belt. Journal of the Geological Society, London 165, 1031–44.
Lacombe, O., Amrouch, K., Mouthereau, F. & Dissez, L. 2007. Calcite twinning constraints on late Neogene stress patterns and deformation mechanisms in the active Zagros collision belt. Geology 35, 263–6.
Lacombe, O., Mouthereau, F., Kargar, S. & Meyer, B. 2006. Late Cenozoic and modern stress fields in the western Fars (Iran): implications for the tectonic and kinematic evolution of central Zagros. Tectonics 25, TC1003, doi:10.1029/2005TC001831, 27 pp.
Lallemand, S., Heuret, A. & Boutelier, D. 2005. On the relationships between slab dip, back-arc stress, upper plate absolute motion, and crustal nature in subduction zones. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (G3) 6, Q09006, doi:10.1029/2005GC000917, 18 pp.
Lallemand, S., Heuret, A., Faccenna, C. & Funiciello, F. 2008. Subduction dynamics as revealed by trench migration. Tectonics 27, TC3014, doi:10.1029/2007TC002212, 15 pp.
Lanphere, M. A. & Pamic, J. 1983. 40Ar/39Ar Ages and tectonic setting of ophiolite from the Neyriz area, southeast Zagros Range, Iran. Tectonophysics 96, 245–56.
Larson, R. L. 1991. Latest pulse of the Earth: evidence for a mid-Cretaceous superplume. Geology 19, 547–50.
Le Dortz, K., Meyer, B., Sébrier, M., Nazari, H., Braucher, R., Fattahi, M., Benedetti, L., Foroutan, M., Siame, L., Bourlès, D., Talebian, M., Bateman, M. D. & Ghoraishi, M. 2009. Holocene right-slip rate determined by cosmogenic and OSL dating on the Anar fault, Central Iran. Geophysical Journal International 179, 700–10.
Leterrier, J. 1985. Mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic evolution of two Miocene mafic intrusions from the Zagros (Iran). Lithos 18, 311–29.
Leturmy, P., Molinaro, M. & Frizon De Lamotte, D. 2010. Structure, timing and morphological signature of hidden reverse basement faults in the Fars Arc of the Zagros (Iran). In Tectonic and Stratigraphic Evolution of Zagros and Makran during the Mesozoic–Cenozoic (eds Leturmy, P. & Robin, C.), pp. 121–38. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 330.
Mahéo, G., Guillot, S., Blichert-Toft, J., Rolland, Y. & Pêcher, A. 2002. A slab breakoff model for the Neogene thermal evolution of South Karakorum and South Tibet. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 195, 4558.
Mangino, K. & Priestley, K. 1998. The crustal structure of the southern Caspian region. Geophysical Journal International 133, 630–48.
Martin, H., Smithies, R. H., Rapp, R., Moyen, J.-F. & Champion, D. 2005. An overview of adakite, tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG), and sanukitoid: relationships and some implications for crustal evolution. Lithos 79, 124.
Masoudi, F., Yardley, B. W. D. & Cliff, R. A. 2002. Rb-Sr geochronology of pegmatites, plutonic rocks and a hornfels in the region south-west of Arak, Iran. Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran 13, 249–54.
Masson, F. D. R., Anvari, M., Djamour, Y., Walpersdorf, A., Tavakoli, F., Daignières, M., Nankali, H. & Van Gorp, S. B. 2007. Large-scale velocity field and strain tensor in Iran inferred from GPS measurements: new insight for the present-day deformation pattern within NE Iran. Geophysical Journal International 170, 436–40.
Masson, F., Djamour, Y., Van Gorp, S., Chery, J., Tatar, M., Tavakoli, F., Nankali, H. & Vernant, P. 2006. Extension in NW Iran driven by the motion of the South Caspian Basin. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 252, 180–8.
Mazhari, S. A., Amini, S., Ghalamghash, J. & Bea, F. 2009 a. Petrogenesis of granitic unit of Naqadeh complex, Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone, NW Iran. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, doi:10.1007/s12517-009-0077-6.
Mazhari, S. A., Bea, F., Amini, S., Ghalamghash, J., Molina, F., Montero, P., Scarrow, J. H. & Williams, I. S. 2009 b. The Eocene bimodal Piranshahr massif of the Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone, NW Iran: a marker of the end of the collision in the Zagros orogen. Journal of Geological Society, London 166, 5369.
McCall, G. J. H. 1997. The geotectonic history of the Makran and adjacent areas of southern Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 15, 517–31.
McCall, G. J. H. & Kidd, R. G. W. 1982. The Makran, Southeastern Iran: the anatomy of a convergent plate margin active from Cretaceous to Present. In Trench-Forearc Geology: Sedimentation and Tectonics on Modern and Ancient Active Plate Margins (ed. Leggett, J. K.), pp. 387–97. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 10.
McClusky, S., Balassanian, S., Barka, A., Demir, C., Ergintav, S., Georgiev, I., Gurkan, O., Hamburger, M., Hurst, K., Kahle, H., Kastens, K., Kekelidze, G., King, R., Kotzev, V., Lenk, O., Mahmoud, S., Mishin, A., Nadariya, M., Ouzounis, A., Paradissis, D., Peter, Y., Prilepin, M., Reilinger, R., Sanli, I., Seeger, H., Tealeb, A., Toksoz, M. N. & Veis, G. 2000. Global Positioning System constraints on plate kinematics and dynamics in the eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus. Journal of Geophysical Research 105, 5695–719.
McQuarrie, N. 2004. Crustal scale geometry of the Zagros fold-thrust belt, Iran. Journal of Structural Geology 26, 519–35.
McQuarrie, N., Stock, J. M., Verdel, C. & Wernicke, B. P. 2003. Cenozoic evolution of Neotethys and implications for the causes of plate motions. Geophysical Research Letters 30, doi:10.1029/2003GL017992, 4 pp.
Meyer, B. & Le Dortz, K. 2007. Strike-slip kinematics in Central and Eastern Iran: Estimating fault slip-rates averaged over the Holocene. Tectonics 26, TC5009, doi:10.1029/2006TC002073, 20 pp.
Meyer, B., Mouthereau, F., Lacombe, O. & Agard, P. 2006. Evidence of Quaternary activity along the Deshir Fault: implication for the Tertiary tectonics of Central Iran. Geophysical Journal International 164, 192201.
Meyer, B., Tapponnier, P., Bourjot, L., Métivier, F., Gaudemer, Y., Peltzer, G., Shunmin, G. & Zhitai, C. 1998. Crustal thickening in Gansu-Qinghai, lithospheric mantle subduction, and oblique, strike-slip controlled growth of the Tibet plateau. Geophysical Journal International 135, 147.
Mirnejad, H., Hassanzadeh, J., Cousens, B. L. & Taylor, B. E. 2010. Geochemical evidence for deep mantle melting and lithospheric delamination as the origin of the inland Damavand volcanic rocks of northern Iran. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 198, 288–96.
Mohajjel, M. & Fergusson, C. L. 2000. Dextral transpression in Late Cretaceous continental collision, Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, western Iran. Journal of Structural Geology 22, 1125–39.
Mohajjel, M., Fergusson, C. L. & Sahandi, M. R. 2003. Cretaceous-Tertiary convergence and continental collision, Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, western Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 21, 397412.
Molinaro, M., Leturmy, P., Guezou, J. C., Frizon De Lamotte, D. & Eshraghi, S. A. 2005. The structure and kinematics of the southeastern Zagros fold-thrust belt, Iran: from thin-skinned to thick-skinned tectonics. Tectonics 24, TC3007, doi:10.1029/2004TC001633, 19 pp.
Molinaro, M., Zeyen, H. & Laurencin, X. 2005. Lithospheric structure beneath the south-eastern Zagros Mountains, Iran: recent slab break-off? Terra Nova 17, 16.
Molnar, P., England, P. & Martinod, J. 1993. Mantle dynamics, the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, and the Indian monsoon. Reviews in Geophysics 31, 357–96.
Monié, P. & Agard, P. 2009. Coeval blueschist exhumation along thousands of kilometers: Implications for subduction channel processes. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (G3) 10, Q07002, doi:10.1029/2009GC002428, 12 pp.
Morley, C. K., Kongwung, B., Julapour, A. A., Abdolghafourian, M., Hajian, M., Waples, D., Warren, J., Otterdoom, H., Srisuriyon, K. & Kazemi, H. 2009. Structural development of a major late Cenozoic basin and transpressional belt in central Iran: The Central Basin in the Qom-Saveh area. Geosphere 5, 325–62.
Motiei, H. 1993. Stratigraphy of Zagros. Tehran: Geological Survey of Iran.
Mouthereau, F., Lacombe, O. & Meyer, B. 2006. The Zagros folded belt (Fars, Iran): constraints from topography and critical wedge modelling. Geophysical Journal International 165, 336–56.
Mouthereau, F., Tensi, J., Bellahsen, N., Lacombe, O., De Boisgrollier, T. & Kargar, S. 2007. Tertiary sequence of deformation in a thin-skinned/thick-skinned collision belt: The Zagros Folded Belt (Fars, Iran). Tectonics 26, TC5006, doi: 10.1029/2007TC002098, 28 pp.
Nadimi, A. 2007. Evolution of the Central Iranian basement. Gondwana Research 12, 324–33.
Navabpour, P., Angelier, J. & Barrier, E. 2007. Cenozoic post-collisional brittle tectonic history and stress reorientation in the High Zagros Belt (Iran, Fars Province). Tectonophysics 432, 101–31.
Oberhänsli, R., Bousquet, R., Moinzadeh, H., Moazzen, M. & Arvin, M. 2007. The field of stability of blue Jadeite: A new occurrence of jadeitite at Sorkhan, Iran, as a case study. Canadian Mineralogist 45, 1501–9.
Okay, A., Harris, N. B. W. & Kelley, S. P. 1988. Exhumation of blueschists along a Tethyan suture in northwest Turkey. Tectonophysics 285, 275–99.
Omrani, J., Agard, P., Whitechurch, H., Benoit, M., Prouteau, G. & Jolivet, L. 2008. Arc-magmatism and subduction history beneath the Zagros Mountains, Iran: A new report of adakites and geodynamic consequences. Lithos 106, 380–98.
Omrani, J., Agard, P., Whitechurch, H., Benoit, M., Prouteau, G. & Jolivet, L. 2009. Reply to: Comment by Aftabi and Atapour on “Arc magmatism and subduction history beneath the Zagros Mountains, Iran: A new report of adakites and geodynamic consequences”. Lithos 113, 847–9.
Oveisi, B., Lavé, J., Van Der Beek, P., Carcaillet, J., Benedetti, L. & Aubourg, C. 2009. Thick- and thin-skinned deformation rates in the central Zagros simple folded zone (Iran) indicated by displacement of geomorphic surfaces. Geophysical Journal International 176, 627–54.
Paul, A., Hatzfeld, D., Kaviani, A., Tatar, M. & Pequegnat, C. 2010. Seismic imaging of the lithospheric structure of the Zagros mountain belt (Iran). In Tectonic and Stratigraphic Evolution of Zagros and Makran during the Mesozoic–Cenozoic (eds Leturmy, P. & Robin, C.), pp. 518. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 330.
Paul, A., Kaviani, A., Hatzfeld, D., Vergne, J. R. M. & Mokhtari, M. 2006. Seismological evidence for crustal-scale thrusting in the Zagros mountain belt (Iran). Geophysical Journal International 166, 227–37.
Pearce, J. A., Bender, J. F., De Long, S. E., Kidd, W. S. F., Low, P. J., Guner, Y., Saroglu, F., Yilmaz, Y., Moorbath, S. & Mitchell, J. G. 1990. Genesis of collision volcanism in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 44, 189229.
Pillevuit, A., Marcoux, J., Stampfli, G. & Baud, A. 1997. The Oman Exotics: a key to the understanding of the Neotethyan geodynamic evolution. Geodinamica Acta 10, 209–38.
Pope, D. C. & Willett, S. D. 1998. Thermal-mechanical model for crustal thickening in the central Andes driven by ablative subduction. Geology 6, 511–14.
Priestley, K. & Mckenzie, D. 2006. The thermal structure of the lithosphere from shear wave velocities. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 244, 285301.
Rachidnejad-Omran, N., Emami, M. H., Sabzehei, M., Rastad, E., Bellon, H. & Piqué, A. 2002. Lithostratigraphie et histoire paléozoïque à paléocène des complexes métamorphiques de la région de Muteh, zone de Sanandaj–Sirjan (Iran méridional). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences 334, 1185–91.
Radjaee, A., Rham, D., Mokhtari, M., Tatar, M., Priestley, K. & Hatzfeld, D. 2010. Variation of Moho depth in the central part of the Alborz Mountains, northern Iran. Geophysical Journal International 181, 173–84.
Regard, V., Bellier, O., Thomas, J.-C., Abbassi, M., Mercier, J., Shabanian, E., Feghhi, K. & Soleymani, S. 2004. Accomodation of Arabia-Eurasia convergence in the Zagros-Makran transfer zone, SE Iran: A transition between collision and subduction through a young deformation system. Tectonics 23, TC4007, doi:10.1029/2003TC001599, 24 pp.
Regard, V., Hatzfeld, D., Molinaro, M., Aubourg, C., Bayer, R., Bellier, O., Yamini-Fard, F., Peyret, M. & Abbassi, M. 2010. The transition between Makran subduction and the Zagros collision: recent advances in its structure and active deformation. In Tectonic and Stratigraphic Evolution of Zagros and Makran during the Mesozoic–Cenozoic (eds Leturmy, P. & Robin, C.), pp. 4364. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 330.
Reilinger, R. & McClusky, S. 2010. Subduction drives Arabia/Africa plate convergence with Eurasia and provides a unifying, dynamic mechanism for Mediterranean/Middle East tectonics. In Tectonic Crossroads: Evolving Orogens of Eurasia-Africa-Arabia, Ankara, Turkey, Abstracts, p. 41.
Reyre, D. & Mohafez, S. 1970. Une premiére contribution des accord NIOC-ERAP a la connaissance geologique de l'Iran. Revue de l'Institut Français du Pétrole 25, 945–54.
Ricou, L. E. 1971. Le croissant ophiolitique péri-arabe, une ceinture de nappes mise en place au crétacé supérieur. Revue de Géographie Physique et de Géologie Dynamique 13, 327–50.
Ricou, L. E. 1994. Tethys reconstructed: plates, continental fragments and their boundaries since 260 Ma from Central America to South-eastern Asia. Geodinamica Acta 7, 169218.
Ricou, L.-E., Braud, J. & Brunn, J. H. 1977. Le Zagros. In Livre à la mémoire de A.F. de Lapparent (1905–1975). Mémoire hors Série de la Société Géologique de France 8, 3352.
Ritz, J.-F., Nazari, H., Ghassemi, A., Salamati, R., Shafei, A., Solaymani, S. & Vernant, P. 2006. Active transtension inside central Alborz: A new insight into northern Iran–southern Caspian geodynamics. Geology 34, 477–80.
Robertson, A. H. F. 1987. Upper Cretaceous Muti Formation: transition of a Mesozoic carbonate platform to a foreland basin in the Oman Mountains. Sedimentology 34, 1123–42.
Robin, C., Gorican, S., Guillocheau, F., Razin, P., Dromart, G. & Mosaffa, H. 2010. Mesozoic deep-water carbonate deposits from the southern Tethyan passive margin in Iran (Pichakun nappes, Neyriz area): biostratigraphy, facies sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy. In Tectonic and Stratigraphic Evolution of Zagros and Makran during the Mesozoic–Cenozoic (eds Leturmy, P. & Robin, C.), pp. 179210. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 330.
Rosenbaum, G., Lister, G. S. & Duboz, C. 2002. Relative motions of Africa, Iberia and Europe during Alpine orogeny. Tectonophysics 359, 117–29.
Rossetti, F., Nasrabady, M., Vignaroli, G., Theye, T., Gerdes, A., Razavi, M. H. & Vaziri, H. M. 2009. Early Cretaceous migmatitic mafic granulites from the Sabzevar range (NE Iran): implications for the closure of the Mesozoic peri-Tethyan oceans in central Iran. Terra Nova 22, 2634.
Sabzehei, M., Berberian, M., Roshanravan, J., Azizan, H., Nazemzadeh, M., Alavi-Tehrani, N., Houchmand-Zadeh, A., Nowgole-Sadat, M. A. A. & Madjidi, M. 1994. Geological map of Hajiabad, 1/250,000 scale. Tehran: Geological survey of Iran.
Saccani, E., Delavari, M., Beccaluva, L. & Amini, S. 2010. Petrological and geochemical constraints on the origin of the Nehbandan ophiolitic complex (eastern Iran): Implication for the evolution of the Sistan Ocean. Lithos 117, 209–28.
Sadeghian, M., Bouchez, J. L., Nedelec, A., Siqueira, R. & Valizadeh, M. V. 2005. The granite pluton of Zahedan (SE Iran): a petrological and magnetic fabric study of a syntectonic sill emplaced in a transtensional setting. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 25, 301–27.
Saidi, A., Brunet, M.-F. & Ricou, L.-E. 1997. Continental accretion of the Iran Block to Eurasia as seen from late Paleozoic to early Cretaceous subsidence curves. Geodinamica Acta 10, 189208.
Sarkarinejad, K. 2005. Structures and microstructures related to steady-state mantle flow in the Neyriz ophiolite, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 25, 859–81.
Sarkarinejad, K. 2007. Quantitative finite strain and kinematic flow analyses along the Zagros transpression zone, Iran. Tectonophysics 442, 4965.
Schellart, W. P., Freeman, J., Stegman, D. R., Moresi, L. & May, D. 2007. Evolution and diversity of subduction zones controlled by slab width. Nature 446, 308–11.
Schröder, J. W. 1944. Essai sur la structure de l'Iran. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 37, 3781.
Searle, M. & Cox, J. 1999. Tectonic setting, origin, and obduction of the Oman ophiolite. Geological Society of America Bulletin 111, 104–22.
Searle, M. P., Warren, C. J., Waters, D. J. & Parrish, R. R. 2004. Structural evolution, metamorphism and restoration of the Arabian continental margin, Saih Hatat region, Oman Mountains. Journal of Structural Geology 26, 451–73.
Sengör, A. M. C. 1990. A new model for the late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Iran and implications for Oman. In The Geology and Tectonics of the Oman Region (eds Robertson, A. H. F., Searle, M. P. & Ries, A. C.), pp. 797831. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 49.
Sengör, A. M. C., Altiner, D., Cin, A., Ustaömer, T. & Hsü, K. J. 1988. The origin and assembly of the Tethyside orogenic collage at the expense of Gondwana land. In Gondwana and Tethys (eds Audley-Charles, M. G. & Hallam, A.), pp. 119–81. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 37.
Sengör, A. M. C., Sinan Ozeren, M., Keskin, M., Sakink, M., Ozbakir, A. D. & Kayan, I. 2008. Eastern Turkish high plateau as a small Turkic-type orogen: Implications for post-collisional crust-forming processes in Turkic-type orogens. Earth Science Reviews 90, 148.
Sepehr, M. & Cosgrove, J. W. 2004. Structural framework of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt, Iran. Marine and Petroleum Geology 21, 829–43.
Shafaii Moghadam, H., Stern, R. J. & Rahgoshay, M. 2010. The Dehshir ophiolite (central Iran): Geochemical constraints on the origin and evolution of the Inner Zagros ophiolite belt. Geological Society of America Bulletin 122, 1516–47.
Shafaii Moghadam, H., Whitechurch, H., Rahgoshay, M. & Monsef, I. 2009. Significance of Nain-Baft ophiolitic belt (Iran): Short-lived, transtensional Cretaceous back-arc oceanic basins over the Tethyan subduction zone. Comptes Rendus Geosciences 341, 1016–28.
Shahabpour, J. 2005. Tectonic evolution of the orogenic belt in the region located between Kerman and Neyriz. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 24, 405–17.
Shahbazi, H., Siebel, W., Pourmoafee, M., Ghorbani, M., Sepahi, A. A., Shang, C. K. & Vousoughi Abedini, M. 2010. Geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Alvand plutonic complex in Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (Iran): New evidence for Jurassic magmatism. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 39, 668–83.
Sheikholeslami, R., Bellon, H., Emami, H., Sabzehei, M. & Pique, A. 2003. Nouvelles donnees structurales et datations 40K-40Ar sur les roches metamorphiques de la region de Neyriz (zone de Sanandaj-Sirjan, Iran meridional). Leur interet dans le cadre du domaine neo-tethysien du Moyen-Orient: New structural and 40K-40Ar data for the metamorphic rocks in Neyriz area (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Southern Iran). Their interest for an overview of the Neo-Tethyan domain in the Middle East. Comptes Rendus Geosciences 335, 981–91.
Sherkati, S., Letouzey, J. & Frizon De Lamotte, D. 2006. Central Zagros fold-thrust belt (Iran): New insights from seismic data, field observation and sandbox modeling. Tectonics 25, TC4007, doi:10.1029/2004TC001766, 27 pp.
Sherkati, S., Molinaro, M., Frizon De Lamotte, D. & Letouzey, J. 2005. Detachment folding in the Central and Eastern Zagros fold-belt (Iran): salt mobility, multiple detachments and late basement control. Journal of Structural Geology 27, 1680–96.
Shojaat, B., Hassanipak, A. A., Mobasher, K. & Ghazi, A. M. 2003. Petrology, geochemistry and tectonics of the Sabzevar ophiolite, North Central Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 21, 1053–67.
Smit, J., Brun, J. P., Cloetingh, S. & Ben-Avraham, Z. 2010 a. The rift-like structure and asymmetry of the Dead Sea Fault. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 290, 7482.
Smit, J., Burg, J.-P., Dolati, A. & Sokoutis, D. 2010 b. Effects of mass waste events on thrust wedges: Analogue experiments and application to the Makran accretionary wedge. Tectonics 29, TC3003, doi:10.1029/2009TC002526, 11 pp.
Snyder, D. B. & Barazangi, M. 1986. Deep crustal structure and flexure of the Arabian plate beneath the Zagros collisional mountain belt as inferred from gravity observations. Tectonics 5, 361–73.
Stampfli, G. M. & Borel, G. D. 2002. A plate tectonic model for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic constrained by dynamic plate boundaries and restored synthetic oceanic isochrons. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 196, 1733.
Stampfli, G., Marcoux, J. & Baud, A. 1991. Tethyan margins in space and time. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 87, 373409.
Stöcklin, J. 1968. Structural history and tectonics of Iran: a review. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 52, 1229–58.
Takin, M. 1972. Iranian Geology and Continental Drift in the Middle East. Nature 235, 147–50.
Talebian, M. & Jackson, J. 2002. Offset on the Main Recent Fault of NW Iran and implications for the late Cenozoic tectonics of the Arabia–Eurasia collision zone. Geophysical Journal International 150, 422–39.
Talebian, M. & Jackson, J. 2004. A reappraisal of earthquake focal mechanisms and active shortening in the Zagros mountains of Iran. Geophysical Journal International 156, 506–26.
Tapponnier, P., Xu, Z., Roger, F., Meyer, B., Arnaud, N., Wittlinger, G. & Yang, J. 2001. Oblique stepwise rise and growth of the Tibet Plateau. Science 294, 1671–7.
Thiele, O., Alavi, M., Assefi, R., Hushmand-Zadeh, A., Seyed-Emami, K. & Zahedi, M. 1968. Golpaygan quadrangle map (1/250,000) with explanatory text. Tehran: Geological Survey of Iran.
Thuizat, R., Whitechurch, H., Montigny, R. & Juteau, T. 1981. K-Ar dating of some infra-ophiolitic metamorphic soles from the Eastern Mediterranean: new evidence for oceanic thrustings before obduction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 52, 302–10.
Tirrul, R., Bell, I. R., Griffis, R. J. & Camp, V. E. 1983. The Sistan suture zone of eastern Iran. Geological Society of America Bulletin 49, 134–50.
Van Hunen, J. & Allen, M. B. 2011. Continental collision and slab break-off: A comparison of 3-D numerical models with observations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 302, 2737.
Verdel, C., Wernicke, B. P., Ramezani, J., Hassanzadeh, J., Renne, P. R. & Spell, T. L. 2007. Geology and thermochronology of Tertiary Cordilleran-style metamorphic core complexes in the Saghand region of central Iran. Geological Society of America Bulletin 119, 961–77.
Vernant, P., Nilforoushan, F., Hatzfeld, D., Abbassi, M. R., Vigny, C., Masson, F., Nankali, H., Martinod, J., Ashtiani, A., Bayer, R., Tavakoli, F. & Chery, J. 2004. Present-day crustal deformation and plate kinematics in the Middle East constrained by GPS measurements in Iran and northern Oman. Geophysical Journal International 157, 381–98.
Vincent, S. J., Allen, M. B., Ismail-Zadeh, A. D., Flecker, R., Foland, K. A. & Simmons, M. D. 2005. Insights from the Talysh of Azerbaijan into the Paleogene evolution of the South Caspian region. Geological Society of America Bulletin 117, 1513–33.
Von Blanckenburg, F. & Huw Davies, J. 1995. Slab breakoff: A model for syncollisional magmatism and tectonics in the Alps. Tectonics 14, 120–31.
Vrielynck, B. & Bouysse, P. 2003. The Changing Face of the Earth. Commission for the Geological Map of the World. Paris: UNESCO Publishing, 32 pp.
Walker, R. T. 2006. A remote sensing study of active folding and faulting in southern Kerman province, S.E. Iran. Journal of Structural Geology 28, 654–68.
Walker, R. T., Gans, P., Allen, M. B., Jackson, J., Khatib, M., Marsh, N. & Zarrinkoub, M. 2009. Late Cenozoic volcanism and rates of active faulting in eastern Iran. Geophysical Journal International 177, 783805.
Walker, R. & Jackson, J. 2002. Offset and evolution of the Gowk fault, S.E. Iran: a major intra-continental strike-slip system. Journal of Structural Geology 24, 1677–98.
Walpersdorf, A., Hatzfeld, D., Nankali, H., Tavakoli, F., Nilforoushan, F., Tatar, M., Vernant, P., Chéry, J. & Masson, F. 2006. Difference in the GPS deformation pattern of North and Central Zagros (Iran). Geophysical Journal International 167, 1077–88.
Wells, A. J. 1969. The Crush Zone of the Iranian Zagros Mountains, and its implications. Geological Magazine 106, 385–94.
Whitechurch, H., Juteau, T. & Montigny, R. 1984. The eastern mediterranean ophiolites (Turkey, Syria, Cyprus): their contribution of the history of the Neo-Tethys. In The Geological Evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean (eds Dixon, J. E. & Robertson, A. H. F.), pp. 425–41. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 17.
Wortel, M. J. R. & Spakman, W. 2000. Subduction and slab detachment in the Mediterranean-Carpathian region. Science 290, 1910–17.
Wrobel-Daveau, J.-C., Ringenbach, J.-C., Tavakoli, S., Ruiz, G., Masse, P. & Frizon De Lamotte, D. 2010. Evidence for mantle exhumation along the Arabian margin in the Zagros (Kermanshah area, Iran). Arabian Journal of Geosciences 3, 499513.
Yamato, P., Agard, P., Goffe, B., De Andrade, V., O., V. & Jolivet, L. 2007. New, high-precision P-T estimates for Oman blueschists: implications for obduction, nappe stacking and exhumation processes. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 25, 657–82.
Zanchi, A., Berra, F., Mattei, M. R., Ghassemi, M. & Sabouri, J. 2006. Inversion tectonics in central Alborz, Iran. Journal of Structural Geology 28, 2023–37.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Geological Magazine
  • ISSN: 0016-7568
  • EISSN: 1469-5081
  • URL: /core/journals/geological-magazine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 164
Total number of PDF views: 492 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 851 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.